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May 1917 

Price 10c 

:: Next Month: "Celebrating May Day at Llano" :: 


The Gateway To Freedom 

Through Co-operative Action 

the beautiful Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of 
Los Angeles County, Southern California. This plain lies 
between the San Gabriel spur of the Sierra Madres on the south 
and the Tehachapi range on the north. The Colony is on the north 
slope of the San Gabriel range. It is almost midway between 
Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific, and Victorville, on the Santa 
Fe railroad. 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony is made up of persons 
who believe in the application of the principles of co-operation 
to the widest possible extent. Virtually all of the residents are 
Socialists. It is a practical and convincing answer to those who 
have scoffed at SociaHst principles, who have said that "it won't 
work," who have urged many fallacious arguments. In the three 
years since it was established, the Colony has demonstrated thor- 
oughly the soundness of its plan of operation and its theory. To- 
day it is stronger than ever before in its history. 


The Llano del Rio Colony is the greatest Community enterprise 
ever attempted. It was founded by Job Harriman, May Isl. I9I4, 
and is solving the problem of disemployment and business failure. 
It offers a way to provide for the future welfare of the workers 
and their families. 

An abundance of clear, sparkling water coming from mountain 
springs is sufficient to irrigate thousands of fertile acres. The 
climate is mild and delightful, the soil is fertile, and markets are 
not far distant. 

The Llano del Rio Colony is a horticultural, agricultural, and 
stock-raising enterprise, with such manufacturing as will supply the 
needs of the colonists, with perhaps something to sell when the 
Colony has grown. 

It is a perfect example of Co-operation in Action. No corranunity 
organized as it is, was ever established before. 

The purpose is to solve the problem of unemployment by provid- 
ing steady employment for the workers ; to assure safety and com- 
fort for the future and for old age; to guarantee education for the 
children in the best schools ; and to provide a social life amid sur- 
roundings better than can be found in the competitive world. 

It has more than 800 residents, making it the largest town in the 
Antelope Valley. More than 200 children attend the schools. Part 
of the children get meals at the school; some live at the Indus- 
trial school all the time. The Montessori school is in operation, 
taking the children from 21/2 ^o 6 years of age. A new school 
building is soon to be built on the new townsite. The County 
school and the Colony Industrial schools are both in operation. 

The Colony owns a fine herd of 125 Jersey and Holstein cattle, 
100 head of young stock are on the range, being heifersc'ancj c^altes ' I 
up to 2 years of age. Over 100 head of horses and,.Enu1e^j> Jn-c' c 
eluding colts, arc owned by the Colony. These, with the tractors 
and caterpillar engine, four trucks, and numerous gutp^s, do (l^e ^ , 
hauling and the work on the land. , \c'' %' c\- s^^ri 

A recent purchase of Duroc-Jersey sows gives the Colorfy^^'tW^ptj^-'^ . \ 
two registered high-class breeding sows and a splendid boar, the 
nucleus of a great development along this line. Many new pens 
have been built. Registration will be kept up and the raising of 
fine hogs made one of the leading industries. There are also some 
fine Berkshires. and a large number of grade sows. 

Much nursery stock has been planted, a vineyard of 40 acres put 
out, and many fruit trees set this spring. The Colony has more 
than 400 acres of orchards. 

Community gardening is successful, and an increased acreage 
will be put in each year. 

The ideal is to farm on an extensive scale, using all manner of 
efficient labor saving machinery and methods, with expert and ex- 
perienced men in charge of the different departments. 

Llano possesses more than 668 stands of bees. They arc cared 
for by expert bee men of long experience. This department ex- 
pects to have several thousand stands in a few years. 

The Colony has secured timber from the San Gabriel Reserve, 

and has a well equipped sawmill. Lumber worth $35 to $40 a thou- 
sand costs the Colony only a few dollars a thousand. 

Social life is delightful, baseball and football teams, dances, pic- 
nics, swimming, hunting, camping, all being popular. A band, sev- 
eral orchestras, a dramatic club, and other organizations assist in 
making the social occasions enjoyable. 

Alfalfa does extraordinarily well at Llano. Much has been plant- 
ed and the acreage will be increased as rapidly as possible. Six 
good cuttings a season can be depended on. Ditches lined with 
cobblestone set in Llano lime, making them permanent, conserve 
water and insure economy. They will be built as fast as possible. 
A square mile has been set aside for the new city. With the 
sawmill running, the lime kiln producing a very superior lime, and 
with sand and rock abundant and adobe brick easily manufactured, 
the time is near when permanent buildings will be erected on the 
new site. It will be a city different in design from any other in the 
world, with houses of a distinctively different architecture. Houses 
will be comfortable, sanitary, handsome, home-like, modern, and 
harmonious with their surroundings, and will insure greater privacy 
than any other houses ever constructed. They are unique and de- 
signed especially for Llano. 


Among the industries of Llano, to which new ones are con- 
stantly being added, are: Printshop, shoe shop, laundry, cannery, 
cleaning and dyeing, warehouse, machine shop, blacksmith shop, 
rug works, planing mill, paint shop, lime kiln, saw mill, dairy, cab- 
inet shop, nursery, alfalfa, orchards, poultry yards, rabbitry, gar- 
dens, hog raising, two stages, lumbering, magazine, newspaper, doc- 
tors' offices, woodyard, vinegar works, bakery, fish hatchery, bar- 
ber shop, dairy goats, baths, swimming pool, studios, two hotels. 
drafting room, post office, commissary, camping ground. Industrial 
school, grammar school, Montessori school, commercial classes, li- 
brary, women's exchange, two weekly dances, brass band, mandolin 
club, two orchestras, quartets, socialist local, jeweler. 


THE LLANO DEL RIO COMMUNITY has a remarkable form 
of management that is the result of evolution. The manage- 
ment of the affairs of the Colony industries is in the hands of 
the department managers. In each department there are divisions. 
Over some of these divisions are foremen. All these are selected 
for their experience and fitness for the position. At the department 
meetmgs as many persons as can crowd m the room are always 
present. These meetings are held regularly and they are unique 
in that no motions are ever made, no resolutions adopted and no 
minutes are kept. The last action on any matter supercedes all 
fbriA^i^ ^cli(Jn ^ndc'this stands until the plans are changed. The 
plan Si ^orli^n^^^ost Admirably and smoothly. At these meetings the 
work 'is' drsciissed and planned, reports are given, teams allotted, 
worl^ers ^aje^ shifted to the point where the needs are greatest, 
^nd ^mach^ijerj' fs^^ put 'or designated work, transportation is ar- 
lajiiSed, w^t$ ^r«^^ njad^cknovm and filled as nearly as possible. 
The board of directors, members of which are elected by the 
stockholders, meets once a week and has charge of the financial 
and business management of the enterprise. These directors are 
on the same basis as all their comrades in the colony. At the 
general assembly all persons over eighteen years of age, residing 
in the colony, have a voice and vole. 


MANY persons who want to know how the affairs of the 
Llano del Rio Community are conducted think, in order to 
get this information, they must secure a copy of a con- 
stitution and by-laws. There is no constitution. The Llano Com- 
munity contents itself with a "declaration of principles" which is 
printed below. The management of the Colony rests with the 
board of managers, a member of which is the superintendent 
and his two assistants. These managers are selected for their 
fitness and ability. The business and financial affairs of the enter- 



prise are conducted by the board of directors who are elected by 

the stockholders. The corporation by-laws are the stereotyped cor- 
poration by-laws of almost every state. The only innovation is in 
the restricting of einyone from voting more than 2000 shares of 
stock, regardless of how many shares are held. As this is to be 
the ultimate holding of every member, this is considered a strong 
protective clause. The incorporation charter is also the usual type 
and gives the corporation the right to transact almost all manner 
of business. The Nevada corporation laws are liberal, safe, and 
well construed. There is no disposition on the part of state 
officials to interfere. 


IN conducting the affairs of the Llano del Rio Ginununity it 
has been found that the fewer inflexible rules and regulations 
the greater the harmony. Instead of an elaborate constitution 
and a set of laws the colonists have a Declaration of Principles 
and they live up to the spirit of them. The declaration follows : 

Things which are used productively must be o\\Tied collectively. 

The rights of the Community shall be paramount over those of 
any individual. 

Liberty of action is only permissible when it does not restrict 
the liberty of another. 

Law is a restriction of liberty and is only just when operating 
for the benefit of the Gammunity at large. 

Values created by the Community shall be vested in the Com- 
munity alone. 

The individual is not justly entitled to more land than is suffi- 
cient to satisfy a reasonable desire for peace and rest. Productive 
land held for profit shall not be held by private ownership. 

Talent and intelligence are gifts which should nghtly be used 
in the service of others. The development of these by education 
is the gift of the Community to the individual, and the exercise of 
greater ability enritles none to the false rewards of greater pos- 
sessions, but only to the joy of greater service to others. 

Only by identifying his interests and pleasures with those of 
others can man find real happiness. 

The duty of the individual to the Community is to develop ability 
lo the greatest degree possible by availing himself of all educational 
facilities and to devote the whole extent of that ability to the 
service of all. 

The duty of the Community to the individual is lo administer 
justice, to elimmate greed and selfishness, to educate a\\ and to aid 
any in time of age or misfortune. 


THE electric light bill, the water bill, the doctor's bill, the drug 
bill, the telephone bill, the gas bill, the coal bill, the dentist's 
bill, the school book supplies bill, the sewer assessment bill, 
and car fare, the annoyance of the back door peddler and beggar 
(Henry Dubbs who think the trouble Is individual hard luck), 
the hundred and one greater and smaller burdens on the house- 
holder, and the lean weeks caused by dlsemployment and the con- 
sequent fear of the future. There is no landlord and no rent "s 

While they are charged with living expenses, for food and cloth- 
ing, the colonists never fear meeting the grocery bill, the milk, 
the clothing bill, the laundry bill, the butcher's bill, and other 
inevitable and multitudinous bills that burden the struggling workers 
in the outside world. For the tax bill he has no fear. The colony 
officials attend to the details of all overhead. To colonists the 
amusements, sports, pastimes, dances, entertainments and all edu- 
cational facilities are free. 


WHEN a member of the colony dies his shares and credits 
like any other property, go to his heirs. Only Caucasians 
are admitted. We have had applications from Negroes, 
Hindus. Mongolians and Malays. The rejection of these applica- 
tions is not due to race prejudice but because it is not deemed 
expedient to mix races in these communities. 

Llano is twenty miles from Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. All household goods and other shipments should be 
consigned to the name of the owner, Palmdale, California, care 
Llano Colony. Goods will be looked after by the colony freightman 
until ordered moved to Llano. All shipments should be pre- 
paid, other\vise they cannot be moved and storage or demurrage 
may be charged. Freight transportation between the colony and 
the station is by means of auto trucks. Passengers are carried 
in the colony's aulo stages. In shipping household goods, it will 

be well to ship only lighter goods. Cooksloves, refrigerators and 
heavy articles should not be shipped from points where freight 
rates are high. 

Individuals may own their own automobiles and many colonists 
do own them. All livestock, poultry, etc., are kepi in the depart- 
ments devoted lo those industries. The aim is to keep the resi- 
dence portion of the colony clean and sanitary. 


PEJ^ONS cannot be admitted to residence at the colony upon 
the payment of $10.00 or any other sum less than the 
initial payment fee. Hundreds write and suggest they be al- 
lowed to pay a small amount, or in some cases, nothing at all, 
then enter the colony and work out the remainder of their shares. 
If the colony permitted this there would soon be a hundred thou- 
sand applications. 

The money derived from these initial payments is used to pay 
for land, improvements, machinery, and lo carry on the enterprise 
until it is on a paying basis. It takes considerable time to bring 
a large agricultural undertaking to a productive point. The colony 
must proceed along sound financial lines in order lo continue its 
present success. This fact must be obvious to all. The memage- 
ment of the Llano del Rio Community has never been unmindful 
of the fact that there is a numberless army that cannot lake 
advantage of this plan of co-operation. Many letters come in 
that breathe bitter and deep disappointment. No one could regret 
this more than we do. It is our hope that the day will come 
when successful co-operative groups can say to their stripped, rob- 
bed and exploited brothers : "Vou who come vrith willing hands 
and understanding of comradeship and co-operation are welcome." 
The installment plan of payment whereby one pays $10.00 a 
month is proving satisfactory. On this plan the absent comrade 
is providing for the future while his brothers and sisters on the 
land are bearing the brunt of the pioneering. Families entering 
the colony begin to draw from the commissary. Some of the food, 
all the clothing, much of the material they draw, costs money. 
The initial membership fee goes to offset the support of families 
until the colony shall be on a paying basis. 


Following is the plan which has pi oven successful: Each share- 
holder agrees lo buy 2,000 shares of capital slock. Each pays 
in cash or installments, $1,000. Each pays in labor, $1,000. Each 
receives a dally wage of $4.00, from which is deducted $1.00 for 
the slock he is working out. From the remainder comes his living 
expenses, ^"liatever margin he may have above deduction for stock 
and living expenses is credited to his individual account, payable out 
of the surplus profits of the enterprise. If an installment member 
falls ill, is disabled or dlsemployed, the Colony gives him every op- 
portimity lo recover and resume payments. In no case will he be 
crowded. If he finds it impossible lo resume payments, we will, 
upon request, issue slock for the full amount he has paid. This is 
transferable and may be sold to his best advantage. In this we will 
endeavor to assist wherever practicable. Corporations are not 
allowed by law to deal in their own stock. 


Write today for an appiicaiion blank, fill it out and send 
together with a remittance of $10 or more lo secure your member- 
ship. You can ihen arrange lo pay $10 a month or more until 
you can so adjust your affairs that you can make final pay- 
ment and join your comrades who have already borne the first 
brunt of pioneering. 

The LLANO COLONIST is the Colony's weekly newspaper, telling 
in detail of what is being achieved, giving an intimate peep into 
the dally lives, the smaller incidents of this growing, thriving in- 

The WESTERN COMRADE is the Colony's illustrated monthly 
magazine, giving more complete articles concerning the Colony, 
showing photos illustrating its growth, etc. The editorials, and 
many other special features, are making it one of the leading 
Socialist magazines of today. 

Address Communications regarding membership, general informa- 
tion, etc., to the 


For subscriptions to the Publications, changes of address, etc., 
please write 


May Issue 

Cover Page 

Llano girls going ihrough the intricacies of braiding the 

The Gateway to Freedom - 2 

Synopsis of the material contained in the booklet of the 
same name. 

Editorials 5 

By Job Harriman. 

Three Years of Achievement. 8 

Frank E. Wolfe, who has been right in the thick of the 
work from the start, tells what three years have done 
for Llano. 

Was Schmidt Guilty?..... II 

First of the series containing the address before the Jury 
made by Job Harriman in this famous case. 

Triumph of Theory over Practice 1 3 

Cameron H. King of San Francisco tells how the conven- 
tion at St. Louis ignored facts and dealt with theories and 
things of the past to the exclusion of practical action. 

Radicals or Fetish- Worshippers ? 14 

D. Bobspa, radical reviewer of books, has prepared a 
remarkable article for the COMRADE, one that we heartily 
commend to every thoughtful radical. 

Llano Colony Adds 2750 Acres to Its Holdings 16 

How We Live at Llano 16 

The first tells of new property just bought. The other is 
Frank E. Wolfe's comparison of living conditions at Llano 
and in other places. 

Nineteen Seventeen 


"R. p. M." 18 

An interesting study in "revolutions per minute" by L. W. 
Millsap, Jr. 

Liberty and Play for Baby 19 

Prudence Stokes Brown gives new ideas in rearing children. 

The Thing in Itself (Fiction) 20 

A study in character by Clara Cushman. 

Carbo-Hydro Phobia 21 

A serio-comic treatment of food-fear by Dr. John Dequer. 

What Thinkers Think 22 

Synopsis of articles in April magazines. 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books 23 

D. Bobspa's comments on new and old books. 

A Pioneer Woman's View. 24 

By Mildred G. Buxton. 

For Women Only 25 

Industrial Education 26 

Another of the instructive series of articles by Clinton 

Courage 29 

A poem by Mrs. C. P. Stetson of especial interest to all 


What Readers Write Us 

"I have now decided to come to Llano within two weeks and investi- 
gate your co-operative enterprise. Inclosed find $1 for subscription to 
the Llano Colonist and Western Comrade." M. N. Hill, Ida. 

"Please find inclosed 75c. I hope to be a member and with you before 
the year is out, but must have something to read in the meantime." 

A. J. Daugherty, New Mexico. 

"In view of the eminently sane attitude toward war set forth in the 
COLONIST of April 28, I want a hundred copies for distribution. Level 
heads are found now and then everywhere, but you California Socialists 
seem to represent "organized sanity," especially the Llano group. At the 
present rate, you will soon formulate the policy of the Socialist Party 
of America, Grace B. Marians, Secretary Socialist Party, Las Animas 
County, Colorado. 


"When I started to get subs I first secured the names of a number of 
Socialists in my neighborhood. . . I visited them and left sample copies 
of the Colonist and Comrade, at the same time explaining enough about 
the Colony to try and interest them and to get them to read the papers. 
Then I would call in a week or two, asking them if they liked the paper, 
answering any questions they might ask as best I could and talk Llano 
until they became interested enough to give me a subscription. Of the 
25 subscriptions I secured since I began, most ail became so interested 
in reading the papers and the booklet "Llano del Rio Colony a Success," 
which I always took with me, that after talking a little while about the 
achievements at Llano very enthusiastically, I had little trouble in securing 
subscriptions. Of course I met a few who were not interested, but these 

1 tried to impress with the fact that the Colony papers should be extreme- 
ly interesting to every Socialist, as they were different from any other 
Socialist papers in that they were telling of the actual, working out of the 
Socialist principles. I then tried to get them to subscribe for the first ten 
weeks anyway. . . Every one whom I could get to read the papers 
thought they were fine and wished me all manner of success, even if they 
couldn't see their way clear to subscribe. I sent a few subs to friends 
who were not Socialists; since then one of them told me her husband 
says T'm a Socialist.' They think the papers fine." Mrs. Jacques, CaHfornia. 
(Space does not permit giving more of this extremenly interesting let- 
ter; later it will be given in full in either the Comrade or Colonist. Mrs. 
Jacques is a systematic worker and is getting excellent results.) 

* * * 


"I will begin by telling you of my handicap. I am totally blind. I 
must depend on the help of my neighbors to learn what you have writr 
ten me or what is printed in your papers. By searching the town I 
manage to find enough neighbors to read to me the principal part of 
the Comrade and the Colonist. I earn my living by peddling garden pro- 
duce. From this you will see I am not an ideal agent to represent your 
literature. The Sub 1 herewith enclose I got by giving him a copy of 
the Comrade and the Colonist and telling him 1 thought them the most 
rational Socialist reading matter I have found. He, being a Socialist, 
thought so too, and the next time I met him he only asked me if I had 
paper to take his name and address. I fished out a sub-card, and here 
it is," C. D. Kaufman, North Dakota. 

(Comrade Kaufman has sent us in a number of subscriptions; he oper- 
ates the typewriter himself and sets a splendid example of what C£m be 
accomplished by grit and determination.) 

Political Action 


Direct Action 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Cause of the Workers 

Entered as second-class matter November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, under Act of March 3, 1879. 


Managing Editor. "^^ 7 FRANK E. WOLFE 


Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies lOc; clubs of 4 or more (in U. S.) 30c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so stated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

VOL. V. 




By Job H 

a r r 1 m a n 

HE Emergency Socialist Party Convention, recently 

I held at St. Louis, has sent forth a proclamation 

which, in our opinion, is exceedingly unwise and ex- 
tremely dangerous. The causes of the war are stated 
correctly and with great force. The policy to be pursued by 
the party during the war are stated with equal force, but are 
devoid of wisdom and are pregnant with unnecessary danger 
and dire consequences to our movement. 

If the policy outlined by the convention is adopted by the 
party, it will lay the foundation for an attack upwn our organ- 
ization which v^rill create consternation in our ranks through- 
out the land. 

This document will support a charge of conspiracy to violate 
the federal statutes. The prison doors will open and gulp in 
our members by the thousands. 

No good can come to the movement by such a course. 

When we recommend to the workers, and pledge ourselves 
to "continuous, active and public opposition to the war through 
demonstrations, mass petitions and all other means within our 
tion laws are passed, we act in direct violation of the United 
States statute which provides that "if two or more persons 
in any state or territory conspire to . . . oppose by force 
the authority of the United States, or by force to prevent, hin- 
der or delay the execution of any law of the United States con- 
trary to the authority thereof, shall each be fined not more 
than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than six years, or both." 
If the party approves this position by a majority vote, the 
members will either have to back up, lie down, or go to jail. 
Whichever course they take will land them in a fool's paradise. 

The majority of the convention acted under great excite- 

ment and provocation, but it is hopied that the party will act 
more wisely. 

A political party that cannot raise sufficient funds to finance 
its convention without borrowing money is hardly in a posi- 
tion to declare war on the government of the United States. 
That is precisely what the majority of the convention have pro- 
posed that the party do. 

We opposed this country entering the war with all our 
power, but were powerless to prevent it. Now that we are in 
the war, this country will follow the same course that all belli- 
gerent nations have traveled. Efficiency will force munici- 
pal, state and national ownership and management of indus- 
tries. War vkill empty the nation's commissary. Starvation 
and devastation will curse every city and hamlet. And we 
who know best how to direct the movement for the national- 
ization of industry to the end that suffering may be alleviated 
and industries may be so organized that mutuality of interest 
in industrial and commercial affairs may be substituted for the 
present competitive system, are advised to put ourselves in 
such a position that our services will be spurned, and that the 
people, who do not understand us, will turn against us and rend 
us. The working class wall not even understand our course. 

This is not a labor war. Strikes may come and go, but the 
war will go on to the finish. We are all citizens of this coun- 
try and the rules of war will be enforced. Wisdom, sagacity 
and good judgment tell us to take advantage of the opportu- 
nity to forward our movement as far as possible by national- 
izing our industries while the government and the people are 
being forced by their economic needs in that direction. 

It is for these reasons that we urge the party membership 
to vote for the minority report submitted by the dissenting fifty 
which gives their declaration of policy on the war. 

Page six 


The Western Comrade 


Fifty delegates to the Emergency Convention, who could not agree 
with the war declaration adopted by the majsrity of the delegates, 
drew up the accompanying declaration and had their signatures af- 
fixed to it. This makes it possible to send this "Declaration on War 
Policy" to referendum along with the declaration adopted by the con- 
vention. The declaration of the convention will be published in leaflet 
form in the meantime and sent out for general distribution. The 
declaration on war policy of the dissenting fifty is as follows: 


CONGRESS has declared that a state of war exists between 
this nation and Germany. War between the two nations 
is a fact. 

We opposed the entrance of this repubHc into the war, but 
we failed. The political and economic organizations of the 
working class were not strong enough to do more than protest. 

Having failed to prevent the war by our agitation, we can 
only recognize it as a fact and try to force upon the govern- 
ment, through pressure of public opinion, a constructive pro- 

Our aim now must be to minimize the suffering and misery 
which the war will bring to our own people, to protect our 
rights and liberties against reactionary encroachments, and to 
promote an early peace upon a democratic basis, advantageous 
to the international working class. 

Furthermore, we must seize the opportunity presented by 
war conditions to advance our program of democratic col- 
lectivism. Every one of the other belligerent nations have 
discovered through the war that capitalism is inherently inef- 
ficient. To secure a maximum of efficiency, whether for mili- 
tary or civil needs, it has been found necessary to abandon 
the essential principle of capitalist industry. The warring 
nations have had to give up the organization and operation of 
industry and the primary economic functions for profit, and 
to adopt the Socialist principle of production for use. Thus 
the war has demonstrated the superior efficiency of collective 
organization and operation of industry. 

Guided by this experience, we would so reorganize our eco- 
nomic system as to secure for our permanent domestic needs 
the greatest possible results from the proper utilization of our 
national resources. 

In furtherance of these aims, we propose the following 


1 . We propose that the Socialist Party shall establish com- 
munication with the Socialists within the enemy nations, to the 
end that peace may be secured upon democratic terms at the 
earliest possible moment. 

2. We demand that there be no interference with freedom 
of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of assemblage. 

3. We demand that dealings between the government and 
the workers in all of the industries and services taken over and 
operated by the government shall be conducted through their 
organizations, with due regard for the right of organization of 
those not yet organized. 

4. We demand that conscription, if it come at all, shall be- 
gin with wealth. All annual incomes in excess of $5,000 
should be taken by the government and used to pay the cur- 

rent expenses of the war. If it is just to conscript a human 
being, it is just to conscript wealth. Money is not as sacred 
as human life. 

5. We demand that there shall be no conscription of men 
until the American people shall have been given the right to 
vote upon it. Under the British Empire the people of Aus- 
tralia were permitted to decide by ballot whether they should 
be conscripted. We demand for the American people the same 

6. We demand that the government seize and operate for 
the benefit of the whole people the great industries concerned 
with production, transportation, storage and marketing of the 
food and other necessities of the people. 

7. We demand that the government seize all suitable vacant 
land, and have the same cultivated for the purpose of furnish- 
ing food supplies for the national use. 

8. We demand that the government take over and operate 
all land and water transport facilities; all water powers and 
irrigation plants; mines, forests and oil fields; and all indus- 
trial monopolies; and that this be done at once, before the 
nation shall suffer calamity from the failure of their capitalist 
direction and management under war pressure. 


THE SOCIALIST Party of the United States in the present grave crisis, 
solemnly reaffirms its allegiance to the principle of internationalism 
and working class solidarity the world over, and proclaims its un- 
alterable opposition to the war just declared by the government of the 
United States. 

Modern wars as a rule have been caused by the commercial and financial 
rivalry and intrigues of the capitalist interests in the different ocuntries. 
Whether they have been frankly waged as wars of aggression or have 
been hypocritically represented as wars of "defense," they have always 
been made by the classes and fought by the masses. Wars bring wealth 
and power to the ruling classes, and suffering, death, and demoralization 
to the workers. 

They breed a sinister spirit of passion, unreason, race hatred and false 
patriotism. They obscure the struggles of the workers for life, liberty 
and social justice. They tend to sever the vital bonds of solidarity be- 
tween them and their brothers in other countries, to destroy their organiza- 
tion and to curtail their civic and political rights and liberties. 

Pledge All To Labor 

Tne Sociahst Parly of the United Stales is unalterably opposed to the 
system of exploitation and class rule which is upheld and strengthened 
by military power and sham national patriotism. We, therefore, call upon 
the workers of all countries to refuse support to their governments in 
their wars. The wars of ihe contending national groups of capitalists are 
not the concern of the workers. The only struggle which would justify 
the workers in taking up arms is the great struggle of the working class 
of the world to free itself from economic exploitation and political op- 
pression, and we particularly warn the workers against the snare and 
delusion of so-called defensive warfare. As against the false doctrine of 
national patriotism we uphold the ideal of international working class 
solidarity. In support of capitalism, we will not willingly give a single 
life or a single dollar; In support of the struggle of the workers for 
freedom we pledge our all. 

Why This Orgy of Death? 

The mad orgy of death and destruction which is now convulsing un- 
fortunate Europe was caused by the conflict of capitalist interests in the 
European countries. 

In each of these countries, the workers were oppressed and exploited. 
They produced enormous wealth, but the bulk of it was witheld from them 
by the owners of the industries. The workers were thus deprived of 
the means to repurchase the wealth, which they themselves had created. 

The capitalist class of each country was forced to look for foreign 
markets to dispose of the accumulated "surplus" wealth. The huge profits 
made by the capitalists could no longer be profitably reinvested in their 

The Western Comrade 


own counlries, hence, they were driven to look for foreign fields of in- 
vestment. The geographical boundaries of each modem capitalist country 
thus became too narrow for the industrial and commercial operations of 
its capitalist class. 

The efforts of the capitalists of all leading nations were therefore cen- 
tered upon the domination of the world markets. Imperialism became 
the dominant note in the politics of Europe. The acquisition of colonial 
possessions and the extension of spheres of commercial and political in- 
fluence became the object of diplomatic intrigues and the cause of con- 
stant clashes between nations. 

The acute competition between the capitalist powers of the earth, their 
jealousies and distrusts of one another and the fear of the rising power 
of the working class forced each of them to arm to the teeth. This led 
to the mad rivalry of armament, which, years before the outbreak of the 
present war, had turned the leading countries of Europe into armed camps 
with standing armies of many millions, drilled and equipped for war in 
times of "peace." 

Capitalism, imperialism and militarism had thus laid the foundation of 
an inevitable general conflict in Europe. The ghastly war in Europe was 
not caused by an accidental event, nor by the policy or institutions of 
any single nation. It was the logical outcome of the competitive capital- 
ist system. 

The six million men of all countries and races who have been ruth- 
lessly slain in the first thirty months of this war, the millions of others 
who have been crippled and maimed, the vast treasures of wealth that 
have been destroyed, the untold misery and sufferings of Europe, have 
not been sacrifices exacted in a struggle for principles or ideals, but wanton 
offerings upon the altar of private profit. 

The forces of capitalism which led to the war in Europe are even more 
hideously transparent in the war recently provoked by the ruling class of 
this country. 

When Belgium was invaded, the government enjoined upon the people 
of this country the duty of remaining neutral, thus clearly demonstrating 
that the "dictates of humanity," and the fate of small nations and of 
democratic institutions were matters that did not concern it. But when 
our enormous war traffic was seriously threatened, our government calls 
upon us to rally to the "defense of democracy and civihzation." 

Our entrance into the European war was instigated by the predatory 
capitalists in the United States who boast of the enormous profit of seven 
billion dollars from the manufacture and sale of munitions and war supplies 
and from the exportation of American food stuffs and other necessaries. 
They are also deeply interested in the continuance of war and the success 
of the allied arms through their huge loans to the governments of the allied 
powers and through other commercial lies. It is the same interests which 
strive for imperialistic domination of the Western Hemisphere. 

The war of the United States against Germany cannot be justified even 
on the plea that it is a war in defense of American rights or American 
"honor." Ruthless as the unrestricted submarine war policy of the Ger- 
man government was and is, it is not an invasion of the rights of the 
American people as such, but only an interference with the opportunity 
of certain groups of American capitalists to coin cold profits, out of the 
blood and sufferings of our fellow men m the warring counlries of Europe. 

It is not a war against the military regime of the Central Powers. 
Militarism can never be abolished by militarism. 

It is not a war to advance the cause of democracy in Europe. Democ- 
racy can never be imposed upon any country by a foreign power by 
force of arms. 

It is cant and hypocrisy to say that the war is not directed against the 
German people, but against the Imperial Government of Germany. If we 
send an armed force to the battle fields of Europe, its cannon will mow 
down the masses of the German people and not the Imperial German 

Our entrance into the European conflict at this time will serve only 
to multiply the horrors of the war, to increase the toll of death and 
destruction and to prolong the fiendish slaughter. It will bring death, 
suffering and destitution to the people of the United Slates, and particularly 
to the working class. It will give the powers of reaction in this coun- 
try the pretext for an attempt to throttle our rights and to crush our 
democratic institutions, and to fasten upon this country a permanent 

The working class of the United States has no quarrel with the work- 
ing class of Germany or of any other country. The people of the United 
States have no quarrel with the people of Germany or of any other 
country. The American people did not want and do not want this war. 
They have pot been consulted about the war and have no part in declar- 
ing war. They have been plunged into this war by the trickery and 
treachery of the rulmg class of the country through its representatives 
in the National Administration and National Congress, its demagogic 

agitators, its subsidized press, and other servile instruments of public 

We brand the declaration of war by our government as a crime against 
the people of the United States and against the nations of the world. 

In all modern history there has been no war more unjustifiable than 
the war in which we are about to engage. 

No greater dishonor has ever been forced upon a people than that which 
the capitalist class is forcing upon this nation against its will. 

Our Course of Action 

In harmony with these principles, the Socialist Party emphatically re- 
jects the proposal that in time of war the working class should suspend 
their struggle for better conditions. On the contrary, the acute situation 
created by war calls for an even more vigorous prosecution of the class 
struggle, and we recommend to the workers and pledge ourselves to the 
following course of action : 

1. Continuous, active, and public opposition to the war, through demon- 
strations, mass petitions, and all other means within our power. 

2. Unyielding opposition to all proposed legislations for military or 
industrial conscription. Should such conscription be forced upon the 
people, we pledge ourselves to continuous efforts for the repeal of such 
laws and to the support of all mass movements in opposition to con- 
scription. We pledge ourselves to fight with all our strength against 
any attempt to raise money for the payment of war expenses by taxing 
the necessaries of life or issuing bonds, which will put the burden upon 
future generations. We demand that the capitalist class, which is re- 
sponsible for the war, pay its cost. Let those who kindle the fire fur- 
nish the fuel. 

3. Vigorous resistance to all reactionary measures, such as censorship 
of press and mails, restriction of the rights of free speech, assemblage, 
and organization, or compulsory arbitration and limitation of the right 
of strike. 

4. Consistent propaganda against military training and militaristic teach- 
ing in the public schools. 

5. Extension of the campaign of education among the workers to or- 
ganize them into strong, class-conscious, and closely unified political and 
industrial organizations, to enable them by concerted and harmonious 
mass action to shorten this war and to establish lasting peace. 

6. Wide-spread educational propaganda to enlighten the masses as to 
the true relation between capitalism and war, and to rouse and or- 
ganize them for action, not only against present war evils, but for the 
prevention of future wars and for the destruction of the causes of war. 

7. To protect the masses of the American people from the pressing 
danger of starvation which the war in Europe has brought upon them, 
and which the entry of the United States has already accentuated, we 
demand : 

(a) The restriction of food exports so long as the present shortage 
continues, the fixing of maximum prices, and whatever measures may 
be necessary to prevent the food speculators from holding back the 
supplies now in their hands ; 

(b) The socialization and democratic management of the great indus- 
tries concerned with the production, transportation, storage, and the 
marketing of food and other necessities of life; 

(c) The socialization and democratic management of all land and other 
natural resources which is now held out of use for monopolistic or specu- 
lative profit. 

These measures are presented as means of protecting the workers 
against the evil results of the present war. The danger of recurrence of 
war will exist as long as the capitalist system of industry remains in 
existence. The end of wars will come with the establishment of socialized 
industry and industrial democracy the world over. The Socialist Party 
calls upon all the workers to join it in a new struggle to reach this goal, 
,-ir.H thi's bring into the world a new society in which peace, fraternity, 
'-'nd hu-nan brotherhood will be the dominant ideals. 


1. We recommend that the convention instruct our elected representatives 
in Congress, in the Slate Legislatures, and in local bodies, lo vote against 
all proposed appropriations or loans for military, naval, and other war 

2. We recommend that this convention instruct the National Executive 
Committee to extend and improve the propaganda among women, because 
they as housewives and as mothers are now particularly ready to accept 
our message. 

3. We recommend that the convention instruct the National Executive 
Committee to initiate an organized movement of Socialists, organized 
workers, and other anti-war forces for concerted action along the lines 
of this program. 

Page eight 

About Llano 

The Western Coi 

Three Years of Achievement 

By Frank E. Wolfe 

HREE years of history of the Llano del Rio com- 

Tmunity, even if written as a sketch briefly touching 
upon the events that were of the most importance 

at the hour, would require more space than could be 

found inside this magazine. Achievements have been many 
and continuous. They can be touched upon but briefly here. 

Starting in May, 1914, with a plan that was only defined 
in the one idea — that of forming an initial group for the pur- 
pose of solving the problem of co-operative production of 
the necessities of life — the founders worked their way along 
and as the scheme unfolded the plans took more concrete 
form. True, the man who first thought of the community 
had plans of large dimensions. He had not nor could he have 
definite ideas as to details and development. To him and 
to many others the vision of the future was strong and many 
were the dreams that were dreamed. At first it was all a 
dream — land, water, labor, a community, houses, live stock, 
machinery and all. Then slowly the dream became a reality. 

The first land was secured largely on faith. A few im- 
proved ranches came in on options that were held with small 
payments and promises based on hope of the future. Then 
that hope became strengthened by the response of comrades 
and options became purchases and a stronger grip was secured 
on the deeded land. Then land began to come in through 
trades and other channels. More and more land was added 
until the red spots on the Colony map widened, and as deeds 
were secured these spots took on a deeper hue. With the 
purchase of the Tilghman ranch was removed the serious ob- 
stacle of a contender for our water rights. We secured a 
splendid piece of property, with producing alfalfa fields and 
more important, the tunnel and the undisputed right to the 
dam site. Then came other land which was obtained by trades 
and transfers, until the Colony was secure with land sufficient 
to support several thousand persons. Water development and 
conservation through improvement of ditches and cobbled 
laterals, clearing and improving the tunnel and by other means 
extending the supply, was a contemporaneous transformation 
from dream to reality. These two vitally essential features 
of the enterprise have always been recognized as fundamental. 

How much land has the Colony? 

This question is frequently asked. Many times it comes 
from persons who have no conception of an acre of land and 
could not visualize 100 acres or give any adeq.uate idea of 
what an immense tract of land 1 ,000 acres is. To give them 
a foundation, let us say that a section of land comprises 
640 acres. This is a square mile. Get a line on that, then 
figure that the Colony now has under control about 9,000 
acres and that it can secure more as rapidly as we want it, 
or can put it under cultivation. Of this land there are about 
3,000 acres of titled land under deeds. The remainder is un- 
der tax titles and contracts. All is safe from interference. 
Land for purposes of extension is available at a reasonable 
rate. We have under cultivation inside the Colony about 
1 ,400 acres. Besides this, we have under lease for the year's 
crops a number of ranches. We have labor contracts where- 
by we exchange service for fruit and other crops so that our 
year's product will not be limited by what land we have 
under cultivation. We are clearing land as rapidly as prac- 
ticable, but this work can go forward only as rapidly as we 
can divert teams and men from the necessary work of plant- 
ing, cultivation and harvesting. There is always need for more 

men and more teams and it requires much clever manipulation 
on the part of the assistant superintendent, the corral manager, 
the head farmer, and others, to keep the teams on the most 
needed work. 

To the farmers the land is of the most paramount impor- 
tance. The gardener has an argument which no one can meet. 
The cannery foreman can floor anyone who attempts to argue 
about the relative value of his department. "Say, don't you 
fellows want to eat next winter?" is an argument that makes 
the laundry foreman, the soapmaker, and even that important 
individual, the tanner, pause in any flight of oratory. The 
cannery mian wins. So does the gardener, the berry man, the 
hog raiser, or anyone in the food production or conservation 
departm,ent. But it all goes back to the land as the source 
of life at Llano, as in every other part of the globe. 

Llano will always have enough land. Negotiations are con- 
tinually pending for more land and deals go through nearly 
every week on the basis of trades. Recently 1 ,300 acres came 
in in one week. This added three ranches to our cattle range 
and gave us a 100-inch well and a pump of that capacity. 

We have every hope of securing two producing ranches 
that lie back in the foothills between the Colony lands and 
the mountains. These will also come in under trades and 
they will more that meet the Colony's growing demand for 
food and feed. 

Equal in importance with the possession of land is the 
ownership and development of water. 

It is unsafe for a layman to write about the conservation 
and development of water. For this reason the follov^ang 
facts and statements are taken from an article prepared by 
our engineer. They may be relied upon as being not only 
conservative but always inside figures and guarded statements. 

Llano's water supply comes from four sources, namely, 
the surface flow of Big Rock Creek, storage, reservoir, and 
underground flows. 

First: The natural surface flow of the Big Rock Creek, of 
which we are using a part at present. This water will easily 
irrigate 5,000 acres if properly handled. At the present time 
there are about 3,000 miners' inches of surface flow, later in 
the summer the flow decreases to about 500 inches. 

Second: We have a reservoir and dam site. A dam 200 
feet high will have a storage capacity of from 40,000 to 
50,000 acre feet of storage water. Government reports show 
flood water enough from this watershed to be sufficient to 
fill this huge reservoir. However, the dam as planned at 
present will have a capacity of 5,600 acre feet. This amount 
of water is sufficient to irrigate at least 5,000 acres more of 
this land. 

Third: The underground flow, of which we can only es- 
timate at present. The flow from the old tunnel constructed 
some twenty-five years ago is 125 miners' inches. This flow 
has been increased forty miners' inches by cleaning out the 
tunnel to a distance of about 100 feet from where it enters 
the deep wash of Big Rock. This wash is composed of loose 
gravel indicating many hundreds of miners' inches of water; 
perhaps it may run into thousands of inches. We are still 
pushing the work ahead on the tunnel and expect to tap this 
wash forty feet below the surface of the creek bed as stated. 
One hundred and twenty miners' inches forces its way through 
gravel and mud a distance of probably one hundred feet 
and that alone tells us a vast quantity of water awaits us. 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 

rage nine 

Those who contemplate joining us may rest assured as to 
the land and water problems. They await only development. 
The possibilities are almost unlimited. The conservation of 
water is reasonable, being under $25.00 per acre. 

To the North, thirteen miles beyond the Lovejoy Buttes, 
the Colony owns a ranch where our range stock headquarters 
are now located. This lower part of the valley is a pumping 
proposition. On this ranch we have a well that furnishes 
100 miners' inches, pumped with a fifty horse power gasoline 

"It is safe to say that the sources of water we have, can 
and will be developed to irrigate 50,000 acres of land," says 
this engineer. "Come and see for yourself — and judge for 
yourself. The United States Government has set aside 60,000 
acres in this irrigation district. That means they say 60,000 
can be irrigated from these water sources. We say 50,000 
to be well under the United States government estimate." 

Looking back over three years of endeavor in this valley, 
one is struck by the horizontal rise in achievement. If the 
co-operators had restricted themselves to one little hne of de- 
velopment, a much greater showing might have been made 
in that particular department. This was not possible. This 
was a matter of clearing land, plowing, leveling, fencing, 
planting, attending crops, and harvesting. But while this was 
going on there were the other departments, each of great 
importance, coming forward with demands for labor, teams, 
machinery and appropriations. Horticultural activities could 
not be curtailed. Live stock had to be given attention. Then 
the numerous industries demanded a share in the resources 
necessary to development and expansion. The whole vast 
enterprise must come along with as even a front as possible 
— the rise horizontal. 

The first live stock acquisition included about a dozen hogs. 
They were of indifferent type, with no breed or character. 
Since that tirhe hundreds of hogs have passed the department. 
During the past year over $5,000 worth of pork has been 
distributed through the commissary and there are 200 hogs 
now in the department. This number will be reduced within 
a few days and then the increase will start upward toward the 
days of packing meat next fall. Great care will be taken in 
the meat producing and live stock department. No boarders 
will be permitted to winter. Each animal will pay its way — 
go to the range or go into smoked pork or corned beef. 

Slowly it seems, but steadily, the herd of hogs has been 
changed in character from "scrubs" to pure bred stock. Blue 
ribbon Berkshires and Duroc-Jerseys are the sires of the rising 
generation of porkers. There are twenty-two registered brood 
sows of high pedigree among the Duroc-Jerseys and more are 
to be added at once. We have had exceptionally good fortune 
in having this department in the hands of a man of great 
ability and good business sense. 

The Colony's dairy herd was started with 83 head brought 
from the Imperial Valley in January, 1915. Up to that time 
the few pioneers here had little milk and not much butter. 
The herd is gradually being merged over from Jerseys to 
Holsteins, but these two strains will long run equally strong. 

There are about 200 cattle in the Colony's herd on the 
range. Here again good fortune attended the community in 
that it had a cattle man of experience to take charge. Not 
only is he a capital herder, but as a real, old-time, ideal 
cowboy he adds greatly to the picturesqueness of the scene. 
He is affable and a source of inspiration to the youth — a hero 
to the small boy of the Colony. 

The range is excellent. The ranches with water in that part 

of the valley to the north are coming into the possession of 
the Colony. There the bunch-grass, knee high and plentiful, 
furnishes all-the-year-round grazing for our stock. We want 
to run this herd up to several thousand head and that is a part 
of our plans. The dream here takes form as we go forward. 
We must have this herd because we shall need the meat and 
the hides. 

The need of the hides will become apparent when we say 
we have a tannery and a shoe factory, a harness shop and 
a great need of leather for varied purposes. 

The leather thus far tanned is of excellent quality. The 
shoe factory will turn out good shoes both for dress and for 
work purposes. Both these departments are in the hands of 
masters of their crafts. 

Starting in three years ago without detailed plans, the pro- 
cess of evolution has carried us forward until we have sixty-six 
departments operating under managers and division managers. 

These departments report to assistant superintendeuts who 
have charge of the two general branches of the enterprise — 
the agricultural and the mechanical. 

Under the former comes all things that pertain to the gen- 
eral business of farming on a large scale. Under the latter 
the industrial side of the undertaking. 

Without regard to the division, the following is a list of 
the subdivisions where workers report to the time keeper: 
Administration, agriculture, agricultural implements and tools, 
alfalfa, architect and survey, art studio, bakery, barber shop, 
bees, building, cabinet shop and planing mill, cannery, cleaning 
and pressing suits; clearing, fencing and grading; creamery, 
dairy, fish hatchery, general garden, general store (commis- 
sary), grain (corn, barley, rye and wheat), hay and grain, 
hogs, horses and teaming, horticulture, Llano hotel, Tilghman 
hotel. Mescal hotel. Lime kiln hotel. Logging camp hotel. Fish 
hatchery hotel, irrigation, irrigation construction and develop- 
ment, irrigation district work, jeweler, laundry, log road and 
logging, lime kiln, library, mechanical store, machine shop, 
medical. Mescal ranch, Montessori school, membership, over- 
alls and shirts, poultry, printing, publishing, post office, rabbits, 
range herd, rug shop, saw mill, sanitation, shoe shop. Sierra 
Madre colony, social service, soap factory, stage line, tannery, 
Hart-Parr tractor. Best caterpillar tractor, large steam tractor, 
small steam tractor, transportation, tinshop, plumbing and 
stoves, wood department. 

There is a growing tendency toward more and more inde- 
pendence in the management of departments. As men in 
charge of these departments demonstrate their ability they are 
given greater power and their advice is always carefully con- 
sidered in business transactions in connection with their work. 

The planting of gardens and crops this year has been 
planned, and in part carried out, with a view to producing 
especially for the needs of the colonists should there be a 
continued rise in the cost of living and a greater scarcity of 
food supply. 

There are four acres in strawberries, which will be pro- 
ducing berries by May 5. Last year the Colony had all the 
sunberries it could use. In fact, considerable of this delicious 
fruit went to waste. This will not be allowed to occur again. 

Thirty acres are being planted to beans. This is outside 
the "kitchen garden." Eight acres are also prepared for 

There are twenty acres planted to potatoes. The Baldwin 
fourteen acres in potatoes are in fine condition and the first 
crop will be taken in the early part of June, when a second 
crop will be planted. The seven acres on the Young place 

page ten 

Atiout Llano 

The Western Comrade 

Llano's first dairy. 
The lady shown 
here has been 
joined by many of 
her kind. 

are making splendid progress. Plans are made to greatly 
extend potato planting. 

Forty acres are planted to sugar cane, and this may be ex- 
tended. A great variety of vegetables will be produced. 

Steadily the Colony pushes forward in all directions. The 
rounding out of the third year of its existence shows remark- 
able progress and development. Extension of land holdings 
goes on from month to month and the policy of taking over 
land free and clear of debt is as closely followed as practicable. 

The Colony acquires machinery in much the same manner 
by trades and issues of stock. This enables us to increase 
the assets without incurring obligation. 

During the first weeks of May, according to predictions 
that are virtually promises, the lumber department will be 
bringing logs down from the timber land, and the sawmill 
will start cutting lumber for the Colony. 

Plans of the building department contemplate the com- 
pletion of the new dormitory, hospital, cannery, printshop, 
tannery, office extension, apiary department, and new cow 
camp. A new public kitchen and dining room will follow. 

The dormitory will be 130 by 36 feet and will contain 
twenty-five rooms. It should be completed by the latter part 
of May. 

The stone is on the spot where the hospital is to be erected. 
This is a pleasant location in the almond grove, where it is 
quiet and the surroundings are ideal. 

There is great need for new housing for the printery. This 
important department is operated under great difficulties owing 
to crowded conditions where linotype, folder, cutter, presses, 
and other machinery are crowded into extremely cramped 
quarters. Highly skilled and efficient workers have to resort 
to many makeshifts to enable them to keep the publications 

The laundry is in a similar situation and the industry is 
scattered. This will be remedied by the erection of a separate 
building where all branches, including the soap making plant, 
will be housed. 

The cannery will take possession of the entire building, of 
which it now occupies but one-fourth. In addition to this, 
storage room will be provided. 

It is expected that by midsummer the woodworking depart- 
ment will have an abundance of material on hand and the 
Colony spared any further burden in the matter. 

The Colony has in its own trout hatchery one of the most 
valuable branches of the entire enterprise. The manager of 
this department is building solidly. Six concrete tanks have 
just been completed for the young trout. This is the sub- 
stantial permanent construction which will characterize the 
development of this interesting division. Two of the pools 
are completed, although pool No. 2 awaits lining. Several 
hundred of the breeding trout have been placed in smaller 
tanks pending improvement of pool No. I . 

This season's hatch of rainbow trout is several weeks out 
of the egg, and the little fellows are strong and vigorous. 
When they are large enough to take from the hatching trough 
they will be put into tanks constructed for that purpose. 

Several thousand will go into each tank and there they will 
remain through their fingerling days and up to the day of 
their removal to the larger lakes. It is planned to build 
twelve or more lakes in terraces down the beautiful valley 
when this industry can be developed to a point of several 
hundred thousand trout. 

These are the rainbow trout (salmon irridius) and are not 
only the most beautiful and gamey but the best pan fish native 
to Western waters. It is planned to put in a fall spawning 
of Eastern brook trout. This will depend on the completion 
of the new hatchery building. The material for this building 
is on the spot and only awaits the stone masons. Though 
much necessary and just as important construction is waiting 
all over the ranch it is confidently expected that the pools for 
the hatchery vvdll be completed in time to allow for the fall 
activities at the hatchery. 

This is but a portion of the history of Llano recited es- 
pecially for this Anniversary Number. As much more could 
be written and then scarcely touch the subject. Llano's 
history is already a complex fabric, and it is known in its en- 
tirety to no man. But its development is now the thing of 
prime importance and the foregoing sketch should prove con- 
vincingly that Llano has progressed more rapidly and sub- 
stantially than even the most optimistic had a right to hope 
or expect. 

In addition to the Llano dairy herd, many more will be brought in from the ranges within a short time. 

The Western Comrade 


Was Schmidt Guilty? 

["Was Schmidt Guihy?" is th* name the WESTERN COMRADE 
has given to the address made by Comrade Job Harriman before the 
jury at the conclusion of the trial of Matt Schmidt on the charge of 
dynamiting the Times Building. Schmidt has just been sent to the 
penitentiary after having been in the Los Angeles jail for about two 
years, to serve a life sentence. The COMRADE will run one instal- 
ment each month of this extraordinary document. It is the inten- 
tion to eventually publish it in book form.] 

ENTLEMEN: You have been told by the assistant 

G prosecuting attorney that he prosecuted this case be- 
cause he was sincere in the behef that the defendant 

is guilty and because it was his duty as a citizen to 

the state, and his divine duty to God! We shall see later how 
sincere he is as a citizen and with what divine conscience he 
urges his cause. 

As for myself, I want to meet you as man meets man in 
a common effort to solve a serious problem. We are only men 
and nothing more. We are confronted with a solemn obliga- 
tion; let us face it in a plain, straightforward and humble 
manner. Let us make no profession of our divine duties or 
inspirations, and we shall come far nearer the truth than if 
we are blinded with imaginary duties and influences. Our 
minds must remain open and receptive to the last, and you 
must go into the jury room without previously making up your 
minds on the issues at the bar. 

The real issue involved in this case is the struggle between 
the United States Steel Trust and the International Bridge 
and Structural Iron Workers. The defendant, Schmidt, is only 
an incident in the fight. The prosecution had as well face 
this fact without further equivocation. Their effort to con- 
ceal the struggle for dollars by the Steel Trust and the Erect- 
ors' Association, and the struggle for their lives by the union 
men, is futile and without avail. Nor yet is this prosecution 
conducted for the purpose of convicting certain men of a 
certain crime, but rather for the purpose of destroying the 
labor organizations, the only power that stands between the 
Erectors' Association and the gratification of their greed. 

For many weeks you have been held here in this jury box 
and compelled to listen to the reading of hundreds of letters, 
scores of magazine articles, and untold numbers of signatures 
in hotel registers in various cities, all to the end that they 
might convince you of a nation-wide conspiracy to destroy 
property and that they might cast the odium of it upon the 
American labor movement. They have labored in vain for 
many weeks to make it appear that the lockout in Los Angeles 
during the year of 1910 was directly connected with the war 
between the Steel Trust and the International Bridge and 
Structural Iron Workers. 

Without an understanding of the struggle between these 
two powers you will be confused by the testimony and you 
cannot intelligently proceed to a verdict in this case. 

For years prior to 1906 the Structural Iron Workers had 
been striving to better their condition. Ten hours a day was 
the sentence pronounced upon them. The dangers of this 
most dangerous occupation became even more perilous toward 
the end of the long hours, when the body and nerve weakened 
under the heavy burden and on the dizzy heights. One by 
one they lost their balance and plunged headlong into the 
grave below. The death roll became appalling. The guardian 
angel was never present. They fell from cathedrals and banks, 
from blocks and towers alike, whether they were building 
for God or for Mammon. The only voices they heard was 

the demand for long hours, low wages, hard work, and this 
came from the iron jaws of the Steel Trust. Their homes were 
poorly furnished, their children indifferently educated, their 
wives were clothed in calico and cheapest cotton, they went 
to their work shivering and insufficiently clad. Why should 
they not struggle to better their condition? Are we not all in 
the same struggle? Are you not struggling, at your trades, on 
your ranches and in your business callings, to better your 
condition? And shall these men be forbidden the common 
heritage? Shall they sink, sink, sink, into a state unfit for 
a slave? 

And tell me for what was the Steel Trust struggling? Was 
it for food and raiment with which to feed their loved ones 
at home? Far from it. Their tables were laden with silver, 
filled with milk and honey and sweetmeats; their homes were 
palaces adorned with rugs, and ebony and gold tapestry, 
while their families were robed in silks and satins and be- 
decked with diamonds, and the doors of the greatest colleges 
of the land were open to their children. 

No! No! The owners of the Steel Trust were not struggling 
to earn comforts for their families, but they were struggling 
for larger profits, more power, with which to enforce low wages 
and long hours and to gorge their greed. 

Again I ask, why should not these iron workers fight for 
food and raiment, fight for their wives, their little ones, and 
their homes? 

No one knows or ever will know the suffering and privation 
these men endured during the long years of this terrible labor 
war. On the one hand stood the billion-dollar Steel Trust. 
On the other stood thousands of men bound together by their 
mutual interests, their necessities and their affections. The 
means of warfare was the lockout and the boycott employed 
by the trust. And the strike was employed by the men. 

A number of large erection and construction companies 
dependent upon and working with the Steel Trust were og- 
ganized and operating in all the large cities of the land. So 
long as these companies worked independently the efforts of 
the iron workers were crowned with some degree of success. 
The measure of success with which they met inspired in them 
a confidence in their power and a hope of better days and 
rallied them all into a solid phalanx, determined to reduce 
their working hours and to increase their wages. They were 
the attacking force. They must force their wages up or for- 
ever live like slaves. Every increase of wages increased their 
power. Every hour cut off increased their hope. And every 
increase of power and hope added numbers to their ranks to 
help them fight their winning battle. 

As the years rolled by the bitter war went on, with work- 
ing hours decreasing and wages increasing, until the year 1906. 
In the early part of that year the United States Steel Trust, 
the great American Octopus, stretched out its terrible arms 
and gatheied together all the steel erection and construction 
companies in ihe United States and forced upon them a penalty 
of "no submission, no steel," to refuse to deal directly or 
indirectly with the International Bridge and Iron Workers' 
Union. You will remember that Mr. R. D. Jones from Utah, 
witness ior the state, testified in effect that his company was 
forced to run an open shop — that the Steel Trust would not 
sell them steel unless that condition was strictly complied with. 

By means of the resolution adopted in 1906 these companies 
were formed into an association. Among other things the 

Page twelve 

The Western Cor 

resolution provided that no member of the association should 
recognize or deal with any union; that all losses sustained by 
reason of such refusal on the part of the company would be 
borne by the association. 

This policy, if carried out, meant the ruin of the Iron 
Workers' Union. What chance would a poor, helpless man 
have without the support of an organization when confronted 
with such a power? In such a case there can be no agree- 
ment. The man can only submit; he does not consent. The 
minds do not meet. There is not a single element of an agree- 
ment present in such a transaction. There is rebellion in his 
mind, ever present, when he submits and goes to work. Why 
does he not quit? Why does not the cry for bread of his 
hungry children cease ringing in his ear? Necessity knows 
no law. It drives him on into a dark and helpless future. 

it may be that, during some time in your lives, some of 
you men have been members of unions. If so, you fully realize 
that the union is the only power that prevents wages from 
being reduced to the point upon which men can barely sub- 
sist — that those who do not belong to the union, as well as 
the union men, reap the benefit of the higher rate established 
by the efforts of the organizations. 

Again I say that if the policy of the open shop were univer- 
sally adopted the union, with all the advantages it has delivered 
to the worker, would pass away. Every applicant for work 
would receive the same answer: "We are paying two dollars 
to two twenty-five for a ten-hour work day ; no extra for over- 
time. Plenty of takers! Want the job?" The helpless man 
would bow his neck to the yoke and go to work. Overtime 
was eagerly sought, not because these workers strove to lay 
up money, but because ten hours at two dollars or two twenty- 
five is not sufficient to provide the family with the necessities 
of life. Long hours and low pay were, therefore, the rule 
when the struggle of the iron workers began in the East, as 
well as in the city of Los Angeles, in the year of 1910 before 
the lockout occurred. 

WOOLWINE — That is not according to the evidence. 

HARRIMAN — Oh. yes, it is. Turn to Mr. Grow's evidence, 
Mr. McKenzie, and read it to him. 

McKENZIE — (Reading from manuscript) "The wage for 
structural work here was TlYi cents an hour and no extra 
pay for overtime." 

HARRIMAN — Are you satisfied, Mr. Woolwine? 

WOOLWINE — Beg your pardon for interrupting. 

HARRIMAN — Your pardon is granted and your memory 

Ten hours' work for two dollars and twenty-five cents. 
Would you, though already exhausted, have worked overtime 
if the welfare of your family had been at stake? Knowing 
the dangers to life and limb at great heights, especially when 
the body and nerves are already strained with overwork, would 
you have added hours to cover the deficits at home? And do 
I hear you say no? Then what would you have done? Quit 
the job? Ah! listen! The cry of little children comes from 
your home. What would you do? You would do the only 
thing left to do — you would join with your fellows and strike 
for better wages and shorter hours. 

The issue of wages and hours is the point at which the 
line of every great industrial battle is drawn. The hosts seek- 
ing profits are arrayed on the one side of the wages and hours 
line, and the hosts of breadwinners on the other. In this great 
industrial battle in the East, the Steel Trust, together with the 
Erectors' Association, was struggling to force the wages down 
and the hours up, while the union men were endeavoring to 
force the hours down and the wages up. This is the line of 

battle and the prosecution may as well face the fact. Equivo- 
cation will not avail them. This prosecution is not conducted, 
as they would lead you to believe, for the purpose of con- 
victing a few so-called conspirators. This prosecution is con- 
ducted for the purpose of undermining the labor movement 
of America. 

Two dollars and a quarter a day and nothing extra for 
overtime, is the demand of the Steel Trust! What answer 
could the individual make to this demand? It is the demand 
of the powerful master to the slave. If he refuses to work 
the master lays on the lash of hunger and turns the wolves 
loose to howl at his door. 

You men of the jury must admit that the labor unions are 
the only power that stands between the weak and helpless 
individual and the billion-dollar Steel Trust, together with the 
powerful Erectors' Association. Disband the labor organiza- 
tions or conduct the open shop, which is the equivalent, and 
you open the way for greed to afflict this country with a 
terrible disaster — a disaster so far-reaching and so searching 
that it ferrets out and grips every man who lives by the 
sweat of his brow — a disaster that means poverty, and ignor- 
ance, and corruption, and despair. 

Yet the Steel Trust commanded the steel erecting and con- 
structing companies of the United States to pass and enforce 
with all their power a resolution — that is, to enter into and 
force a mutual agreement — that they, or any one of them, 
would not deal, directly or indirectly, with the labor union; 
that they would only hire men as they came; that, in so far 
as they were concerned, there should be no labor union; and 
that there should be no organized power to fight to better 
working conditions. Only the individual man, standing alone, 
shall have the privilege of selling himself at whatever price 
those who wish to buy shall place upon him. His poverty 
and degradation shall be measured by the greed of the power- 
ful, and the luxuries of the powerful shall be limited only by 
their temptations. 

That this is the ripe fruit of an open-shop system there 
can be no doubt. 

That the destruction of the labor unions and the establish- 
ment of the open shop is the purpose of this prosecution, 
and not the prosecution of a few so-called conspirators, there 
can be no question. Time and time again it was testified 
upon this stand by members of the Erectors' Association that 
they would not deal with labor organizations; that they all 
ran an open shop; that they would not even negotiate nor 
confer with labor organizations; that they had not dealt with 
labor organizations since 1906; and that since the year 1906 
thev only hired and dealt with laborers individually. 

Notwithstanding the long and bitter struggle previous to this 
strike, there was never any violence commited until after this 
soulless resolution was passed in 1906 — no violence until the 
greedy corporations endeavored to deal the death blow to 
the International Bridtre and Structural Iron Workers. 

True, there was a little testimony concerning one or two 
instances, but that testimony was wholly unworthy of belief or 
consideration. It flowed from the perjured lips of felons like 
the poisonous fumes of hell. 

There were four of these felons employed or in some way 
bribed or induced by the state to testify for the prosecution. 
There was Dugan of Indianapolis, Davis of Massachusetts, 
Clark of Cincinnati, and McManigal. These principal wit- 
nesses for the state were all guilty of capital crimes, each 
endeavoring to perjure this defendant's life away for his 
own liberty. 

(To be continued next month) 

The Western Comrade 

Page thirteen 

Triumph of Theory Over Practice ?l 

Cameron H. King 

HE Emergency National Convention was held under 

T extraordinary circumstances and worked under an 
especial tension. It is therefore partly to be excused 

for its failures. But at the same time it exhibited the 

faults of the Socialist Party organization behind it. Of ora- 
torical talent there was plenty. Of theoretical discrimination 
there was a surfeit. Of political insight, of constructive capa- 
city, there was a lamentable deficiency. 

Since the beginning of the European war there has raged 
among Socialist Party theoreticians a terrible controversy as 
to the relative importance of the economic, political, diplomat- 
ic and dynastic causes of the war. These theorists, numbering 
in their ranks our most prominent comrades, came to the con- 
vention imbued with the idea that its most important business 
was to decide by majority vote which group was scentifically 
correct. So, immediately upon arriving in St. Louis, they 
dug trenches and began assailing each other with conversa- 
tional gas attacks and oratorical curtain fire. As an inevitable 
result the delegates' attention was practically confined to the 
discussion of such questions as "Have the workers a country? 
and "Shall we oppose all wars, offensive and defensive, now 
and forever, world without end. Amen?" Much learning and 
acuteness, also some ignorance and stupidity, were displayed 
in the debate on these burning theoretical questions. But it 
submerged almost completely the practical political situation, 
the emergency that still confronts us, which is, "Here is war! 
What are you going to do about it?" 

The delegates took the attitude of endeavoring to prove to 
the party membership that they were "Scientific Socialists," 
rather than the attitude of workingmen trying to build a po- 
litical organization for the protection and advancement of 
their class interests. "This is the right theory. This is scien- 
tific," was the burden of most speeches. Those who argued 
"This is politically expedient. This will gather the biggest 
working class political force," spoke an unknown tongue. So 
far as they were understood, they were misunderstood and 
damned for opportunistic heretics who would sacrifice principle 
for mere politics. 

And yet the real problem was not the production of a 
scholarly essay on war, but the organization of the opposition 
to war and conscription, the detailing of a program of con- 
structive work to alleviate the misery and suffering resulting 
from military operations and to organize the food and other 
supplies for the protection of the civil population. The weak- 
ness of the convention declaration lies not merely in its pre- 
liminary essay, which is good in the main, but in a program 
that is essentially negative. The failure of the convention was 
that it gave practically no time to considering the methods 
and program of action in this crisis, but it devoted three days 
to considering theories about how the crisis arose. Surely 
the heights of political incapacity are not far away from the 
convention plateau. 

In dealing with the recommendation of the committee on 
constitution to liberalize the "penal code" of the party which 
now prohibits members choosing a liberal in preference to a 
reactionary where there is no Socialist candidate, the same 
domination of theory, pure and simple, was denioi:.;trated. 
Practically every state that has had experience with non-par- 
tisan and second election laws finds that its members, in large 
numbers, refuse to be disfranchised when the Socialist can- 
didates fail to get by the primary. In hundreds of instances 

issues of local importance remain to be determined after the 
party candidate is eliminated. In some cases vital battles in 
the great class struggle put the Socialist candidate in the an- 
omalous position of dividing the working class vote and throw- 
ing the election to the arch-representative of the capitalists. 
Facts were told to the theorists who dominated the convention, 
but they smothered those facts with the phrase "that ail other 
parties and candidates are necessarily capitalist parties and 
candidates and there is nothing to choose between them." 
They voted to retain the penal code in all its rigor, despite the 
appeals made by such comrades as our National Secretary 
Adolf Germer, Jos. Cannon, Dan Hogan of Arkansas, Anna 
Maley, John C. Kennedy and George Goebel. But they don't 
really mean it. They were challenged to expel those who 
had violated their blue laws, but refused to take up the chal- 
lenge. In truth, the facts dazed them and, while not ready 
to enforce their criminal statutes, they are hanging on to them 
until their vision clears again and they can decide what change 
really must be made. 

This review of the convention may seem severe. But the 
situation is not hopeless. There was a tremendous devotion, a 
splendid enthusiasm and earnestness in the membership of the 
convention. Their real fault is in the position which they 
have permitted to grow up around them. They have been cut 
off from the daily contact with the work of the organized 
working class in a large measure. They have not had con- 
stantly to test theories in the crucible of practical action. If 
the movement can be brought down and safely rooted in the 
facts of economic and political life the talents of the com- 
rades at St. Louis will go far toward creating an irresistible and 
a fundamentally revolutionary force in American life. 

Five and Fifty 

If fifty men did all the work 

And gave the price to five. 
And let those five make all the rules — 
You'd say the fifty men were fools. 

Unfit to be alive. 

And if you heard complaining cries 

From fifty brawny men. 
Blaming the five for graft and greed. 
Injustice, cruelty indeed — 

What would you call them then? 

Not by their own superior force 

Do five on fifty live. 
But by election and assent. 
And privilege and government — 

Powers that the fifty give. 

If fifty men are really fools. 

And five have all the brains. 
The five must rule as now we find; 
But if the fifty have the mind — 

Why don't they take the reins? 

— The Forerunner. 

Page fourteen 


The Western Comrade 

Radicals or Fetish-Worshippers ^^ "• ^^^ 



IRTH, growth and death — ths inevitable law of all 
nature — applies with relentless and unvarying force. 
Organizations are not exempt from its workings. 
From protista to primate, from atomic to astral, 
from individual to social, the law operates impartially. 

The radical, whose belief was born of science, at times 
seems to forget the workings of its impersonal parent. 

Organization is essential to progress. Yet every help be- 
comes a hindrance when misapplied or when a newer tool is 
required. We tend to worship organization more than pro- 
gress. Humanity ever has created masters instead of servants. 
Indeed, the pathway to democracy is strewn with golden calves 
and misspent generations in the wilderness of serving institu- 
tions created by the people. 

By this we see the same state of barbarism as of old today 
marks the condition of mankind. The barbarian is essentially 
a fetish-worshipper. While in every age the esoteric circle 
broke through the darkness of form into the liberty of the 
truth portrayed in the form, the masses have bowed — and do 
still — along with most of their "practical" leaders, before 

Yes, we are a race of fetish-worshippers. Laugh not at the 
man who carries a potato in his pocket to ward off rheumatism 
or at our darker brother who sees in the left posterior appen- 
dage of Brer' Rabbit a propitious omen. 

Radicals, "advanced and serious thinkers" in general, no 
longer worship state constitutions and potentates. Religious 
dogmas they question, and topple from their lofty pedestals 
the enshrined heroes of exploitation and oppression. Yet 
many have made but this one step. The worship has been 
transferred merely to different idols. 

Does your organization serve you, or do you serve your 

Are you still the fetish worshipper, bowing in slavery to your 
own faiths, philosophical systems, party constitutions, ballots, 
and such "scraps of paper," attaching a superstitious and un- 
warranted importance to these? Or are you employing these 
useful and necessary tools AS TOOLS for the construction 
of a world-wide democracy of co-operation? 

Let us look for a moment at the meaning of the act when 
any group of individuals organize for the advancement of 

society. Human society has moved forward with much the 
same movement as an amoeba. This one-celled animal re- 
sponds to its economic environment by pushing out finger-like 
processes from any part of its body to surround whatever food 
lies closest in its microcosm. 

Society, too, has advanced irregularly through the leader- 
ship of little minorities — thinkers who pushed out from the 
mediocre majority to surround some tiny morsel in the infinite 
ocean of truth. In this "absorbing" pursuit too many find 
satiety and insist that their tiny mote of truth is the open 
sesame to the portals of emancipation. 

Every organization contains within itself an inherent ten- 
dency to become static, whereas society is ever dynamic. Here 
is the source of much of the difficulty of social effort. 

Even as we grasp (relatively) truth in the light of today's 
experience, new events demand a readjustment of our esti- 
mates — a readjustment which creeds, constitutions and organ- 
izations make difficult. 

I see an evil in social alignment. By uniting with similarly 
sighted individuals, a machine — a tool — is formed through 
which to propagate the light and lead to further light.- We have 
taken a cross section of the stream of evolution, studied it 
and examined many details in the laboratory of our own or- 
ganization — forgetting all the while that the stream flows ever 
onward, gathering strength and meaning on the way. 

In consternation we cry out for evolution to work itself out 
in accordance with our particular plans. We want evolution 
to work with us instead of reversing the process. We tend to 
forget that "the bird of time is on the wing." With various 
brands of radical salt we set out to decorate the tail of the 
fleeing social bird. 

Organization from the earliest development of mankind has 
tended, after the first warm enthusiasm, to attach importance 
to itself per se — to rest on the laurels of past achievement. 
The members tend to drop the scientific attitude for the or- 
thodox. Within human limitations no other fate is possible 
for an organization. The movement is ever forward. The 
organization, after the highwater mark of achievement, is ever 

Death — new births — death — birth. The cycle goes ever 
round so far as individuals are concerned. The individual 

Lots of willing workers at the Industrial School. Note the teamster, showing equality of sexes as well as equal suffrage at Llano. They 

will have lots to do with harvesting the garden produce this summer. 

The Western Comrade 


Page fifteen 

One of the new tractors bringing in lumber and cement. Both of the trailers were built at Llano. Th< 
fc, . , _ ^ road built to the timber in the mountains south of the Colony. 

e engine is now being used on 

dies; the species is perpetuated through the ages. Aeons see 
the species disappear; hfe continues. The single organiza- 
tion exists only to advance the ever-upward movement of 

Nor is one cause alone the corner-stone of evolution. 

Countless forces act, interact and react in the ramifying 
maze of our social fabric. The resultant force is the measure 
of human development. 

The rationalist has been designated as one "who is re- 
ligiously irreligious." Other brands of radicalism tend like- 
wise to adopt a faith to prove, living in the glories of the 
fathers of their movements, forgetting the spirit of these old 
leaders. So do members of other groups of people. It is a 
natural and (seemingly) inevitable working of psychological 

Any radical group in its youthful days begins work on a 
new social fabric. About the time they get the foundation 
laid the builders begin to pay more attention to the variety 
of bricks than to the nature of the structure. They also see 
others employed on the job under the inspiration of different 
philosophical fathers. Instead of all laboring together, there is 
a tendency — attributable to worship of the fetish of "iVrV" 
organization as an end in life — for each group to build about 
themselves a great wall, windowless and doorless, defying any 
others to enter. So, instead of a great social structure, built 
by divers workers, there is danger of a large nnmber of these 
one-room prisons of progress. 

I say this is a danger. Perhaps I should say it is a hin- 
drance. For there are always rebels among rebels who are 
ready to grasp the red flag of the revolution from its resting 
place to carry it forivard. 

Come-outism is the saving ferment of radicalism, rescuing 
it from the stagnation of static organization. 

Hosea and the ancient prophets illustrate the point. These 
rebels thundered against the ecclesiastical and political ex- 
ploiters of their day. Their followers of other generations 
worshipped them, but forgot their spirit of revolt. 

So, today, we hear much of Jeffersonian democracy, Marx- 
ian Socialism, Georgian philosophy, etc., but see all too little 
of the scientific spirit and independent attitude of the founders 
of these systems. 

When The Great Adventure was launched in California to 

restore the land to the people there were authoritarians in the 
ranks of the Socialist Party and the Single Tax groups who 
objected because they felt the methods and some of the phases 
of the proposed law were not quite up to the orthodox Marxian 
and Georgian standards. 

There were come-outers in each organization and in other 
groups and among the free-lances and the masses when the 
message reached them. They swept the foggyism of dying 
worshippers aside. 

Conservatism is the price we must pay for any set form. 
Growth means change. Constitutions, forms, and rules, while 
essential — or at least often convenient — are to some degree 
hindering forces. At the best they should be elastic and 
relative, not binding — made for use and not for their own 
sake. There is nothing sacred in form and method. Results 
alone count. 

Radicalism needs a careful, critical self-examination today. 
We see the prominent groups standing pat in large measure, 
while individuals within are breaking over the barrers to unite, 
as in the Great Adventure and the International Workers' De- 
fense Leagues functioning over the nation. 

Do not overlook the fact that these men and women are 
functioning in new groups as individuals and not as representa- 
tives of the old groups. These older organizations must 
emerge from the philosophies of the past into the actuality 
of the present if they are to continue to function as revolution- 
ary movements. 

Why worry if they do not so long as those within them are 
active? Let us cease to be fetish-worshippers. Let us cease to 
worry over any particular organization or group. The im- 
portant matter is that there shall be organized effort. Let 
us not forget the end through adoration of the means. 

There is scant place in radicalism for the doctrinaire, the 
lover of constitutions and fixed authority, the over-organized, 
the orthodox, the timid, the imitator, the "practical" man. 
The hope lies in the rebel, the come-outer, the dreamer, the 
inspired lunatic, who plunges into the streat adventures of 
revolution free and untrammeled bv creeds, constitutions and 
by-laws of his own or any others' making. 

[Comrade Bobspa is quite well known to the readers of radical publica- 
tions from his book reviews. The Western Comrade is glad to announce 
that the book reviews will be among the good things the Comrade will 
be able to offer its readers. Page 23 carries Bobspa's first contribution.] 

Page sixteen 


Llano del Rio Colony Adds * 

NE of the most important land transactions 
in the history of the Llano del Rio Colony 
was finished late in April when Comrade 
Harriman, as president of the Llano del Rio 
Company, signed the necessary papers which trans- 
ferred to the Colony's holdings 2750 acres of land 
in the southwestern portion of the San Joaquin 
Valley. The land is a few miles from Wasco, about 
thirty miles from Bakersfield, and is agricultural land. 
This is the first large tract acquired not con- 
tiguous or nearly contiguous to the original holdings 
in the Big Rock Irrigation District. With the acquis- 
ition of this land, the Llano del Rio Colony will be 
able to make its first step in the plan to develop lands 
in districts where products can be raised that can 
not be profitably grown in Llano. 

The land is rich and productive. This district has 
lagged behind most of the San Joaquin Valley in 
agricultural development, having been held in large 
tracts used mainly as cattle ranges. It lies within the 
semi-tropic belt, and is excellent for such fruits as 
grapes, olives, figs, with the possibility that lemons 
and oranges may be grown here to advantage. Al- 
falfa also produces heavily. 

The new land undoubtedly lies within the oil belt 
of Central California, and as soon as arrangements 
can be made, drilling for oil will commence. An ex- 
perimental well was started on this property several 
years ago, but capital was insufficient and it was 
abandoned. However, it was sunk far enough so that 
gas was struck, and for some time engines were op- 
erated with this convenient fuel. 

Another well on the Kern lands developed hot 
water, offering some special possibilities of com- 
mercialization along the lines of establishing a sani- 
tarium. This is an artesian well and gives a good 
flow. Irrigation in this district is by means of wells. 
Sixteen wells are already drilled on the new Colony 
holdings. Work will commence just as soon as it can 
be arranged, and the task of developing the big 
ranch will be hurried as rapidly as is practicable. 

Of course, no definite plans have been made for 
cropping the new ranch, as the final details of the big 
transaction were finished but a few days ago. How- 
ever, as this is one of the finest fruit districts of 
California, it has been suggested that a great vine- 
vard be set out. Since the grape growers of Cali- 
fornia have become organized co-operatively, this 
has become a well-stabilized business and offers bet- 
ter opportunities than almost any other field. 

Peaches, apricots, prunes, plums, figs, olives, also 
do well in this district, and large acreages of them 
will probably be put out as soon as possible. As a 
pear, anole, and cherry district it does not offer any 
possibilities, but the Antelope Valley holdings of the 
Colony are of the very best for this purpose. 

The pew land is about seven hours' travel by auto- 
mobile from Llano, with excellent road most of the 
way. The intention is to establi.'^h a camp there where 
men and horses may be housed, and then to farm it 


How We Live a 

HAT does it cost to live at Llano? 

WHow do your prices compare with those at other places? 
How is the high cost of living affecting the comrades at the Colony? 

What effect will the war have upon the Llano Community and the 

cost of living there? 

These are a few of the questions that pour in daily from interested com- 
rades all over the country. 

Our answer frequently has been a general statement that we buy at the 
lowest wholesale prices and sell to ourselves at cost plus freight; that we do 
not overcharge or exploit ourselves; that we arrive at the cost of our own 
products and sell to ourselves at the lowest price and that we have the human 
trait of wanting to be kind to ourselves. 

In considering the comparative cost of living at Llano with that of the 
outside, we should not overlook the item of rent. Just deduct that item from 
the living cost — if you live at Llano. 

Then eliminate the cost of social service. What's that? Well, your doctor's 
bill, the nurse's bill, the dentist's bill, the cost of 
social amusements, education and incidental cost 
of social life. All this comes under social service 
and is free. 

Then you pay water rates. Cut that item off. 
You may not have hot and cold running water in 
your sink, but you will have no monthly water 
bill nor will you have it even when it comes piped 
in the new permanent houses. 

There are no telephones in the private houses, 
though we have excellent service to the outside. 
No telephone bill. 

At present the illumination is by kerosene or 
gasoline lamps. Electricity is used in the machine 
shop on night shifts and at the dances and enter- 
tainments. We have, of course, no gas or electric 
light bills. Taxes on all property owned by the 
corporation are looked after by the officials and 
no trouble ever comes to the colonist from this 
source. Officials of the corporation work most 
harmoniously with the county, state and national 

Under the genera! heading of social service 
come all amusements, sports, pastimes, dances, 
and entertainments. These, with all educational 
facilities, are free. 

Now we will grow more specific. In giving fig- 
ures showing prices of some commodities in the 
' outside world," we take Chicago prices because 
it is the greatest food supply city in the world and 
because prices are lower there than in most parts 
of the country. Even these prices are conservative 
because the prices are higher in the wealthier 
parts of the city and in those parts where the 
verv poor live and buy in small quantities. 

Llano products are pure and put up for home 
consumption. Our butter is unexcelled because. 

Table of Corriaiat 




Gran. Sugar 






Beans, Navy 

Beans, Lima 

Peas, Dried 




Can. Tomatoes 

Can. Corn 





Pork chops 

Beef steak 

Mutton chops 

Fresh trout 







Page seventeen 

2750 Acres to Its Holdings 

St tie 
we (Jo 




Llano !l 

Frank E. Wolfe 


rative Prices 

Chicago Llano 
Ap/l? Ap;i7 

$0.53 $0.35 
.42 .— 



Vi .11 
) .25 
Wi .20 
\Vi .18 

10.50 .... 
.10 .... 
.06 .... 

.06 .... 


.10 Z. 

.12 .... 




.02 .... 

.02 ... 




an outside storekeeper once said, we "don't know how to cheat." 
The table on this page gives the cost of products at Chicago in April, 1916, 
Vpril, 1917, anl in Llano in 1917. 
In Chicago soap is 25 per cent higher, all cereals are 50 per cent higher. 
No quotations are given on vinegar, cider, or honey. Our present prices 
lire: Cider 40c a gallon, vinegar 40c a gallon. Honey at Llano is quoted 
Comb honey 15c, extracted honey 7/2C, and this is the highest quality 
)ure sage honey. These are pure Llano products. We will have twenty 
ons of honey this season. That cuts down the sugar bill for Llanoites. 
How do the prices at your grocery compare vvith those at Llano? 
We will have over 120 acres in garden and we will keep it coming. Our 
vinter garden will be extended. Our potatoes are coming fine. We will have 
i greatly increased supply of fruit and in larger variety. We are preparing 
to enlarge our cannery. We are fortifying and entrenching. 

We are preparing for the future. The war situation changed our plans in 
only one way; it made us come to a quick decision to produce more food 

and more feed. We may be forced to other ad- 
justments, but in no other place can the people 
make as quick an adjustment as at Llano. An 
hour's notice — less, at certain times — is sufficient 
to bring the demanded action. 

At the General Assembly April 18th a motion 
was made that Llano set the clock ahead one hour. 
Then came quick discussion, speeches were short, 
pointed, but always constructive. Objections were 
trivial, almost humorous. "We wall use the sun- 
light." "We will beat the Western hemisphere by 
advancing to the European point of efficiency." 
"We will add an hour to our day, and use it for 
education, amusement, recreation and 'joy of 
life.' " These were the arguments and they pre- 
vailed. The vote was virtually unanimous. 

"When will we set the clock?" "Will it be 
next Saturday or Monday?" These questions were 
met with a rather startling shout from all over the 
hall: "No, no! Do it now!" That settled it. The 
affirmative vote was by acclamation and Comrade 
L. H. Miller, the Dean of the Colony, whose flow- 
ing beard and snowy hair made a picture of Father 
Time, set the clock ahead. This brought a brief, 
solemn speech from the ubiquitous wag that "the 
hour grows late and we should adjourn." 

Llano acts in concert. The spirit of solidarity 
grows. Whether the question be food supply or be 
it any emergency, we can act within an hour. The 
efficiency commission has wrought wonders in a 
few weeks. Departments are co-ordinating more. 
Food prices and regulations will be watched vvnth 
great care. Economy and system govern the com- 
missary. Every department manager is striving his 

How does this compare with your hodge-podge 
out there in the cut-throat competition? 

as huge ranches are usually farmed, with a competent 
superintendent in charge. No attempt will be made to 
found a city there. It will be purely a subsidiary of 
the Llano Colony, owned and controlled by it. Men 
will be shifted back and forth as they are required. 

Many visitors, and even many residents, have failed 
to grasp the bigness of the Llano plan. They have 
failed to see further than just what is here at Llano. 
They have mistaken the plans of the Llano organiza- 
tion as being confined to this particular spot. 

But Llano is merely the beginning. It is the dem- 
onstration spot. It is the place the colonists have 
selected to begin showing what co-operation can 
achieve. It is expected that many thousands of acres 
of Antelope Valley lands will be added to the Llano 
holdings here, but by no means are they to be con- 
fined to Llano alone. 

Now the first step out has been made. A huge 
tract of nearly 3000 acres has been acquired in the 
San Joaquin Valley, perhaps 200 miles from Llano, 
yet within easy reach. Where will the next one be? 
Do you catch the vision of what it means to be a 
member of the Llano del Rio Company? Not Llano 
alone, but Llano repeated, multiplied, the Llano idea 
carried irresistibly throughout the West, conquering 
prejudice, spreading hope, extending the co-operative 

From the beginning three years ago with only a 
few acres near the present town of Llano to holdings 
that take in thousands of acres in the Big Rock Irri- 
gation District and contiguous territory and have now 
been extended over a range of mountains and into 
another great fertile valley, is a notable achievement. 

This is a day of tremendous interest in land, es- 
pecially farming land. With the entire world clamor- 
ing for food, with the governments of most of the 
great nations of the world looking toward the United 
States for food supply, the acquiring of these great 
tracts of land bv the Llano del Rio Co-operative Col- 
onv takes on additional interest. 

Llano will be able to take care of her own people 
and to take care of them royally. In a few years 
most of the products consumed will be Llano-pro- 
duced. There is no reason why suitable lands cannot 
be acquired for every material and food that will be 
needed by Llano people. 

The eyes of the radical and progressive thinkers, 
whether Socialist or otherwise, are being turned 
Llano-ward. Opportunity is greater for this com- 
munity than ever before. With three years of steady 
progress and substantial building standing as a record 
of achievement by which the progress of the future 
development mav be judged, Llano can confidently 
offer to those who believe in the practice as well as 
the theory of co-operation something satisfying and 

On Llano's third birthday she is able to announce 
the first large outside purchase. Are you prophet 
enough to say what the announcement of two, five» 
or seven years more may be? 


Page eighteen 


e c n a ni c s 

The Western Comrade 

^^J^^ P^ ^[^ By L. W. Millsap, Jr. 

IHF.SR three little letters do not look very dangerous 
' I ' here, but when we study carefully the aifairs of today 

X we find that most of the misery and suffering which 

we see around us are inseparably connected with 

them. This discovery is not new by any means, but the 
study of that connection is interesting from any angle and 
there are always new developments. 

Man seems to have been unfortunate throughout his whole 
career, and he has not been entirely to blame for it either. 
Nature, entirely without his consent, provided him vnth the 
faculties of curiosity and ambition — in short, with a mind — and 
she also gave him two hands with which to experiment. Worse 
than this, she trained him to stand up on his hind legs and 
leave those hands perfectly free to get into trouble. 

This was an awful responsibility to place on the shoulders 
of any creature, and it is not surprising that man has done 
no better than he has. He has had to learn, and the way 
has been long and painful. 

He began to use those hands and to feel of Nature's raw 
material. In that way he acquired knowledge as our Mon- 
tessori children do, though his way was crude and painful. 
He felt rocks, learned through experience that they would 
crush his fingers, but after much pain and many accidents 
found he could roll them together to fashion a shelter to pro- 
tect himself from storms. He took hold of tree limbs and 
found they would bend and spring, but in his experiments 
they sprung back and hit him. It was painful, but it started 
a train of thought which ended in the construction of the 
bow and arrow. He found that wood could be cut into sharp 
splinters, and about the first use he could put them to was 
thrusting them through his own flesh — through his ears, nose, 
lips, etc. — but in so doing he got ideas. 

He discovered fire. His curiosity caused him burned hands, 
but he gradually obtained fixed and correct ideas concerning 
fire. In much the same way he learned the use of metals, 
the pain of cut fingers finally teaching him truths that have 
been immensely beneficial to the race. He first hurt himself, 
then hurt his neighbors intentionally, with his new-found tool. 
Eventually they got together and made the valuable discovery 
serve them both by bringing greater comfort instead of 
greater misery. 

Every discovery followed the same rule,, and it follows it 
today. Man has turned every discovery against himself first, 
then against his neighbors until the effects were well-known, 
then together they have used it to the advantage of both. 
What he has done singly he has also done collectively. Steam, 
electricity, gasoline, explosives, transportation machinery, fly- 
ing machinery, printing machinery, motion pictures, micro- 
scopes — in fact, anything we might mention — has been used 
by man against himself, until we come back to where we 
started, to the consideration of R. P. M. 

R. P. M. is an abbreviation used in mechanical parlance 
meaning revolutions per minute, and this, of course, helps 
determine the results. 

At first all machines were hand machines and were operat- 
ed by turning cranks. The term R. P. M. was not used very 
much at this time. 

Then came foot-power machinery and the R. P. M. in- 
creased. This seemed to be the right thing to do, but we must 
remember that ages ago before this it seemed the right thing 
for man to put his hand into the fire, and when he began to 

increase the R. P. M. of machinery he was destined to make 
a more startling discovery than he did in the first instance. 

It has not been so many years back that man got the fever 
to increase the R. P. M. of his machinery, and at the present 
time that fever is at its height. Man throughout the world 
is suffering the supreme agony of his experiments along that 
line, and at the same time he is beginning slowly to realize 
that he can use increased R. P. M. to his advantage just 
as easily as he can destroy himself with it and that it is not 
nearly so painful. It is exactly the same as when his primi- 
tive ancestor found that he could use fire to warm his hands, 
instead of using it to burn his fingers. 

When man had arrived at the age of hand and foot power 
machinery he had just reached a point where he could con- 
vert Nature's raw materials into a form that he could use and 
do it without much effort or loss of time on his part. Then 
he discovered that Nature's forces — heat, electricity, and light 
— could be harnessed to turn that machinery. 

This discovery looked so promising that his enthusiasm knew 
no bounds, and when he saw Nature's forces turning machinery 
and producing necessities it fascinated him to such an extent 
that he thought all his problems were solved, and so eager 
was he to increase the revolutions per minute and turn out 
more product that he became a slave to the fascination 
and entirely lost sight of the fact that his needs were supplied 
and that he could rest on his oars, so to speak. 

He was feverishly eager to produce more and more and 
more. All of Nature's raw material must be secured and 
turned into finished product. Every source of natural power 
must be secured and developed. Material in astonishing quan- 
tities was converted into productive machinery as well as 
product, and the vast sources of power were harnessed to it 
with the constant aim to increase the R. P. M., until the in- 
dustrial world became one mad, feverish rush to produce, 
produce, produce. 

What is the result? Nature is still wise. Man forgot that 
Nature had provided for future generations as well as the 
present and had stored her treasures in the form in which 
they kept the best. Man prepares material for his own use, 
but if he does not use it Nature eventually converts it back 
into the raw state; and there is no escape from this law. 
One way or another Nature will accomplish her purpose. 

What was man to do with the increasing product of indus- 
trial machinery? He could not consume it, hence it was nec- 
essary to market it. This fact enabled the more highly 
developed nations to force their product on the nations 
inferior in this respect. But no sooner had this occurred than 
they, too, began to make inroads on Nature's storehouses and 
to pile up product they could not consume. Advertising was 
developed and speed-up systems applied to them. Poor blind 
humanity! All it could see was SPEED. Man was delirious 
with R. P. M. fever and rushed on, until now, instead of op- 
plying the abbreviation R. P. M. to the movements of mach- 
inery, it can be applied to the movements of nations and to 
the movements of groups of humanity! 

Revolutions are the talk of the hour. We are wondering 
how many Revolutions Per Minute we will be called upon to 
witness and engage in before the cataclysm is over, but through 
it all we can see some light. 

Mankind is learning that production for use is the only plan 
that safely agrees vAih Nature's laws. 

The Western Comrade 


Page nineteen 

Liberty and Play for Baby i 

y Prudence S. Brown 

IHE good news comes to me that since reading "Con- 
cerning Babies" in the March Western Comrade sev- 
eral mothers have provided keepers for those active 
J Httle ones in the household who are just beginning 
to creep — yes, even before they had fallen over the edge of 
the bed, or tumbled down stairs, or pulled the tablecloth by the 
corner and upset the contents of said table on the floor. 
What teachable mothers! My soul takes courage. And they 
tell me the fathers helped! 

One father brought home a litde 4x4 fence hinged at the 
corners; it could be set up anywhere from the kitchen to the 
lawn or the parlor, or folded flat and set out of sight if out of 
use. He found this right on the sidewalk in front of a second- 

Llano's first houses were of canvas. Picture taken in fall of 1914. 

hand store; it cost very little. But the strange part of the 
story is he would never have seen this valuable folding fence, 
and never have known how useful it could be in his home, if 
he had not been reading the Western Comrade. 

Another very careful father says the fence is not sufficient 
protection from floor draughts, and he found a 2x4 dry goods 
box, sawed it down to the height of fifteen inches, assisted 
his wife in padding the floor and edges attractively, put on 
four-inch legs with rollers, and declares his keeper is very 
superior to the fence. My special point is the value of these 
keepers to the child's individual development and the mother's 
nerves and disposition, as well as the peace and harmony of 
the home. 

I speak of these keepers with the most profound seriousness ; 
I am sure that I am not alone in my sympathy for the already 
overtaxed mothrer, who is kept on a torturous, nervous strain 
during every waking moment of her child's life because of 
the lack of just such a convenience as a keeper for the wee 
sprite who takes delight in scattering everything, from the 
ashes in the kitchen stove to the books on the library shelves. 

The keeper organizes the child's physical activity as well as 
his mental activity. In this he keeps reasonably clean; he 
learns his first lesson in appreciation of an individual owner- 
ship and use of personal belongings. Here is his wee chair, 
his ball, his dog, etc., and no one disturbs his things. The 
slight limit to freedom is an advantage to his development in 
every way. Indeed, the keeper to the little child is quite as 
important as the individual home is to the family. 

Nothing can so effectually hurt a child's healthy growth, 
mentally and spiritually, as the constant interruptions it re- 
ceives when allowed to go freely into everything. It is for- 
ever "Come, come, baby, don't get into that," or "No, no! 
baby must not touch." What freedom is there to the child 
in what is usually called freedom? The more nearly a litde 
child can be "let alone" while he plays, the more naturally 
he will grow and develop in every way. 

Take him out of his keeper occasionally for a romp and 
change, and by all means give him some time to run or creep 
about the house, but this sort of freedom should come to him 
when father or mother is free to watch his rapid movements 
and divert his attention from forbidden corners without letting 
him feel the shock of interruption. 

This sort of care of the little one from ten months to the 
time when he can understand how to act in the home com- 
munity will establish great peace and comfort in the house- 
hold, save the baby many bumps and screams, and the mother 
many nervous shocks. 

A child's first play is nothing more or less than unconscious 
work; he puts his whole being into the effort to make or un- 
make, to take apart or put together, everything that he finds; 
he examines, studies and tries to define everything he can 
touch. He is, in short, a serious little student of life and of 
things, and he well deserves a small nook to himself, a place of 
safety and security from any sort of disturbance or intrusion. 
As parents and protectors of babies, it is our first duty to pro- 
vide an environment suitable to our little one's original re- 
search work. 

A bar could easily be made with supports that would fit over 
the keeper, upon which the pendulum balls could be swung, 
and these could be removed and the large ball for exercising 
the feet be hung in the place. As baby tires of any one toy, 
it should be placed where he cannot see it and different things 
put within his reach. That is part of the organization work. 

By one who was with Dr. Montessori last year in Spain we 
are told of a very happy device for young children. Very 
tiny tables just the height were used as the base of insets of 
varying sizes; then, wth a small chair, baby could begin the 
experiment of taking out and replacing the insets. This would 
be a beautiful game inside the keeper. 

Now I anticipate a question : What is to be done when baby 
throws everything over the top and onto the floor outside? 
Just leave them right there; he is quite intelligent enough to 

This view of Llano shows the newest section, houses being of wood. 

perceive that he has deprived himself of the pleasure of 
playing with them, quite bright enough to discover the in- 
convenience of being without toys, and will learn, if you allow 
him the opportunity, to keep them where they belong. Leave 
him quite alone to his discovery, leave him destitute of every- 
thing; finally, when he is asleep, carefully put all of these 
things away where he will not see them again for several days. 
Don't for the world pick them up and give them to him; that 
would be fatal to his discernment of cause and effect. Trust 
your baby's intelligence ; organize and observe and say very 
few words and mean what you say. 

Page twenty 


The Western Comrade 

The Thing in Itself 

By Clara Cushman 

S she washed the breakfast dishes in front of the open 

A window she had seen him creep behind the fence 
where the grapevine grew. Now, three hours later, 

he was still there. The sinewy length of him lay belly 

down, but he was not asleep. His elbows supported his bulky 
shoulders, and at intervals his hands were busy doing some- 
thing — she could not see what. A tiny circle of light played 
above him, like the reflection of the sun upon glass, one mo- 
ment dartmg hither and thither among the leaves of a neigh- 
boring peach tree and along the top of the fence, the next 
melting into the sunshine of the garden. She had read in 
one of her Sunday supplements of the amazing possibilities 
of mirror focusing. She concluded that the intruder was ma- 
nipulating a mirror with a view to obtaining a plan of her 
home; or, worse, the luminous circle might be a reflection 
from the gleaming barrel of a revolver! 

And his clothes were not reassuring. She examined him 
carefully through her late husband's field glasses. The loose 
gray trousers poorly matched the tight short-sleeved black coat 
of an ancient style, save that they, too, were of a fashion long 
since discarded. The ill clad legs and trunk only served to 
make the red sweater which she had seen him so fastidiously 
fold and lay in the cleanest grass with his cap, look the more 
brilliant and finely woven. 

She hesitated no longer. Alone in the house, with this sus- 
picious trespasser at large, she would not sleep a wink that 
night. She went to the telephone and summoned the police. 

Two officers responded to the call. 

"Now," said the first, as they viewed the intruder from the 
housewife's kitchen window, "you stay behind the tree yonder 
and watch. I can easy get the drop on him while he's layin* 
like that. And when I cover him, you come and help with 
the cuffs, if I need 'em." 

Revolver cocked, he slipped crouchingly along the outer side 
of the fence until opposite the man, when he reared himself 
cautiously. The man was gazing intently through a magni- 
fying glass. At what? Nothing, as far as the policeman 
could make out. 

"Whatcha doin' there, you?" 

The man did not turn as he 


"Watching the tendrils swing round in the sunlight. Please 
go away. I'm busy." 

"Busy! You damned hobo, you've been loafing there four 
hours. Get up and come along." 

He turned his face at this, and gazed at the officer mildly. 
His skin was dark and weather beaten, like an exquisite piece 
of tanned leather, to that point where his cap habitually rested, 
above which was a high, wide brow of almost marble pallor. 
His eyes were large, deep set and of a celestial blue, his cheek 
bones high and narrow, his shaven lips slightly tremulous, 
and his expression nobly serene. 

"Of what am I accused?" he asked. 

"Vagrancy and tresspassin'. That's private property you're 
on and you know it." He still held his revolver discreetly 
cocked, as he eyed the man's muscular body. "Get up now, 
and no monkeyin' if you don't want me to fill you full of lead." 

The man dropped the glass into his pocket and rose, stamp- 
ing his feet to rid himself of the cramp his vigil had entailed. 
"Yes, I have learned it saves time to go quietly, although I 

am neither a vagrant or a trespasser." He slipped his hand 
into his trouser pocket and produced a quarter. "There is my 
visible means of support, and, as for trespassing, the vine and 
the earth I was lying upon are mine. I inherited them." 

"Huh! Maybe you inherited a gun, too. What's that lump 
in your pocket? Keep your hands up while I look." 

But the protuberance in the pocket of his greenish black 
coat proved to be a folded razor, a cake of soap wrsvpped in 
a blue cotton handkerchief, and a handful of English walnuts. 
The officer pocketed the razor. 

The man smiled whimsically. "My toilet accessories. And 
my dinner. I dine every night at five. But come," his manner 
changing, "my time is precious." He reached for his sweater 
and cap. 

"Who'd ya inherit that fine new sweater from?" 

"Yes," he replied, "it is fine and warm. They are warmer 
when they are fine. I have learned it saves time to get them 
fine and warm, although I would rather have given a pint of 
my heart's blood than the three days of precious time I had to 
give. Three days! Thirty-six of my hours wasted, gone, just 
to keep me warm!" He threw out his arms in a passionate 
gesture. "When I should have been at my task! Picking 
hops! And I could not stop to watch them grow! It was 
'Hurry, hurry, hurry!' But the ache in my shoulders warned 
me. It said, 'You must keep me warm or I will hurt you. Then 
you will become ill and cannot complete your task.' So I 
wasted three days earning the money." His delicate upper 
lip trembled, then he subsided into his customary serenity. 
"But come, come, come! Let us get through that I may be 
on my way." 

The bluecoat turned to his assistant. "Nobody home,' he 
said, tapping his forehead significantly; then more kindly, to 
the intruder: 

"Now just put your mitts in here and come along quiet, 
and we won't have any trouble." In an undertone to his 
companion, "You never can tell about these here nuts." 

The prisoner meekly held out his hands and, in doing so, 
for the first time observed his captor. Instantly his face be- 
came alive as he peered into the officer's face. "Amazing!" 
replied, "Watching the vine he whispered to himself. "A marvelous specimen! Ah, if 

I could but keep him for observation! A case of atavism — 
the flatness above the brain, the sloping forehead, the wide 

nose, the " He lifted his manacled hands to trace the 

officer's features. 

The assistant grabbed him and the bluecoat retreated. For 
the second time the intruder smiled. "I ask your pardon. I 
am afflicted with absence of mind. But come, come, come!" 

At the city marshal's office a further search revealed a 
notebook and pencil, and a book, "Sinnesorgane in Pflanzen- 
reich." That was all. 

"Mebbe it's one of them anarchist books," the "marvelous 
specimen" suggested. "You never can tell about these here 

"May I go now?" the prisoner asked. "I have a great deal 
to do before night." 

"What's your name?" 

"Theodore Beckman." 

"How old are ya'?" 


"Where didja' come from?" 

(Conlinued on page 28) 

Tne Western Comrade 


Page twenty-one 

Carbo-Hydro Phobia !l^ 

John Dequer 

HE word "phobia" means fear. Hence hydrophobia 
means the fear of water, and photophobia the fear 
of Hght — and so on. He who fears anything unrea- 
sonably is on that point a phobiac. 

In Llano we have noticed the presence of a rather strange 
variety of the phobies. It manifests as an unnatural and un- 
reasoned fear of starch. This would class the disease as 
carbo-hydro phobia. In most cases it runs a mild course and 
passes away with the arrival of garden vegetables. In other 
cases it persists and defies all treatment. It is contagious, but 
rarely fatal. No cocci germ is responsible for its spread. It 
rarely affects the physical organism. It is a purely mental 
disease which produces a psychic state in which the patient 
attributes all the ills of the flesh from a sore toe to a bald 
head to the presence of an imaginary superfluity of starch in 
whatever he may have to eat. We have discovered, however, 
that the disease is not endemic — that is, it is not a Llano 
product. It was imported from other communities, who, per- 
haps, rejoice in their export. 

The malady originated in the top ends of certain diet en- 
thusiasts, and it is transmitted to the lay folk by means of 
preachment and suggestion. Starch is the cause of all their 
woe — physically, mentally, ^and socially. Their afflictions come 
from their starchy diet. Those that hear and believe — catch it. 

"What do the Llanoites eat that makes so many of them 
ill?" wrote a friend of mine who had been in correspondence 
with a local sufferer from the disease under discussion. 

I answered: "We eat during the winter months — when fresh 
vegetables are hard to get — bread, butter, beans, macaroni, 
rice, tomatoes, apples, with now and then a little meat, the 
latter not very often — say twice a month. Fish is had occa- 
sionally. Mush of some sort may be had every morning. We 
drink coffee and tea, and have a fair amount of m'lk — not al- 
ways all we want, but enough to keep healthy. This is our 
fare during the hard part of the winter. No one died of 
starvation or grew excessively lean except those who were so 
unfortunate as to become afflicted." 

Now, if we consider that our people come from different 
climates, that they live — many of them — under pioneer con- 
ditions, you will find that Llano is a supremely healthy com- 
munity. We have the pure, dry air, the clear water and pleas- 
ant climate that cannot but make for health. 

To those who do not burden their souls with borrowed 
troubles and who engage in active, constructive thought and 
labor, Llano is a place favored by nature. Man will keep 
healthy even on her winter menu. 

Let us carefuly analyze the food of the Llanoites and see 
if there is any excuse for people who catch this new-fangled 

Bread here, as elsewhere, is the staff of life. It, specially 
in its white form, is a spook to our patient. It contains starch. 
Surely, and starch we need. It is an element in any diet. 
But bread is not starch alone. It contains gluten, and gluten 
is a protein product and is equally as essential to life as starch. 
Bread is generally eaten with butter or peanut butter, which 
adds to its nutritive value. 

The late Dr. Austin Flint, one of America's foremost physi- 
ologists, has said of wheat: "In many vegetable grains known 
as cereals there exist, in variable proportions, a highly nutritive 
nitrogenized substance called gluten. This is found in great 
abundance (from 10 to 35 per cent) in wheat." And again: 

"The nutritive power of gluten is so great, and it contains 
such a variety of alimentary principles, that dogs are well 
nourished and can live indefinitely on it, when taken as the 
sole article of food." Of course, dogs, being by nature meat 
eaters, would suffer more quickly than men. But they have 
an advantage: They are of lower intelligence, and, therefore, 
are immune to this new phobia. 

By kneading white flour under a gently flowing stream of 
water the starch is removed from it — a process used in the 
manufacture of macaroni, and which may be still further car- 
ried out by the cook. Yet at macaroni, which at best is only 
partially starch, the victim shies like a broncho at tumbleweed. 

Besides starch and gluten, wheat flour used in the making 
of bread and macaroni contains vegetable fibrin, a substance 
analogous to muscular fibrin; vegetable albumen, similar to 
that found in the white of an egg or in meat. These are nitro- 
genous substances for which the sufferer thinks he is starving. 

Nitrogenous substances are needed by the organism. They 
are of great importance and are found in many forms in the 
vegetable kingdom, from which every living being gets them 
either directly or indirectly. The sufferer from carbo-hydro 
phobia thinks he is dying from the want of them, while he 
eats bread on which a carnivorous dog will thrive. 

The two classes of food of chief importance in the vegetable 

Municipal Wood Yard at Llano 

world are those represented, first, by gluten in wheat, and, 
second, by legumine in beans and peas. Vegetable albumen 
is to be found in turnips, carrots, cabbages and so forth. The 
nutritive qualities of vegetable and animal albumen are iden- 

In the dreaded starches served to the people at Llano a 
chemist will tell you that you will find the following nitrogenous 
substances for which our victim imagines he starves: Gluten, 
in bread, macaroni, oatmeal, and other breakfast foods, to- 
gether with vegetable albumen, vegetable fibrin and vegetable 

We are, however, not vegetarians — as any member of the 
flock or herd will discover. We have butter, not in abundance, 
not enough for our pleasure, but with salad oil and peanut 
butter we make it do. None of these last mentioned con- 
tain starch, although some contain sugar, to which our organ- 
ism finally converts all starch. 

We eat meat occasionally, as we can afford it, also fish. 
And when all is said, the time of year considered, and the 
food supply cooked as it ought to be, the food of Llano will 
sustain abundantly the efforts required by the men and women 
here. And there is no excuse for anybody to suffer with 
carbo-hydro phobia. Nature has given us in the so-called 
starch foods enough of the opposite, even without meat, to 
balance the ration for most of us. 

Page twenty-two 


a gazi ne 


m m ar y 

TKe western Comrad* 

What Thinkers Think 

The Substance of Instructive 


Education As Mental Discipline. — American education is dominated by 
the theory that there are general faculties of memory, reasoning, and 
observation which can be developed by arbitrary mechanical exercises. 
"Content education" holds that the subjects taught must contain elements 
of specific experience, problems and activities which mean something to 
the child. The child who explains that you are "not expected to understand 
algebra, only to do it," and the hopeless failure of the language work, not 
only in Latin but in English, illuminate the mistake at the base of the 
mental discipline idea. It has recently been computed that the efficiency 
of Latin teaching in one state was between ten and fifteen per cent. Does 
such a record as this guarantee training or does it indicate DAMAGE to 
the mind and character? Culture studies are desirable when they are 
taught in a way that makes them a permanent factor in a child's interest. — 
Abraham Flexner. 


The Hygiene of Type. — Arthur E. Boswick calls attention to the fact 
that the diminutive size of the type in which books are printed is a menace 
to our eyesight. Searching for books in large type suitable for tired eyes 
he has only been able to collect four hundred volumes. Ten point is 
recommended for ordinary use. Fourteen point for tired eyes, and thirty 
point for children under seven. The eye adapts itself to a standard length 
of line, and wide columns invoke extra fatigue. Standardization of size 
of type and width of columns is to be recommended. 


Uncle Sam's Dishonest Servants. — In discussing our so-called "public 
servants" I shall not mention the pension scandal nor the pork barrel, but 
I want to draw attention to the minor thefts of our United States Sen- 
ators and Congressmen. There are laws that provide positively that a 
government employe shall receive only his actual expenses when travel- 
ling on official business. Congress pays itself mileage of twenty cents a 
mile and admits that it is excessive. Besides this, at one session which 
ended at the moment the next session opened, the members not even 
leaving their seats, the members were very indignant that they did not 
get the 226,000 dollars due them on mileage to and from their homes. 
There is an allowance of $1500 a year for clerk hire; many members give 
the largest part of this to members of their families for nominal services. 
There are an immense number of sinecures used to promote the personal 
interests of Senators and Congressmen. One Federal Judge possessed of 
great wealth was retired on full pay, $6,500 a year. He was then elected 
to the Senate. His average attendance has been 14 days a year. He draws 
$7,500 a year for this, gets his mileage allowance and keeps an office force 
at $6,000 more to make excuses for his absence. The abuse of personal 
privilege is another public scandal. — R. Sackett. 


A Power House as a Futurist Painter Sees It. — The Futurists try hard 
to translate motion into color and line. Miss Stevens calls her picture of 
a power house, pictorial velocity. She says there has been no attempt in 
art to find a method adequate, to express the vastness and stupendous ac- 
tivity of events today. Anything moving rapidly loses its definite form in 
lines of direction. Motion and light destroy the solidity of material bodies. 
Those artists who paint mechanical forms have achieved nothing of the 
life, or force, or purpose of the object. The futurists make their engines 
move, throb, create. Something is always happening in a futurist's pic- 
tures and the great variety of color and changing lines helps to convey this 


Prisoners' Mail. — In a summary showing mediaeval custom being prac- 
ticed in the restriction of the mail of the inmates of most American Stale 
prisons, Mr. J. J. Sanders gives a report of the regulations in the different 
stales. Some Slates only allow one letter every two months. 500,000 
persons pass through American prisons every year, and the prime source 
of this stream is ignorance. Everything that can awaken their intelligence 
is valuable, especially familiarity with current events and communication 
with relatives and friends. No prison riols occur in the Stales where letter 
writing is unrestricted. Nothing will make a person more morose than 
being cut off from his loved ones, and free communication keeps their 
minds occupied with wholesome and elevating thoughts. 

Articles in April Magazines 


A Tunnel From England to France. — The British are now in favor of 
the project of a tunnel under the Chemnel. If they had it now and it 
shortened the war by only two days the saving in actual money would 
pay the whole cost of construction. It will be the longest tunnel in the 
world, thirty- three miles long. The plan is to drive two tubes through 
the lower grey chalk, which is impervious to moisture, and to drive 
secondary tunnels which will slope in the opposite direction, being low at 
the shore and high in the middle. These will drain the tunnel and serve to 
carry off the excavated material. With this system they can be working 
at several sections of the mam tunnel at the same time. It is not considered 
at present that the defense of the tunnel offers any difficulties. — G. D. Knox. 


Russian Democracy at Work- — Russian democracy today has the army 
with it and limitless financial credit. What is less realized here, the Rus- 
sian, thanks to the village Mirs, the municipal councils and the rural 
Zemstvos, have a vital tradition of democracy and a broad experience in 
self-government. The Mir is the peasant village organization, and transacts 
its business on a basis of democracy and communism more direct and 
simple than our Colonial town meetings. Calling themselves the group of 
toil they composed a third of the first Duma and surprised all by their 
political sagacity. The zemstvos are county and provincial councils, in- 
tensely and heroically democratic in their activities. Imprisoned and exiled 
for their social service work by the bureaucracy, by a miracle of what 
Kropolkin calls "mutual aid " they developed their extralegal activities 
under the leadership of Prince Lvov, now premier of New Russia. In spile 
of their parliamentary strength they failed to democratize Russia be- 
cause they had not the support of the army and the international bankers. 
The new army has drawn its officers from the "Intelligentzia," almost 
wholly radical, and the bankers have come to the support of the Republic 
because the Autocracy had proved a rotten reed in conducting the war. 
— Arthur Bullard, 


Four Justices of the United Slates Supreme Court believe that the 
Oregon Minimum Wage law is constitutional ; four believe that it is un- 
constitutional. Owing to the form under which the case was appealed, 
this equal division validates the law. If the form had been slightly differ- 
ent it would have been invalidated. On such precarious chances the fate 
of a law of the first importance has depended. The delay of four years 
consumed in fighting the case has also discouraged various groups of people 
interested, and the popular impulse which started the movement has been 
diverted into other channels. Nothing could bring more strikingly to light 
the constant peril of leaving to the Courts their present power of re- 
viewing legislation. This is too heavy a price to pay for an antiquated 
constitutional remnant of our forefathers' distrust of democracies. 


The Safe and Useful Aeroplane. An Interview With Orville Wright. — 

The aeroplane, by taking the element of surprise out of warfare, will have 
a tendency to make it impossible. It will also have a large share in de- 
veloping the new type of civilization which will come after the war. 
But extravagant claims must not be made for it. Large planes will never 
be practical for the same reason that there are no birds that compare 
in size with mammals. The weight of a bird increases as its cube, whereas 
the area of the wings increases as its square. The aeroplane surpasses 
in safety and in swiftness all other means of transportation. An aero- 
plane sails just as well upside down. The stopping of the machine only 
means that you have to volplane down. The one difficulty to deal with 
is the establishing of proper landing places all over the country, 


Commission Control. — Competitive production having failed, co-operative 
production is being organized in the industrial corporations. These cor- 
porations will combine first in like industries and finally in the one indus- 
trial corporation of the United States. There has been a childish desire 
on the part of the people to break up these combinations, but the inflexible 
law of nature is behind them. Previous to government ownership the 
same process of governmental administration of private corporations was 
adopted in Germany. Industrial administration must, however, be con- 
tinuous and not subject to political uncertainties. — Charles P. Steinmetz. 

The Western Cc 

Book Reviews 

Page twenty-three 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books ^ 

y D. Bobspa 

"The Chosen People*' 

Friends of the Mooney case and all participating in the San Francisco 
and other labor fights will read with interest Sidney L. Nyburg's "The 
Chosen People." Sympathetic understanding of the complex elements 
underlying the conflict between labor and capital, a broad insight into 
human nature, the ability to dissect human emotions and to tell a lale 
simply, graphically and convincingly are qualities that enabled this popu- 
lar writer to produce one of the few good novels of the present year — a 
novel that will stand high with the stories of any year. 

The plot centers about a Baltimore strike and the trial of a strike- 
leader on a trumped-up murder charge. Dr. Philip Graetz, youthful Jewish 
rabbi of a wealthy synagogue, brought all of his boyish idealism to bear 
in an attempt to bring the warring classes to harmony through the appli- 
cation of ethics and abstract justice. The strike was in the factory of 
the president of his congregation, the only garment works in the city that 
refused to give any sort of recognition to the union. 

David Gordon, Russian Jew and prominent attorney, was hired by a 
rival manufacturer to defend the accused man and supplied with unlimited 
funds to maintain the strike. David took advantage of this opportunity 
to advance the union standing. He showed clearly that race, religion, 
ethics, justice and humanity are all swept aside in worship of the great 
god Profit. The strike was allowed to go on until the banking interests 
of Baltimore found the financial interests of the city were beginning to 
suffer, when they pulled the strings that brought the recalcitrant factory 
owner to a compromise. None were willing to have their connection with 
the settlement known, so the public (?redit was given to Dr. Graetz, adding 
to his fame. 

This is a bald, crude statement of a fraction of the dramatic situations 
skillfully woven into a flesh and blood story by the genius of Mr. Nyburg. 
A love story, while not the dominant element, proves a telling motive in 
the thread of the novel. 

Ellen, the young settlement nurse, agnostic and Socialist, as well as 
the labor lawyer, David Gordon, reveal much of the causes and meaning 
of the unrest of society. The factory owner asked angrily of the attorney: 
'Since when, under our code of laws, have innocent men been forced to 
try their cases in the newspapers?" 

"I should say," was David's bland retort, "it became necessary im- 
mediately after private corporations learned to punish personal grievances 
in the Criminal Court." 

"The Chosen People" is no bitterly partisan class document. The human 
nature of the human being is not lost sight of. We are studying men, 
not types. The rich factory owner is pictured as a bloodsucker, but the 
reason he is and can be a vampire is revealed. The novel is a powerful 
human document of profound appeal. 

Mr. Nyburg holds up a magic glass which is crystal-clear for the Gentile 
to gaze upon the Hebrew as he is, and at the same lime a mirror into 
which the Jew may look for a critical self-examination. 

Broadness of spirit and cosmic outlook are embodied in this readable 
novel that finds its gripping theme in the heart of American industrialism. 

Kussey, Greenberg and Nyburg! What a debt we owe to the penetration 
of these Jews in presenting their keenly analytical pictures of the tragedy 
of capitalism's mad rule. 

"The Soliloquy of a Hermit** 

I have heard John Cowper Powys lecture, and his soul-stirring message 
was just what the reading of his inimitable essays in "Visions and Re- 
visions" and "Suspended Judgments" would lead one to expect — the poet, 
drtist and ora'or in one combination. But he did not receive all of the 
family genius, as his older brother, Theodore Francis Powys, contributes 
an unusually fine monograph "The Soliloquy of a Hermit." Thomas 
a'Kempis, Marcus Aurelius and Epictetus have their modern projection In 
the confessions of this English farmer, contented to live his life apart 
from the mad ambitions of the world. "I am not here to do right or 
wrong, or to teach anyone; I am here to live," he writes. This comrade, 
who wears the badge of Socialism, wonders "if we shall ever understsmd 
that the world is not made for work, but for joy." 

Mr. Powys is not a slave to dogmatic assertions and beliefs. He is 
primitive enough to be swayed by the moods that come to him. Here 
is a comrade after my own heart, truly. The only way to transfer the 
charm of the 143 pages of the little book would be to quote it entirely. 
I wondered what the author was "driving at" when first I began to 
browse through the unchaplered thread of the soliliquy. Perhaps I don't 

know yet. But on the way I paused frequently to gather a rich bit of 
ripe fruitage which tasted ambrosial to my parched intellectual palate. 
In our swing away from the grossness of materialism and the grossness 
of spirituahly we welcome such sane philosophers of life as it is. 

"If Wishes Were Horses** 

The Countess of Barcynska, while not a brilliant writer, is always in- 
teresing and possesses a rare faculty of understanding human nature that 
is lacking many of the more spectacular rhetoricians. She won her way 
to recognition through such books as "The Little Mother Who Sits at 
Home," and "The Honey Pot." In "If Wishes Were Horses" she gives 
a picture of Enghsh life that is photographic in its realism. It tells of 
Martin Leffley, towards whom I feel as amiable as I do towards a few 
weak-souled clerks I have had to work among in my days. He was a 
"cheap" clerk, with boss-worshipping propensities; a selfish ambition, a 
certain little ability to play the game for all it is worth, gained for him 
a rapid rise. But his main "asset" (he considered her in such light) was 
his wise, unselfish wife, whose only fault was the idolizing of the brute 
who marned her for his physical comfort. An aunt who dealt in second- 
hand clothing, and whose money was more welcome than her presence, was 
another factor in his development. This self-made thing in pants became 
successful in business and by trimming his sails so as not to damage big 
business sailed into the right to string an M. P. after his name, by the 
grace of the Socialist and radical vote. But there came a lime when all 
did not go so smoothly, and in the midst of the catastrophe which overtook 
him he learned the real meaning of his wife's love. The shallowness and 
pretense of the modern social life is powerfully depicted. The characters 
are real, the situations natural and the novel strongly written, the powerful 
lessons and the story elements being skillfully blended. 
* * * 
*'The Library of Original Sources** 

A revival of more active enthusiasm for "TTic Library of Original 
Sources" is one of the imperative needs of radicalism in the critical period 
of today. This most monumental compilation of source material ever 
made had a sale of many, many thousands a few years ago, and has 
continued as a steady seller ever since. For the sake of the movement it 
should, howe\er, be even more widely spread. 

There are tens of thousands of new and young thinkers in the Socialist, 
rationalist and labor movements who should be intimately familiar wtih 
this bible of historical research. Ilie collection is nothing less than a 
bible. Think of reading the message directly from the people in the de- 
velopment of history — the history often purposely and nearly always mis- 
represented in commentaries written centuries later. Read the source 
material and interpret for yourselves. 

"The Library of Original Sources" grew from the needs of college pro- 
fessors for source material. Nothing comprehensive along this line had 
ever been published in the world. So scores of the greatest scholars 
labored for years to produce this fundamental collection. Ancient tablets 
and monuments yielded their inscnptions. Manuscripts from libraries all 
over the world, state archives and musty records yielded the cream of 
the world's documentary evidence of historic progress of the ages. 

The resulting series of ten large royal octavo volumes, bound in black 
India sheepskin, has stood the test of years and stands today an unques- 
tioned authority. I have heard it settle arguments in the college class- 
room; have listened to its message from the lips of the soap-boxer, have 
heard it quoted in park and street arguments on every side in city and 
country in many states. 

The illustrations are appropriate to the text and are in themselves 
a liberal education. 

The political and economic by no means exhaust the possibilities of the 
library. Religious, social and every phase of human activity are treated 
with an equal thoroughness as the economic. The set indeed constitutes 
"a library," and the facts represent the cream of human documents of 
every age. 

Just a word to fasten this review to earth. The library can be secured 
for about one-half its original price for a short time, on easy monthly 
payments. Sounds like advertisement, dosn't it? Does the Mohammedan 
"advertise" the Koran, or the Socialist the "Communist Manifesto"? The 
"Library of Original Sources" is a world classic and beyond "advertising" 
in the ordinary sense. My best propaganda is to stimulate interest in such 
landmarks of progress. A syllabus and outline of readings is furnished 
free with every set. 

Page twenty-four 

Women's Department 

TKe Western Coi 

A Pioneer Woman's View By MiNred g. Buxton 

FTER all the spirit is the thing. At first the novelty 
of the place — tent life, early rising, supplying the 
wood and water — carried me over the hard places, 
and as long as I could see the mirages in the early 
morning and the glorious sunsets in the evenings, with the ever- 
changing lights and colors on the Buttes north of the Colony 
during the day, I was happy, lifted, carried out of myself and 
away from such minor troubles as bodily fatigue and physical 

A dreamer, you say? I admit it. All my life I have cul- 
tivated my natural ability to lose myself for the time being 
in the beauties of the universe about me. It is a sort of insu- 
lation I carry against the too rude shocks and jars of life. 
But let me also admit my extremely practical side lest you 
misjudge me. For many weeks I worked in the dining room 
and kitchen and a right good record did I make. 

Here I began to feel that it was vitally necessary to work 
out the co-operative commonwealth without delay. There 
were people who were so shut up within themselves that they 
could not ask for what they wanted courteously or pleasantly; 
nor did they demand what they wished, they merely watched 
sullenly, and if one person was served a bit more in quantity 
or more pleasantly than himself there was an immediate com- 
plaint. This in spite of the fact that all the service was as 
nearly equable as possible. Women came whose faces were 
hard and bitter and who all but frowned if one washed them 
a good morning in passing. 

All of this was most puzzling at first until it dawned upon 
me that these imprisoned souls were the direct result of the 
capitalist system. So long had they been oppressed and de- 
frauded that they felt each little oversight as a direct slight, 
and they seemed to suspect each frendly word or smile as 
presaging further exploitation. 

Right then and there my heart and mind took such a firm 
stand for co-operative living that it will last as long as time 
lasts for me. 

As Ruth LePrade says in her wonderful poem, "We cannot 
mount alone," and in other places in the same poem, "As 
long as one man is sorrowful and broken I, too, am sorrowful 
and broken," "As long as one soul is weak I, too, am weak," 
"As long as one small child sobs in the night my heart will 
answer, sobbing too." 

This expressed my feeling clearly. Of what avail was all 
the culture, all the knowledge, all the luxury or comfort I could 
put into my own personal life while there were people in the 
world so deeply hurt? 

I knew then that I could never again work for myself alone 
— even my single handed efforts for my own family would 
never be enough henceforth. 

Up to this point in my life my idea of helping humanity 
had been by the charity route, but a course of several years 
in that sort of work had thoroughly convinced me that charity 
fails to solve social problems. 

Humanity does not need uplifting. It needs a clear, sym- 
pathetic understanding of its problems and then must follow, 
so it seems to me, united effort, standing shoulder to shoulder 
to work out the answer. Here in Llano I found this condition 
and I was glad to turn in and help. By the time I realized 
the ideals and the truly remarkable way the work was reacting 
on individuals I was committed to it forever. 

It is difficult, standing at the end of nearly two years' effort, 

to trace the way step by step — but as I look about at my 
friends who have developed and grown to spiritual heights 
they would never have attained by working for themselves 
alone — as I realize my own growth — I see how tremendously 
worth while it is. 

Take our situation from any angle you wish — and there 
are many angles for a woman to consider that do not enter 
into a man's calculation: A man may dream the big dreams 
without considering the details that go into the everyday living 
of them and it remains but for the woman to follow along. 
She, too, may have a glimpse of the vision, but in the face 
of the pioneer hardships it is a brave woman who can face 
the personal discomforts. 

We are all considerably bound by them, but, after all, 
our foremothers faced them and came through royally and 
brought up families that are a sufficient proof of the sterling 
worth of these women. Have we modern women been so 
weakened by our very comforts and luxuries that we have 
no courage left upon which to live while we are working out 
our great dream? Most other pioneer women had no such 
dream to hearten them at their tasks. At best, their hope was 
but to advance towards personal success. If personal success 
is worth all the hardships the real pioneers had to endure — 
how much more worth while is it to know that we shall gain 
not only the personal success of a good home, a steady in- 
come, good education for our children and a free, happy 
social life, but that we are working out a basis or plan by 
which all mankind can free itself so that all who are willing 
to work may have the same advantages? 

But to return to the personal side for the woman. We 
women have a narrow outlook on life and are bounded on 
at least three sides by pots and pans. More than any other 
complaint I have heard this: "If I only had a sink and run- 
ning water!" It is hard to do without such necessary luxuries 
as these, but I decided not to let a sink or the lack thereof 
bound me on the fourth side. That side must be kept free 
and clear to enable me to see the vision and maintain an 
open pathway to my ideals. 

Always I had admired noble women , those I knew and those 
I had read about who had struggled through hardships of one 
sort and another to attain a desired end, and I had dreamed 
vainly of the time when the children would be grown, the 
household cares less depressing and I, too, could develop the 
latent possibilities I felt within myself. 

In Llano I began to rearrange my life in its proper relation 
to my ideals. Housework has taken its proper place as a 
means to an end and not as the end itself. Stories of people 
living in tents in the desert or mountains had always held 
an interest for me — their hardships and the spirit in which 
they bore them were the measure of their triumph. Through 
struggles with my weaknesses I came to realize that theirs 
was no empty triumph. It isn't easy, but then, what real 
success in life is easy? Many of us drift into our life's work 
and make many changes as we go along. I choose to follow 
the definite path of co-operation, the working out of the great 
dream of mankind, equality and brotherhood. 

Once the husband has decided upon a course to follow, the 
woman must consider every question from two standpoints: 
What will it do for my children? What will it do for myself? 

In answer to the first it seems to me that Llano children 
learn most valuable lessons about life and living. First, that 

The Western Comrade 

Women's Department 

Page twenty-five 

the greatest good for the greatest number is an important rule 
in life. If the commissary were short, for instance, all would 
share alike. Also they find that community interest is a real 
thing and one not lightly to be disturbed. They learn, too, 
that the service an individual renders to the community is the 
measure of his worth and that he takes his own measure. No 
amount of "front" avails one here — if we wish favors we must 
earn them. In other words, we are valuable in proportion 
to what we give to the colony, not in what we take from it, 
as is the rule in the outside world. 

I mention these things first because they have impressed me 
as exceedingly valuable lessons for children to learn. 

Then there is the matter of health. I have found over- 
flowing measure for my children. And the snow-covered, 
somewhat austere mountains to the south, the more friendly, 
colorful Buttes on the north, with the misty blue Tehachapi 
range in the distance, form an environment of grandeur and 
natural beauty that cannot fail to react on the character 
and imagination of the children. 

There remains now the one question, as to the effect on 
the woman herself. Our judgments are usually formed as a 
result of our own experience, so perhaps I shall be pardoned 
if I remain personal. I have believed from the first that the 
women in this community have the opportunity to live closer 
to their ideals than in any other place in the world. I still 
believe it. The community ideals are a great help and there 
is no reason why we women cannot begin here and now to 
develop ourselves and our children as we have always dreamed 
of doing. We shall not succeed at once and there vidll be 
many times of depression when it seems too hard, but when 

I stop to think I remember that these periods of depression 
are not at all peculiar to Llano. 

It seems to me that one's friends in the "outside world" 
should be in about the same financial elevation as oneself, 
other things being equal. In Llano, our plan of equal incomes 
regulates that automatically and I believe that the time will 
come very soon when such feelings as envy will be unknown. 
And to a woman with limited means the heartache that comes 
from constant association with women who have everything 
in the world to do with is a serious matter and the little feeling 
that comes with it almost excusable. 

Let me tell you one more little decision of my own on the 
personal side and I will stop. One of my earnest desires has 
been to grow old gracefully. It hurts me to see women minc- 
ing along aping the clothes and manners of young girls after 
they have reached the thoroughly respectable and lovable age 
of older women. I want to be young as long as I can, but 
it must be the youth of the heart, and when the wrinkles 
come I want them to be the sincere ones caused by earnest 
thought and friendly smiles. 

Perhaps the wrinkles come a bit sooner to women in Llano 
than outside, but they are wrinkles of character and are sin- 
cere records of our lives. Many persons have spoken of the 
lack of worry lines in the faces of our people; the mask-like 
face that hides all worries is not here, either, for the ordinary 
worry that plays such havoc with a woman's good looks is 
lacking. So I mean to convey that here we can show our 
true character in our faces to the end, and, meeting honest, 
kindly faces all around, it must follow that our own will take 
on the beauty of earnest endeavor in a great cause. 

For Women Only 

OULD you like to have a pretty mouth? Of course 
you would, and I am going to tell you how to get 
one without paying a dollar down and a dollar a 
month for the rest of your natural life. 
I had always read, just as you have, that beauty is only 
skin deep, and I took it in, as I always do those wise saws 
that may or may not be true, and repeated it sagely when 
I thought it sounded well. But I did not realize what it really 
meant until I began to eat at cafeterias for a while; one 
morning it dawned upon me that the muscles under the skin 
have as much to do with our beauty as anything else and 
that if they are properly trained the skin over them will sure- 
ly take on some of the grace of the action properly performed. 
Have you ever noticed the peculiar little pouches that form 
at the sides of many mouths? Well, I did the morning that 
I made the great discovery, and it was simply this: That 

most people fill their mouths too full and in the effort to cover 
it decently while they are masticating their food they draw 
the muscles into an unnatural position that gradually results 
in those horrid pouches that every woman dreads. When I 
saw these mouths in action I tested it for myself, not once, 
but many, many, times, and proved to my entire satisfaction 
that it lies absolutely within the power of every women to 
have a pretty mouth if she will take small bites of food and 
chew them well. Try it. Look about you well, first at your 
friends and enemies, then try the remedy and you will find 
yourself on a track that will not only pay you handsome divi- 
dends in the way of a pretty mouth, but the pleasure of eating 
delicately will lend a refinement to the countenance; you can 
converse more pleasantly and elegantly than when the mouth 
is full ; and, lastly, you will eat less and feel much better, 
thereby swatting the H. C. of L. 

Left, a musical citizen of Llano. Other pictures show some recent arrivals at Llano. Those shown on the right are always seen together. 

Page twenty-six 


The Western Comrade 

Industrial Education 

By Clinton Bancroft 

CLOSE observer of the educational activities of the 
A past few years could not fail to have noted a ten- 
Xm. dency on the part of private and independent edu- 
cators to turn their attention more and more to tech- 
nical trades and industrial occupations, rather than to litera- 
ture, art and the professions. This has been largely in re- 
sponse to a demand for such technical training from the 
children of the poor, whose common school education was 
left unfinished in the industrial struggle for existence. Under 
these conditions the privately owned trades and correspon- 
dence schools entered the educational field. Their special 
function was to qualify the wage earner quickly for the higher 
salaried positions in commercial and industrial occupations, 
a rich field left practically untouched by the public schools. 
They capitalized the function of the public school; but it 
is always a notable fact that when private individuals under- 
take to perform a public function for profit they seize first 
upon that portion of it which promises the greatest revenue 
to themselves and exploit it to the limit of the people's 
patience. Dividing the educative energies of the nation into 
two parts — one, the common school system, operated by the 
public and supported by direct taxation; and one operated 
by private interests, the business colleges, trades and cor- 
respondence schools, supported by a schedule of tuition fees 
— has resulted in a loss of potential energy to the former. 
Private trades and correspondence schools operated for profit 
in this age of our national life are as much an anachronism 
as would be the farming out of taxes. But a public func- 
tion improperly performed forces the people to undertake its 
performance in their private capacity, and this opens the 
door for the irresponsible exploiter. 

The public school is many years behind the times in eco- 
nomic thought and industrial teaching, although it cannot be 
said to be a failure (as some have charged) so much in what 
it has done as in what it has left undone. It was adapted to 
the age in which it was first established (the wild ass days of 
our forefathers in the Indian wars period), but its develop- 
ment has not kept pace with the progress of science and in- 
dustry. Practically speaking, it is where and what it was at 
that time. This backward condition may be traced to the 
fact that land necessary for industrial education has never 
been provided for public school USE. Land was set aside 
by the government in overflowing measure to support the 
school system, but it was always sold to the credit of the 
school fund and the money filtered back to the school through 
the cupped fingers of political rings. The land itself was never 
put under the direct control and use of the schools for 
industrial-educational purposes and for the maintenance of 
students and faculty. That there is a growing need for land 
for the public schools for such purposes is manifesting itself 
in the systemless and unsupervised offering of prizes to rural 
students in many states for the best results in agricultural and 
animal productions. It is the evolution of the public school 
moving onward to its destiny; but in the movement, which 
as yet seems only to be in the direction of more "efficient" 
farming, capitalism and individualism are unconsciously sow- 
ing the seed that will eventually overgrow and destroy them- 
selves. The urban dweller, the landless student, however, does 
not enjoy these privileges and benefits; and free access to 
land, supervised industrial-education, and maintenance employ- 
ment are three essentials to a complete educational system. 

Today aspiring students without means to acquire a com- 
plete education (a condition for which they are altogether 
blameless, as their age and opportunities will show) , but whose 
ambitions urge them to an active, industrial life, are expected 
to find maintenance employment under the competitive wage 
system, and, finding none, the result is undereducated workers. 
Society (the government) in its public educational plan should 
guarantee this maintenance employment to all during the 
school period of their lives — to those with abundant means 
as well as to those with none. Maintenance labor should be 
required of all alike (of the rich as well as of the poor), 
and none should be made to feel that it is due to poverty, 
ignoble, or degrading, but that it is an essential part of their 
education, health-insuring, mind-enriching and ennobling. 

"But," says a reactionary political economist, "would you 
have the public school system furnish employment and con- 
tinue to educate the children of the poor until they were 
qualified to fill any position in life they desired to occupy? 
And how would land be acquired in sufficient quantity? Our 
free school system would break down under such a strain 
as that." 

That is exactly what we would have it do. Nothing less. 
Thomas Paine said, speaking of the people of his time: "A 
long habit of NOT thinking a thing wrong gives it a super- 
ficial appearance of being right and raises at first a great 
commotion in defense of custom. But the tumult soon sub- 
sides. Time makes more converts than reason." And for 
society to leave a part of its young people to struggle with 
the limited opportunities offered them under competition to 
gain their education, and to permit a large part of the balance 
to be educated in private schools operated for profit, is one of 
those chronic habits of "not thinking a thing wrong" until age 
has given it a "superficial appearance of being right." It is 
now generally admitted that less than 10 per cent of all chil- 
dren who enter school pass beyond the grammar grade. The 
90 per cent consists chiefly of the children of the toiling 
workers of the world. If education is good for the few, the 
10 per cent, it is good for the many, the 90 per cent; and 
the public school must measure up to such ethical standard 
or fall far short of attaining its real educational power and 
usefulness. Less than this would leave the system still in- 
complete; nor would the school system break down. And 
there is no "free school;" that is a misnomer; the people 
pay for all the education their children receive, and under the 
present wasteful methods and administration they do not re- 
ceive in educational value all they pay for. Every individual 
educated in the so-called "free school," who later in life pro- 
duces that which adds to the wealth of the nation, repays 
the public for his education. And a rightly educated people 
is a social asset. 

As to land: When there is a general demand for land 
deemed necessary for school purposes, the people will find 
ways and means to secure it. But suppose, as a beginning, 
the states or the Congress should enact a simple law or con- 
stitutional emendment to the effect that: 

"Whenever any individual or corporation shall by gift, 
bequest, grant, deed, or otherwise, convey to the State of 

■ the title to any piece or tract of land for which 

the purpose and consideration named in such conveyance shall 
be declared to be Industrial Education and the Common Good, 
such land shall thereafter become and be held to be the 

The Western Comrade 


ge twenty-seven 

property of the school district in which it is situated, and shall 
be subject to the control of the board of school directors. 

"And such land shall not be sold thereafter." 

There are many tracts of land today that would be given 
or bequeathed to the public school if the owners were assured 
that such land would be devoted to educational purposes only, 
and not sold or diverted to private interest for profit. 

Then suppose a Congress of Educators should organize a 
non-dividend-paying corporation with the property holding 
powers of a modern university, and that through such a re- 
spionsible agency the people should raise funds and purchase 
land in locations suitable for their plans, and, having cleared 
the title and prepared the property for industrial-educational 
purposes, the corporation should deed it to the state for the 
common good whenever a majority of the people in the com- 
munity interested should demonstrate by their choice of school 
directors that they were ready and understandingly competent 
to operate it successfully. 

Suppose that, following the enactment of such a law, many 
tracts of land should be given to the public schools and col- 
leges generally throughout the United States for use in teach- 
ing technical trades, agriculture and stock-raising for use, and 
that all the products of these lands above the maintenance 
and compensation of the students and workers should be de- 
voted to extending the work and scope of the school, and to 
the building of "free homes" for fatherless children and their 
mothers on such land to be occupied by them during their 
educational period. 

Suppose these educational centers, with plenty of land for 
practical purposes, should initiate a series of experiments in 
co-operative home building by students learning the building 
trades; in co-operative production and distribution of the 
necessaries of life as an economic means to level the high 
cost of living; in co-operative banking and exchange and of 
labor as the true basis of value of the money of the future, with 
the purpose in view of determining what is the common good, 
what is industrial justice, questions for the educational powers 
of a great and wealthy nation to solve. Would it result un- 
justly to any to have them answered? 

Suppose villages and cities should grow around these edu- 
cational centers with a new perspective of industrial life, 
and that the Mothers of the land, to whom lawmaking powers 
will soon be generally given, should determine that their chil- 
dren should not be dwarfed and maimed and stunted in body 
and intellect to satisfy corporate greed for profit, and should 
then decree that no person under the age of twenty-one years 
should be employed in factory, mill, mine, store or office 
operated for private profit. What changes would be made 
in the present order of industry, in thought, in system, in 
laws, and in the administration of law and justice? 

Ownership of productive land by the school, together with 
cheap and rapid transportation, enjoyed by some communities, 
would result in the geographical transformation of many dis- 
tricts and the establishing of educational centers where the 
chief occupation of the people would be educating the rising 
generation and improving the race. The work of supplying 
the people of these centers with a large part of the things 
they daily needed would be conducted under the supervision 
of the school as a part of its educational plan. Teachers and 
students, all would practice daily what they taught and studied. 
Under such regime all would work at least two or three hours 
daily in some useful and productive occupation according to 
age, strength and ambition. School hours would not be 
observed with the tyrannous discipline of the past, the hours 
of such service being credited to school attendance. School 

life would thus be made an attractive pleasure to the pupil 
instead of a perfunctory duty. 

In the evolution of industry from capital-ownership to co- 
operative ownership by the workers (from individualism to 
Socialism), the lessons of service for the common good, of 
the necessity for free access to land by the workers, of the 
power and economy of co-operation, of the ethics of mutual 
exchange of labor values, of industrial justice, of educational 
freedom — all these will find a place in the curriculum of the 
public school in time. But industrial education in trades 
schools operated for profit is practically only the training of 
wage slaves for capitalism to exploit. The ideals of industrial 
life (freedom and justice to the workers) are not set forth 
in their claims for patronage and are impossible of realization; 

MEDICAL ATTENTION at Llano is a social service and is free to Llano 
residents. Eventually this department will take in every school of healing. 

whereas all ideals — educational, industrial, economic, social 
and moral — are possible of realization to a people united upon 
common ownership of land. But without it, in vain will the 
lessons of social labor and social justice be pictured before 
students who see but do not understand; in vain will the truths 
and philosophy of Socialism fall on ears that hear but do not 
comprehend. But this need not be. For now let the educators 
and voluntary co-operators unite in a demand for Land for the 
Public Schools, and join their lawmaking powers, their or- 
ganizing powers and their labor (economic) power in a gen- 
eral movement to secure it, and the school would solve the 
problem of the conflicting interests of labor and capital, and 
also many of the lesser social and economic problems that 
perplex and vex humanity everywhere. 

Page twenty-eight 


The Western Comrade 

Llano Soil and Water 

By Wesley Zornes 

THE soil in this portion of the Antelope Valley is cov- 
ered with Joshua Yuccas, greasewood, sage and wild 
buckwheat for the most part. The great solitary, 

sentinel-like Yuccas, some of them hundreds of years 

old, dot the plains below and the slope to the southward. They 
are not deeply rooted and are easily pulled up. The grease- 
wood is also light and easily cleared from the land. The sage 
and buckwheat are what the bees feed on largely. 

The process of clearing is simple. Four horses are hitched 
to two long railroad rails, which they drag back and forth 
over the field, effectually uprooting virtually all vegetation. 
Four horses with a specially constructed brush rake string it in 
long windrows, where it is burned. Thus with eight horses and 
three men five acres can be cleared each day, the estimated 
cost being about $4.00 an acre, though the actual cash cost 
is much less than that. The land is worth, before clearing, 
about $12.00 an acre, and the usual price for clearing is 
$10.00 an acre. 

The necessary work to level for cropping is perhaps less than 
the average over the country; certainly it is not more. The 
value of the land increases greatly from year to year by rea- 
son of the work placed upon it. Those who come from prairie 
countries do not at first realize the work that has been done 
in Llano. They cannot visualize what has been done, and the 
value that has thereby been added to the land. 

The acreage available to Llano is practically without a limit. 
To say we have a thousand acres, ten thousand acres, or 
thirty thousand acres, is not giving a very clear idea. Only 
when it has been seen can one realize the great extent, and 
what a thousand acres really means. 

Irrigation in Llano is being systematized wonderfully. Miles 
of cobble and lime ditches are being constructed, and many 

miles will be completed as time goes on. It is the easy, effici- 
ent way of handling the water. 

Irrigation specialists say that the easy slopes, the water 
retentiveness of the soil, and the short ditches required because 
of the nearness of the source of water supply, make it remark- 
ably easy to irrigate the land here, compared with what irriga- 
tion means in many places. The ditches are permanent. The 
longest dirt ditch is only three miles, though longer ditches 
than this will be necessary eventually. The cobble ditches, of 
which the longest is half a mile, are a complete success, and 
ultimately the ranch will be a network of these cobble and 
lime ditches. 

During the winter season the land is thoroughly soaked wiih 
water. This makes it require less during the summer. Plans 
are being worked out to conserve every drop of water. The 
tunnel is being cleaned and will probably be extended, when 
it will give a greater flow of water. This work will develop 
a great deal of water and will be preliminary to the building 
of the storage reservoir at the dam site, which will not be built 
until absolutely required. 

The soil is characterized as being of a residual formation; 
it is of decayed granite and quartz, which disintegrated into 
soil where they lay. The land is comparatively smooth with 
a good grade from north to south. The quality is of the best 
and, according to the agriculturists, will produce any crop that 
the climate permits of being grov^Ti, though some soil building 
is required for gardening and some other crops. There is 
practically no limit to the depth of the soil. It is rich in lime 
and different mineral salts and is greatly benefited by cultiva- 
tion. It is of sufficient porosity and ranges from light sandy 
soil to a sandy loam, holds water well, has almost perfect 
drainage, and is easily worked as a whole. 

The Thing in Itself (Continued from page 20) 

"One cannot remember the name of every town." 

"Where ya' goin'?" 

"South, where the winters are warmer. I sleep in the open 
and must guard my health." 

"Why'nt you get a job somewhere 'n settle down, A strap- 
pin' fellow like you?" 

"The job, I have always with me. To settle as you say — " 
his azure eyes deepened into v^nstfulness — "as to that I must 
not because of my weakness." 

"Drink or dope? You don't look it." 

He shook his head. 


Again he shook his head. "I throttled my passions when 
I was twenty." 

The marshal scratched his head. Here sure was a queer 
nut! Interesting too! 

"Well, what's your weakness, then? Laziness, I guess." 

"I am prone to form binding ties. To love people. I move 
always so that there will be no ties to woo me from my work." 

"What's this work that you're always talkin' about. What 
do ya do for a living?" 

"Ah! It is the things that I must do for my living — to earn 
my few handfuls of food, my shoes, my shirt, the warm clothes 
that I must have to do my work — it is these things that tear 
me from my work. It is deplorable that I must waste so much 

time from my task, when I am thirty-seven, and ,at the most 
have not more than fifty years in which to complete it." 

"Well, what the devil is it?" 

"Preparing my book." 

"It must be a damn big book if it takes fifty years to 
write it." 

"Not more than a dozen pages. Truth is brief when once 
discovered. I have assigned myself only five years in which 
to write it. That gives me forty years longer to prepare it, 
and five years to wait for my passing. With care, it will be 
given me to live long." 

"You sure look healthy. But ain't we all liable to accidents?" 

"It is so. But still, who knows? I may be able to continue 
beyond the transition." 

"I guess he's one of them crazy spiritualists." This from 
the "marvelous specimen." 

"Whatcha' goin' to call your book?" 

" 'The Thing in Itself.' " 

"Some name, too," with a wink at his subordinate. 

"It is indeed. But I am not so mad as to expect to grasp 
more than one phase of it." 

"Oh, you ain't, eh?" 

He bowed his head. "Ah, no!" It will not burst upon me 
in the splendor of its entirety. The humble devotion of a 
million petty lives like mine would not be worthy of a reward 
so matchless as that! But if I surrender to my purpose all 

The Western Cor 

Page twenty-nine 

I hold most dear — love, fellowship, adulation, bodily comforts 
— and endure this — " his blue eyes raising to the grinning 
faces before him — "scorn, ridicule, misunderstanding, perse- 
cution, loneliness — and still do not despair, still seek in all 
humility and patience — then, then I shall have paid the price! 

I shall not behold the Thing in Itself, but " his face was 

suffused with a wonderful smile — "Its shadow will fall for 
a single moment across me, and I shall know an ecstasy that 
shall compensate for all. That is what I shall put into my 
book of twelve pages, the flitting of the shadow of the Thing 
in Itself." 

Absorbed in thought he stood silent, then — "Gentlemen, 
have you done with me? I wish to return to my work." 

"Why, yes, I guess so, partner. You seem harmless enough. 
But keep off of private property, or we'll run you in." 

"And the razor? May I have it? It cost me a wasted day." 

The marvelous specimen returned it with tolerant conde- 
scension. "Here 'it is. Grandpa. Don't cut yourself. Hope 
you finish the Thing-um-a-Bob. You better quit wastin' your 
time lookin' at vines or you won't finish it." 

"If I could find what makes the tendril seek its support 
vAth such trembling eagerness instead of growing away from it, 
I would almost know the Thing in Itself. I am searching among 
the plants now. In ten years I begin to seek among humanity. 
You may see me then." 

The door closed softly. The marshal threw back his head. 
" 'The Thing in Itself.' Some name ! Ha ! Ha ! " 

And the marvelous specimen echoed, "Ha! Ha! He sure 
is some nut ! Ho ! Ho ! " 


By M r s. C. P. S t e t s o n 

It takes great courage just to train 
To modern service your ancestral brain ; 
To lift the weight of did, unnumbered years. 
Of dead men's habits, methods, and ideas; 
To hold them back with one hand. 
And with the other sustain the weak steps 
Of a new thought. 

It takes courage to bring your life up square 
With the accepted thought and hold it there. 
Resisting the inertia that drags it back 
From new attempts to the old habit's track; 
It is so easy to drift back, to sink. 
So hard to live abreast of what you think. 

It takes great courage to live where you belong 
When other people think that you are wrong — 
People you love and who love you, and whose 
Approval is a pleasure you would choose. 
To resist this pressure and succeed at length 
In living your belief — Well, it takes strength 

And courage, too. But what is courage 

Save strength to help one face a pain foreseen — 

Courage to resist the lifelong strain 

Of setting yours against your grandsire's brain; 

Dangerous risk of walking lone and free 

Out of the easy paths that used to be? 

But the Greatest Courage man has ever knowTi 

Is daring to cut loose and think alone! 

Dark as the unlit chambers of clear space 

Where light shines back from unreflected face. 

But to think new takes courage grave and grim 

As led Columbus over the earth's rim. 

It takes great love to train a human heart 
To live beyond the others and apart. 
A love that is not shallow is not small; 
Is not for one or two, but for them all ; 
A love that can wound love for its higher need, 
A love that can leave love though the heart bleed; 
A love that can lose love, family and friend. 
And live steadfastly, loving to the end. 

Wanted — A Comrade 

to take over a thirty-acre ranch and provide for two old people 
a few years, and have the farm for pay. 

A little capital and good reference required. 

Address: S. Whipple, R.F.D. No. I, Box 25, El Centro, Cal. 


q The files in the office of the WESTERN COMRADE lack the 
JANUARY, 1914, number. Anyone having a copy will please 
communicate with the Western Comrade, Llano, Cal. 

"Celebrating May Day at Llano" 

The June WESTERN COMRADE will teil of the 
May Day celebration which combined the third birth- 
day of the Colony, the fifth birthday of the WESTERN 
COMRADE and International Labor Day. It was 
fittingly observed, and the photos will give a splen- 
did idea of Llano social life. 

There will be many other interesting things told 
about the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony as well 
as articles of general interest, education, and Com- 
rade Job Harriman's thought-begetting editorials. 

Page thirty 

The Western Coi 

Llano Celebrated Achievement 


Ad i t o r i a 

ORE than the traditional ob- 
servance of International La- 
bor day was in the minds of 
residents of Llano when they 
celebrated May 1st. 

It was the third birthday of Llano. 
It was the fifth birthday of the 
Western Comrade. 

As to Llano — three years of achieve- 
ment are behind her; a splendid fu- 
ture lies ahead. 

As to the Western Comrade — behind 
is a clean record; no radical publica- 
tion has such a radiant future. 

The Western Comrade is steadily 
gaining in circulation. And one of the 
most significant facts is that nearly 
every reader renews his subscription 
when it expires. 

The reason is a good one. The 
Western Comrade tells him of the 
things he wishes to know. 

Each month it is hoped the Western 
Comrade will become a more and more 
interesting magazine. It should occupy 
the foremost place in the radical field 
today. It tells the story in which we 
are all interested, the story of which no 
other publication can tell. 
Facts are demanded today. Social- 
ist theories are good, but the people 
demand more. They want to know if 
they will work. And we must answer 
that question satisfactorily and direct- 
ly. No evasion will do. We must cite 
examples. Whether it is just or unjust 
to ask us to do this, it is the question 
asked of us, and we must meet it. We 
have no other choice. 

Has anyone ever asked you: 

Can the workers manage indus- 
Will Socialism work? 
Can you have a uniform wage 

Who'll do the dirty work? 

1 by the Circulation 

How will the people take over the 

industries ? 
Won't a few gain control ? 
And the objections are: 

You can't have common owner- 
ship of land. 
You can't work a ranch on an 

eight-hour day. 
You've got to have a boss. 
Socialism destroys the home. 
There'll be no incentive. 
You've heard lots more of them. 
Heretofore you've had to answer with 
theories. Llano furnishes facts. Llano 
is constructive, practical, growing, vir- 
ile, young. Llano people have learned 
much in the three years they have been 
practicing the theories of Socialism. 
They answer every objection, every 

The Western Comrade and the 
Llano Colonist tell about what is being 
done. They show how co-operation 
succeeds. They tell of accomplish- 
ment. And it is because of this that 
the Llano Publications have grown. 

Straight-from-the-shoulder Socialism 
they teach, the pure, unadulterated 
article. Yet they do not call names, 
do not indulge in bitter criticism, do 
not participate in party disputes. 

The Llano gardens are an example 
in concrete Socialism. So are the 
printing department, the cannery, the 
dairy, and every other institution in 
Llano. As little lessons in Socialism 
they are unparalleled. You can interest 
anyone in such lessons as these. 

Socialists have looked forward to 
the coming of the Co-operative Com- 
monwealth. They have prophesied 
much from it. 

They said it would take care of the 
orphaned, the aged, the sick. 
Llano does that. 

They said it would provide employ- 
ment for all. 
Llano does that. 


They said it would give old age and 
mothers' pensions. 

Llano does that. 

They said it would bring hope to 

Llano does that. 

The things that Socialists dreamed 
of, worked for, voted for, agitated for 
— these are being achieved in Llano. 

Every reader of the Western Com- 
rade should help to spread an interest 
in Socialism. You can interest your 
friends, your neighbors, your work- 
mates, your associates, even your em- 
ployer, when you can show literature 
telling of the achievements of these 

The COLONIST and the COM- 
RADE do this. 

The triumphs of the principles you 
believe in depend on the education of 
the people. There are no better me- 
diums for this than the Llano Pub- 

Will you get one additional reader 
this month? 

It is asking little of you, but it is 
asking you to do what you believe is 
right. We must have your help. We 
must spread the news of "Co-opera- 
tion in Action." 

The COMRADE has grown, so has 
the COLONIST. But they must grow 
more and more rapidly. Already they 
wield an influence greater than any 
other papers, proportionate to their 

Will you help make them more in- 

The COLONIST is 50c a year, or 
$1.00 for a club of three. The COM- 
RADE is 75c a year, or 50c in clubs 
of four or more. 

Both to one address are $1.00 a 
year or 75c in clubs of four or more. 

Canadian rates are $1.00 a year for 
either the COMRADE or the COLON- 
IST. No club rates apply outside of 
the United States. 

The Western Comrade 

rage thirty-one 

I Need $10,000 


My business is a standard, conservatively managed business. 
It has been established about five years. It is growing so 
rapidly that in order to keep up with the increased demand 
I must have larger equipment throughout. This requires an 
inmiediate outlay of capital. 

There is every prospect that WITHIN FIVE YEARS IT WILL 

The product in one line has been multiplied by three in use 
last ten months; a newly established line has gro%vn amazingly. 

I have had to turn away a great deal of profitable business 
because my equipment has been inadequate to handle this new 

I am a Socialist. I want to borrow this capital from 


I estimate that $10,000 will equip a new plant completely. 
The money will be used for this purpose. 

I want to borrow it either in a lump sum or in smaller sums. 

Have you a small sum you>wish to invest where it will be 
used by a comrade, and where it will be well protected? 

Write me for full details, and let me know what sum you will 
loan if the security is satisfactory to you. 

Please address: John D. McGregor, care of Western Qimrade, 
Llano, California. — Advertisement 

About Manuscripts 

Only typewritten material or that written with ink will be given 

Please put your name and address and date on manuscripts. 

The WESTERN COMRADE does not pay cash at present. 

Please state if you desire return of manuscript. 

The COMFIADE is always glad to consider contributions, but nothing 
of a controversial nature will be printed. 

What Are You Good For? 

Did you ever try to find out? 

Are you employed at work for which you are best fitted? 

Do you KNOW or are you GUESSING? 

Your children --what will you advise them to do? 

The science of Character Analysis will answer the questions you have 
asked yourself. It is not fortune telling. It is not guess work. It tells you 
what you are fitted for and gives you the reasons. It tells you why 
you have not succeded in what you have attempted and will show you in 
which lines you can hope to succeed. 

An analysis of yourself will cost you something and it is worth many 
times what it costs; but information about it — that is free. Just write: 
"Send me free information about Character Analysis and Vocational Fit- 
ness." Write your name and address \'ery plainly. Send it lo : 
P. 0. Box 153, Llano, California 

California Lands or Government Lands 


FREE booklet, telling of your nine rights, eight without residence. 
Special circulars, how, why, and where, of overlooked or covered up 
bargains; all counties, some near you. Write: 

Joseph Clark, Searcher of Government and State Records 
1511 K St, Sacramento. 

Telephone Home A-4533 



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M little booklet and consists of fully explained systems of dieting, exer- = 

P cises. bathing, manipulative movements, and various other essentials g 

M to effect the desired results. Persistency in this common sense and ^ 

M proved treatment will surely bring results in your case as it has in ^ 

= others. No drugs are used; it is a natural and beneficial way ot g 

M reducing flesh. It gives full details for daily conduct. In sending M 

= remittances, state what portion you particularly wish to have re- g 

M duced and emphasis will be given as lo what treatments will prove M 

M most beneficial. M 

1 Full $5.00 Treatments, $3.00 Mrs. C. M. Williams, Llano, Cal. g 



Rates: 25c a line for one insertion; 15c a line thereafter. Twelve words 
to the line. Advertising payable in advance. 

name, age, condition, and give full description. WESTERN COMRADE. 

Flemish Giants. We can supply all ages up to eight months. For further 
information address Rabbit Department, Llano del Rio G>lony, Llano, Cal, 

Three Years of Growth 

Are Back of The Llano del Rio Colony 

Thirty-six months of unprecedented success and prodigious growth is the record that the Llano del 
Rio Colony can point to. Never before in the history of the co-operative movement has such splendid 
progress been made. It is a record justly to be proud of and the success has been fairly earned. The 
Llano del Rio Colony is on a safe and sane footing; its growth and progress will be even more remarkable 
during the years to come. 





Shoe Shop 



OTC^n A ^ M^^ 



^750 Acres 

This great tract of land was added to the hold- 

Canvas Gloves 







ings of the Colony just recently. It lies in the 


fertile San Joaquin VcJley and is splendid fruit 


Saw Mill 

land. Every member of the Llano del Rio Colony, 

Montessori School 

Lime Kiln 

resident or installment member, profits by the add- 

Two Hotels 


ed acreage. It strikingly marks the growth of 





the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony. 

(See pages 16 and 17 this issue Western Comrade) 

Medical Attendance 
Doctor's Services 

Rabbit ry 


Stock Ranges 
Machine Shop 


Have You the Spirit of Co-operation? 

Have you, who have voted for the co-operative 
commonwealth, who have talked and agitated for 
it and prayed that it might come in your time, who 
have done your part to educate the world to its 
benefits — have you the courage of your convic- 
tions? Are you willing to unite with your com- 
rades and MAKE it the huge success you have 
dreamed of? The hardest of the fight is over. The 
Colony is on a sound foundation now. The days 
when it required the great sacrifices and the ut- 
most courage are now past. 

But the days of doing and the time of the 
greatest opportunity lie immediately ahead. Those 

who have the foresight to get into the vanguard 
of this great enterprise, who ,are willing and anx- 
ious to get on to the firing line of the grandest 
phase of the co-operative movement, who have the 
spirit of the co-operative commonwealth strong 
within them, can achieve and conquer. Workers 
and thinkers are required. They will hz amply re- 
warded, too, but the Llano del Rio Co-operative 
Colony appeals to those who have VISION and 
SPIRIT more than to those who are merely in- 
terested in their own betterment. Will you join 
with those who are making "Co-operation in Ac- 
tion" a success? 


Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony 


^„oTED toTh£~E^USe ~5ryjf^ 


Problem of the Boy 4 

A Poem. By D. Bobspa. 

May Day II 

By Dr. John Dequer. 

Efficiency 12 

By L. W. Millsap, Jr. 

The Socialist City. 14 

By A. Constance Austin. 

Making Wood Pulp for Paper 15 

By R. A. Barber. 

Was Schmidt Guilty? 16 

Dearer Than Honor 18 

Fiction. By Ethel Winger. 

Forcing System in Farming 22 

By Wesley Zornes. 

News and Views in Agriculture 23 

Co-operation the World Over 24 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books 25 

By D. Bobspa. 

The Magazine of 
"Co-operation in Action." 

First American Conference for Democracy 

and Terms of Peace Page 27 



10 Cents 
a Copy 

Llano's Third May Day By R^^t. k. 


Pages 8, 9, 10 

The Gateway To Freedom 

Through Co-operative Action 


the beautiful Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of 
Los Angeles County, Southern California. This plain lies 
between the San Gabriel spur of the Sierra Madres on the south 
and the Tehachapi range on the north. The Colony is on the north 
slope of the San Gabriel range. It is almost midway between 
Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific, and Victorville, on the Santa 
Fe railroad. 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony is made up of persons 
who believe in the application of the principles of co-operation 
to the widest possible extent. Virtually all of the residents are 
Socialists. It is a practical and convincing answer to those who 
have scoffed at Socialist principles, who have said that "it won't 
work," who have urged many fallacious arguments. In the three 
years since it was established, the Colony has demonstrated thor- 
oughly the soundness of its plan of operation and its theory. To- 
day it is stronger than ever before in its history. 


The Llano del Rio Colony is the greatest Community enterprise 
ever attempted. It was founded by Job Harriman, May 1st. 1914, 
and is solving the problem of disemployment and business failure. 
It offers a way to provide for the future welfare of the workers 
and their families. 

An abundance of clear, sparkling water coming from mountain 
springs is sufficient to irrigate thousands of fertile acres. The 
climate is mild and delightful, the soil is fertile, and markets are 
not far distant. 

The Llano del Rio Colony is a horticultural, agricultural, and 
stock-raising enterprise, with such manufacturing as will supply the 
needs of the colonists, with perhaps something to sell when the 
Colony has grown. 

It is a perfect example of Co-operation in Action. No community 
organized as it is, was ever established before. 

The purpose is to solve the problem of unemployment by provid- 
ing steady employment for the workers ; to assure safety and com- 
fort for the future and for old age; to guarantee education for the 
children in the best schools ; and to provide a social life amid sur- 
roundings better than can be found in the competitive world. 

It has more than 800 residents, making it the largest town in the 
Antelope Valley. More than 200 children attend the schools. Part 
of the children get meals at the school; some live at the Indus- 
trial school all the time. The Montessori school is in operation, 
taking the children from 2|/2 to 6 years of age. A new school 
building is soon to be built on the new townsite. The County 
school and the Colony Industrial schools are both in operation. 

The Colony owns a fine herd of 125 Jersey and Holstein cattle, 
100 head of young stock are on the range, being heifers and calves 
up to 2 years of age. Over 100 head of horses and mules, in- 
cluding colts, are owned by the Colony. These, with the tractors 
and caterpillar engine, four trucks, and numerous autos, do the 
hauling and the work on the land. 

A recent purchase of Duroc-Jersey sows gives the Colony thirty- 
eight registered high-class breeding sows and two splendid boars, the 
nucleus of a great development along this line. Many new pens 
have been built. Registration will be kept up and the raising of 
fine hogs made one of the leading industries. There are also some 
fine Berkshires, and a large number of grade sows. 

Much nursery stock has been planted, a vineyard of 40 acres put 
out, and many fruit trees set this spring. The Colony has more 
than 400 acres of orchards. 

Community gardening is successful, and an increased acreage 
will be put in each year. 

The ideal is to farm on an extensive scale, using all manner of 
efficient labor saving machinery and methods, with expert and ex- 
perienced men in charge of the different departments. 

Llano possesses more than 668 stands of bees. They are cared 
for by expert bee men of long experience. This department ex- 
pects to have several thousand stands in a few years. 

The Colony has secured timber from the San Gabriel Reserve, 

and has a well equipped sawmill. Lumber worth $35 to $40 a thou- 
sand costs the Colony only a few dollars a thousand. 

Social life is delightful, baseball and football teams, dances, pic- 
nics, swimming, hunting, camping, all being popular. A band, sev- 
eral orchestras, a dramatic club, and other organizations assist in 
making the social occasions enjoyable. 

Alfalfa does extraordinarily well at Llano. Much has been plant- 
ed and the acreage will be increased as rapidly as possible. Six 
good cuttings a season can be depended on. Ditches lined with 
cobblestone set in Llano lime, makmg them permanent, conserve 
water and insure economy. They will be built as fast as possible. 
A square mile has been set aside for the new city. With the 
sawmill running, the lime kiln producing a very superior lime, and 
with sand and rock abundant and adobe brick easily manufactured, 
the time is near when permanent buildings will be erected on the 
new site. It will be a city different in design from any other in the 
world, with houses of a distinctively different architecture. Houses 
will be comfortable, sanitary, handsome, home-like, modern, and 
harmonious with their surroundings, and will insure greater privacy 
than any other houses ever constructed. They are unique and de- 
signed especially for Llano. 


Among the industries of Llano, lo which new ones are con- 
stantly being added, are: Prinlshop, shoe shop, laundry, cannery, 
cleaning and dyeing, warehouse, machine shop, blacksmith shop, 
rug works, planing mill, paint shop, lime kiln, saw mill, dairy, cab- 
inet shop, nursery, alfalfa, orchards, rabbitry, gardens, hog raising, 
lumbering, publishing, transportation (autos, trucks, tractors), doc- 
tors' offices, woodyard, vinegar works, bakery, fish hatchery, bar- 
ber shop, dairy goats, baths, swimming pool, studios, two hotels, 
drafting room, post office, commissary, camping ground. Industrial 
school, grammar school, Montessori school, commercial classes, li- 
brary, women's exchange, two weekly dances, brass band, mandolin 
club, two orchestras, quartets, socialist local, jeweler. 


THE LLANO DEL RIO COMMUNITY has a remarkable form 
of management that is the result of evolution. The manage- 
ment of the affairs of the Colony industries is in the hands of 
the department managers. In each department there are divisions. 
Over some of these divisions are foremen. All these are selected 
for their experience and fitness for the position. At the department 
meetings as many persons as can crowd m the room are always 
present. These meetings are held regularly and they are unique 
in that no motions are ever made, no resolutions adopted and no 
minutes are kept. The last action on any matter supercedes aU 
former action and this stands until the plans are changed. The 
plan is working most admirably and smoothly. At these meetings the 
work is discussed and planned, reports are given, teams allotted, 
workers are shifted to the point where the needs are greatest, 
and machinery is put on designated work, transportation is ar- 
ranged, wants are made known and filled as nearly as possible. 
The board of directors, members of which are elected by the 
stockholders, meets once a week and has charge of the financial 
and business management of the enterprise. These directors are 
on the same basis as all their comrades in the colony. At the 
general assembly all persons over eighteen years of age, residing 
in the colony, have a voice and vote. 


MANY persons who want to know how the affairs of the 
Llano del Rio Community are conducted think, in order to 
gel this information, they must secure a copy of a con- 
stitution and by-laws. There is no constitution. The Llano Com- 
munity contents itself with a "declaration of principles" which is 
printed below. The management of the Colony rests with the 
board of managers, a member of which is the superintendent 
and his two assistants. These managers are selected for their 
fitness and ability. The business and financial affeiirs of the enter- 



prise are conducted by the board of directors who are elected by 
the stockholders, TKe corporation by-laws are the stereotyped cor- 
poration by-laws of almost every state. The only innovation is in 
the restricting of anyone from voting more than 2000 shares of 
stock, regardless of how many shares are held. As this is to be 
the ultimate holding of every member, this is considered a strong 
protective clause. The incorporation charter is also the usual type 
and gives the corporation the right to transact almost all manner 
of business. The Nevada corporation laws are liberal, safe, and 
well construed. There is no disposition on the part of state 
ofHcials to interfere. 


IN conducting the affairs of the Llano del Rio Community it 
has been found that the fewer inflexible rules and regulations 
the greater the harmony. Instead of an elaborate constitution 
and a set of laws the colonists have a Declaration of Principles 
and they live up to the spirit of them. The declaration follows: 

Things which are used productively must be owned collectively. 

The rights of the Community shall be paramount over those of 
any individual. 

Liberty of action is only permissible when it does not restrict 
the liberty of another. 

Law is a restriction of liberty and is only just when operating 
for the benefit of the Community at large. 

Values created by the Community shall be vested in the Com- 
munity alone. » 

The individual is not justly entitled to more land than is suffi- 
cient to satisfy a reasonable desire for peace and rest. Productive 
land held for profit shall not be held by private ownership. 

Talent and intelligence are gifts which should rightly be used 
in the service of others. The development of these by education 
is the gift of the Community to the individual, and the exercise of 
greater ability entitles none to the false rewards of greater pos- 
sessions, but only to the joy of greater service to others. 

Only by identifying his interests and pleasures with those of 
others can man find real happiness. 

The duty of the individual to the Community is to develop ability 
to the greatest degree possible by availing himself of all educational 
facilities and to devote the whole extent of that ability to the 
service of all. 

The duty of the Community to the individual is to administer 
justice, to eliminate greed and selfishness, to educate all and to aid 
any in time of age or misfortune. 


THE electric light bill, the water bill, the doctor's bill, the drug 
bill, the telephone bill, the gas bill, the coal bill, the dentist's 
bill, the school book supplies bill, the sewer assessment bill, 
and car fare, the annoyance of the back door peddler and beggar 
(Henry Dubbs who think the trouble is individual hard luck), 
the hundred and one greater and smaller burdens on the house- 
holder, and the lean weeks caused by disemployment and the con- 
sequent fear of the future. There is no landlord and no rent 'r 

While they are charged with living expenses, for food and cloth- 
ing, the colonists never fear meeting the grocery bill, the milk, 
the clothing bill, the laundry bill, the butcher's bill, and other 
inevitable and multitudinous bills that burden the struggling workers 
in the outside world. For the tax bill he has no fear. The colony 
officials attend to the details of all overhead. To colonists the 
amusements, sports, pastimes, dances, entertainments and all edu- 
cational facilities are free. 


WHEN a member of the colony dies his shares and credits 
like any other properly, go to his heirs. Only Caucasians 
are admitted. We have had applications from Negroes, 
Hindus, Mongolians and Malays. The rejection of these applica- 
tions Is not due to race prejudice but because it is not deemed 
expedient to mix races in these communities. 

Llano is twenty miles from Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad. All household goods and other shipments should be 
consigned to the name of the owner, Palmdale, California, care 
Llano Colony. Goods will be looked after by the colony freightman 
until ordered moved to Llano. All shipments should be pre- 
paid, otherwise they cannot be moved and storage or demurrage 
may be charged. Freight transportation between the colony and 
the station is by means of auto trucks. Passengers are carried 
in the coIony*s auto stages. In shipping household goods* it will 

be well to ship only lighter goods. Cookstoves, refrigerators and 
heavy articles should not be shipped from points where freight 
rates are high. 

Individuals may own their own automobiles and many colonists 
do own them. All livestock, poultry, etc., are kept in the depart- 
ments devoted to those industries. The aim is to keep the resi- 
dence portion of the colony clean and sanitary. 


PERSONS cannot be admitted to residence at the colony upon 
the payment of $ 1 0.00 or any other sum less than the 
initial payment fee. Hundreds write and suggest they be al- 
lowed to pay a small amount, or in some cases, nothing at all, 
then enter the colony and work out the remainder of their shares. 
If the colony permitted this there would soon be a hundred thou- 
sand applications. 

The money derived from these initial payments is used to pay 
for land, improvements, machinery, and to carry on the enterprise 
until it is on a paying basis. It takes considerable time to bring 
a large agricultural undertaking to a productive point. The colony 
must proceed along sound financial lines in order to continue its 
present success. This fact must be obvious to all. The manage- 
ment of the Llano del Rio Community has never been unmindful 
of the fact that there is a numberless army that cannot take 
advantage of this plan of co-operation. Many letters come in 
that breathe bitter and deep disappointment. No one could regret 
this more than we do. It is our hope that the day will come 
when successful co-operative groups can say to their stripped, rob- 
bed and exploited brothers: "You who come with willing hands 
and understanding of comradeship and co-operation are welcome." 

Tlie installment plan of payment whereby one pays $10.00 a 
month is proving satisfactory. On this plan the absent comrade 
is providing for the future while his brothers and sisters on the 
land are bearing the brunt of the pioneering. Families entering 
the colony begin to draw from the commissary. Some of the food, 
all the clothing, much of the material they draw, costs money. 
The initial membership fee goes to offset the support of families 
until the colony shall be on a paying basis. 


Following is the plan which has pi oven successful: Each share- 
holder agrees to buy 2,000 shares of capital stock. Each pays 
in cash or installments, $1,000. Each pays in labor, $1,000. Each 
receives a daily wage of $4.00, from which is deducted $1.00 for 
the stock he is working out. From the remainder comes his living 
expenses. Whatever margin he may have above deduction for stock 
and living expenses is credited to his individual account, payable out 
of the surplus profits of the enterprise. If an installment member 
falls ill, is disabled or disemployed, the Colony gives him every op- 
portunity to recover and resume payments. In no case will he be 
crowded. If he finds it impossible to resume payments, we will, 
upon request, issue stock for the full amount he has paid. This is 
transferable and may be sold to his best advantage. In this we will 
endeavor to assist wherever practicable. Corporations are not 
allowed by law to deal in their own stock. 


Write today for an application blank, fill it out and send 
together with a remittance of $10 or more to secure your member- 
ship. You can then arrange to pay $10 a month or more until 
you can so adjust your affairs that you can make final pay- 
ment and join your comrades who have already borne the first 
brunt of pioneering. 

Address Communications regarding membership, general informa- 
tion, etc., to the 


Read of Llano in the LLANO COLONIST, the weekly paper telling 
in detail of what is being achieved, giving an intimate peep into 
the daily lives, the smaller incidents of this growing, thriving in- 

Read, loo, the WESTERN COMRADE, the illustrated monthly 
magazine, giving more complete articles concerning the Colony, 
showing photos illustrating its growth, etc. The editorials, and 
many other special features, are making it one of the leading 
Socialist magazines of today. 

For subscriptions to the Publications, changes of address, etc., 
please write 


Problem of the Boy 

By D. Bobspa 

I SEEK solution of a problem. 
Given Heredity plus Environment, 
I would plot the eccentric curve 
Of the unknown quantity, 

See how the shuttles of Fate 

Play hide and seek 

In interplay 

Of forces varied to produce 

The boy. 

What of Heredity, 
The long-stretched lines 
Of the warp. 
Gift of the misty past to 
The boy? 

What of environment. 
The complicated maze 
Of the woof 
Potent in moulding 
The boy? 

A tired mother, 
Working and exhausted. 
Pauses from her busy duties 
To give joyless birth to 
The boy. 

Hungry and tired. 

He is born into the world. 

The infant. 

Still underfed, grows into 

The boy. 

Hopes and longings 

Burn in that abysmal home. 

And bright pictures of the future 

Steadfast beckon to 

The boy. 

School days are happy. 
In spite of poverty. 

For, toiling through the mire, 
Hope still rules 
The boy. 

The workshop claims him 
And school days are over. 
As Mammon's jaws open wide 
To receive its sacrifice — ■ 
The boy. 

Society approves the crime 
(On greater profits bent). 
While you and I stand condemned 
For the murder of 
The boy. 

His Heredity: the son 

Of all the ages. 

The blood of earth's best workers 

Coursing the veins of 

The boy. 

His environment sordid 
Wove a sorry figure through 
The warp, giving sad answer 
To my problem of 
The boy. 

"Plus Environment." 
Here the problem, then. 
Must start for 
The saving of 
The boy. 

From to-day's environment 
Springs the heredity 
Of to-morrow 
That will strengthen 
The boy. 

A free earth 

Where mothers will be able 
To laugh and grow strong 
To endow with his birthright 
The boy. 

Political Action 


Direct Action 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Cause of the Workers 

Entered as second-class mailer November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

JOB HARRIMAN Managing Editor. «^p» 7 FRANK E. WOLFE Editor. 

Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies 10c; clubs of 4 or mora (in U. S.) 50c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so stated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

VOL. V. 


No. 2 

Editorials « 

Job Harriman 

A NOTHER convention is now called, to be held in New 
■**■ York May 30. The call is issued to Socialist, Labor, 
peace, religious and political organizations. Favorable re- 
sponse is coming in from all parts. Evidently the majority 
report of the Socialist convention has not become a rallying 
point for the American people. 

Many of those who signed and two of those who drafted 
the majority report of the Socialist party convention signed 
the call on the following program. This proves the folly of 
the majority and the w^isdom of the minority report: 

PREAMBLE. — United in our love for America we are convinced 
that we can best serve our country by urging upon our countrymen 
the adoption of the following program: 

1 . PEACE. — The conference favors a speedy and universal peace 
in harmony with the principles outlined by the President of the 
United States and by Revolutionary Russia, and endorsed sub- 
stantially by the Social Democratic organizations of Italy, France, 
Germany and Austria and the liberal and democratic forces of 
England and other countries, namely : 

(a) No forcible annexation of territory. 

(b) No punitive indemnities. 

(c) Free development of all nations. 

We favor all steps leading to international reorganization for the 
inalntenance of peace based upon the principle of obligatory ad- 
judication of disputes among nations, disarmament, neutralization 
of the great waterways, trading on equal terms between all nations, 
and protection of small nations. 

We urge the government of the United States immediately to 
announce its war aims in definite and concrete terms upon the 
above principles and to make efforts to induce the Allied countries 
to make similar declarations, thus informing our public for what 
concrete objects they are called upon to fight and forcing a definite 
expression of war aims on the part of the Central Powers. 

We demand that this country shall make peace the moment its 
announced aims shall have been achieved without waiting for the 
territorial ambitions of the belligerents to be realized. We further 
demand that it shall make no agreement with other governments 
limiting its power so to do or any agreement or understanding 
looking toward an economic war after the war. 

2. DEMOCRACY.— The Conference pledges itself: 

(a) To oppose all laws for compulsory military training and 

(b) To upfrold freedom of conscience and to support conscien- 
tious objectors. 

(c) To defend the constitutional rights of freedom of speech, 
press and assemblage during the war. 

(d) To work for the democratization of the diplomacy of the 
United States, including the principle of the referendum on declara- 
tions of war, and upon concluding alliances with foreign nations. 

3. ECONOMIC POLICIES.-(a) The Conference is opposed to 

the nullification er suspension of progressive labor legislation during 
the war; to the suspension or curtailment of the rights of the 
working class. 

(b) It demands that none of the revenue required for the 
prosecution of the war shall come from taxation of the necessaries 
of life, but that all war funds shall be raised by heavy taxation 
upon profits of war industries, by a heavy and progressive income 
tax, and by federal inheritance taxes. 

It is to be hoped that this convention will give issue to a 
constructive program. The forces of decay are already at 
work in the heart of capitalism. It is our mission to aid in 
the birth of the new order. Socialism, the legitimate child of 
capitalism, is struggling, this moment, to escape from the 
womb. The thing to do during the war, is the all-important 

We cannot resist the inevitable, but we can so take advan- 
tage that our influence will be felt far and wide. 

As a program for this convention, we propose the follow- 


1 . The municipal, state and government owTiership and 
control of all natural resources and productive industries. 

2. Universal suffrage. 

3. Free speech and free press. 

4. Popular vote on declaration of war. 

5. Conscription of all incomes and inheritances. 

6. Conscription of all men and women for industrial 

7. Increased pay for industrial workers. 

8. Institutions for the industrially incapable. 


1 . Speedy and universal peace. 

2. No indemnities. 

3. No annexations. 

4. No foreign alliances. 

5. Complete disarmament of nations. 

6. Compulsory international arbitration. 

7. United States of the World and International 
World Parliament. 

8. Open door for all nations to the sea. 

The new order will submerge property and elevate human- 


The Western Comrade 

ity. In it the mountain peaks of special privilege will be 
leveled to equal opportunity, and the power and influence of 
man will depend upon his own genius and ability. The hour 
has come when man will be man and nothing more. 

This war was started by the rich. It will be ended by the 
poor. In the past the few could be and were inhuman to the 
many; in the future, the many cannot be inhuman to the few. 

The masses are irresistible. The arms of the world are in 
their hands. The governments of the world are conscripting 
the poor and supplying them with the machinery of war. 
Under the pressure of hunger, the poor will assume the con- 
trol of the machinery of government. 

We were opposed to this country entering the war. But 
we have entered. Now we have not power to oppose con- 
scription, and soon the government may not have the power 
to resist the fruits of conscription. 

Commercial and financial necessity forced our government 
to take up arms. 

Efficiency will force government control of the resources 
and the industries. 

Hunger will force world peace, world disarmament, uni- 
versal suffrage, universal labor, and the downfall of capi- 


LITTLE do we dream of the task we have undertaken. We 
have assumed the responsibility of feeding, financing and 
manning a world-war with our base of supplies three thousand 
miles from the field of battle. Between the battlefield and the 
base of supplies lies a ravenous, insatiable ocean, fed by re- 
lentless and untiring submarines. 

Germany is yet the attacking party both in the East and in 
the West. Not one battle of note has yet been fought on Ger- 
man soil. How much more difficult it is to attack than it is 
to defend, the Allies will learn when they move against Ger- 
man forts and over German mines. Such a slaughter as has 
never been known will come in those days. 

Already 45,000,000 men have been lost, wounded and 
killed. Over 7,00,000 have been killed. 

We have sent Russia $1,000,000,000. She agrees to con- 
tinue with the Allies to the end. The resources of the Allies 
and the Central Powers are again about equally balanced, and 
again will they pour their food, money and men into the 
terrible vortex. 

Meanwhile, each nation is seizing all the means of produc- 
tion and is organizing all its men, women and children into a 
productive army. Universal suffrage is rolling like a tidal 
wave over all nations. With anguish of soul and a bleeding 
heart, the world is trampling under foot its old idols and gods, 
money and private property, and is creating a new god — the 
sacredness of human life. In the future, humanity will worship 
at this altar. This altar will be completed when the crowns 
melt, the thrones decay, and when political suffrage and indus- 
trial armies shall have grasped the earth. 

/CONSCRIPTION! What does it mean to the rich, and 
^^ what does it mean to the poor? Shall the rich be em- 
balmed in their riches with the blood of the poor? Is not con- 
scription the call of capitalism? Shall it call the worker and 
leave the capitalist? Shall it call man and leave capital? 
What is there in capital so sacred that it should not be called 
to war? Shall we conscript human lives and leave incomes 
and inheritances? Does the country belong to property or to 
people? Shall property be preserved by bonded indebtedness 
while the people are cast into the trenches to rot? In the eyes 
of war and death, is one man better than another? Does not 
death reduce all men to a common privilege — the tomb? Why, 
then, shall their privileges differ in life? 

Conscription? Why not conscript everybody and every- 

Conscript all natural resources, all industries, all capital, all 
incomes, and all inheritances. 

Conscript every human being. 

Everybody cannot go to war, but everybody can do some 
useful thing. 

Separate the rich from their wealth and make people of 

Unite the people in a common life, in a life of mutual in- 
terest, and use the power of wealth to protect that life — and 
war will be no more. 

War is born out of the struggle for wealth, and not out of 
the hatred of men. 

Conscription of everybody and everything is the highway to 
an early peace and an enduring civilization. 

' I ' HEY tell us that we are in war. And, sure enough, we 
•*■ are. But how did it happen? Who is responsible? Are 
we quite sure that anybody is responsible? Does not the 
majority report of the late Socialist convention state that the 
war in Europe was "the logical outcome of the competitive- 
capitalist system"? And that "the forces of capitalism are 
even more hideously transparent in the war . . of this 

Nobody, but EVERYBODY, who approves and supports 
the capitalist system, is responsible. The blood of the nations 
is upon every hand. 

TVyfEN, money and food — these are the three necessities for 
^^^^ a successful war. 

Volunteer for certain death? The volunteer candidates for 
that country whence no traveler returns are few. No men, no 
army; no army, no war. But we are in war; hence CON- 
SCRIPTION of men. 

A liberty loan to the already bankrupt and defeated allied 
nations from which no interest or principal may return? As 
well expect a miser to feed a missionary as" a banker to back 
a broken reed. No money, no munitions; no munitions, no 

The Western Comrade 


rage seven 

war! But we are in war; hence CONSCRIPTION of money. 

At least, this war will bring money down to a level with 

Plenty of food and low prices, when the world wolf is 
howling at our doors? As well expect a gourmand to dine on 
delicacies as a capitalist system to glut its larder or check its 
greed. High prices: intense activity. But high prices will 
absorb the money. No money: no munitions. Low prices, 
sluggish activity; sluggish activity, no food; no food, no war. 
But we are in war; hence CONSCRIPTION of productive 

Conscription of all productive resources! 

Conscription of all men to operate the resources! 

Conscription of all money for whatsoever purpose! 

This is the only road to a successful war, and to an early 
and lasting peace. 


CAPITALISM is a monster. It is reeking with human gore. 
It is an all-devouring cannibal. It devours the poor, 
builds governments of their blood, and then devours the gov- 
ernments. It develops greed for power in the hearts of men, 
and crushes them with that power. It decays the hearts and 
souls of men, and destroys them because they have not love. 
It is a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal that resounds the 
world around. Whosoever follows it will perish by its hand. 
It is a serpent with a fang for every heart. Whosoever yields 
to its alluring promises will be crushed in its coils. The path- 
ways it makes lead finally to the trenches, to a decaying mass, 
a putrid tomb. 


THE May Western Comrade pointed out the danger of the 
majority report of the St. Louis convention. Events 
have justified the prophecy. 

Not alone the danger to the party — though that is great 

It is the danger to the members of the party who try to 
carry out the admonition of the party press and the party 
leaders to distribute generally the majority report of the con- 

The May Comrade pointed out that the majority report 
could easily be construed by government officials as being 

The "Milwaukee Leader" of May 19 carries the news of 
the first fruits of this campaign of distribution of the majority 

United States authorities raided the headquarters of the 
Socialist Party of Indiana and seized all literature bearing 
on war. 

The raid is thought to be directly traceable to a speech 
made in the United States Senate by Senator Husting, of Wis- 
consin. Senator Husting attacked the majority report on war 
and militarism. 

Socialists must remember that today their rights only e.x- 
ist as official interpretation permits. Despotic powers have 

been granted or have been usurped by over-zealous officials. 

That the persons who formed the St. Louis convention were 
indiscreet or that their judgment was not good has no bearing 
on the case. 

But that innocent and energetic Socialists, hating war and 
the over-riding of liberty and rights, should distribute this 
Majority Report is the concern of every Socialist. 

Party members have been urged by those in whom they 
have the utmost faith and confidence to give the greatest 
possible circulation to the St. Louis majority report. 

Without meaning to do so, those who drafted the report 
are plotting the downfall of their comrades. 

What has happened at Indianapolis may happen anywhere. 
Public officials are empowered to stamp out anything they 
may deem treasonable. 

The public mind is inflamed. 

The majority report contains statements that may easily be 
interpreted as seditious. 

Every Socialist who distributes this literature may subject 
himself to the charge of treason. 

Under date of May 25, Thomas W. Williams, State Secre- 
tary of the Socialist Party of California, writes: 

"I have been notified by the United States District Attorney's 
office of Southern California that the circulation of the Ma- 
jority Report is in contravention of recent Congressional 
action and that the same would not be admissible to the mails 
or for general circulation." 

Not to oppose what we cannot help and what it is too late 
to prevent, but to make the most of the opportunity for edu- 
cating the people to the advantages of co-operation — this is the 
course that can be pursued profitably by Socialists. The war is 
not of our making, but we can take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity it presents to push our propaganda and hasten the day 
of the coming of Socialism. 


IVT OW comes a long line of editorials in the daily press, 
*■ " backed by "influential citizens," demanding that gambling 
in foodstuffs be "prohibited during the war." Is it wrong, 
then, to gamble in food in time of war and right in time of 
peace? Is it possible that influential citizens do not use their 
consciences in time of peace, reserving them for action in time 
of war only? When hunger strikes society above the belt in 
the region of the aristocracy, it seems to awaken "public con- 
science." Conscience becomes terribly rusty when it is so 
long between wars. How freaky a rusty conscience is, any- 
way! Saving food to feed men to kill other men is a freak 
of conscience that passeth all understanding. When gambling 
in food raises prices in times of peace until the poor are 
hungry, it is proof positive that the poor are shiftless and in- 
dolent and should work longer hours. But if prices rise in 
time of war until they annoyingly reach the rich, then gambling 
is a "crime against God and man ! " 

How fortunate it is for this poor world that the rich are 
blessed with a keen conscience! 

Page eight 

About Llano 

The Western Comrade 

Llano's Third May Day By Robert K.winia 


MAY DAY dawned serene and bright. A spirit of an- 
ticipation seemed to pervade the atmosphere. For 
weeks May Day had been talked of and elaborate 

preparations had been made. Visitors from many 

parts of the state and from surrounding states had come to 
spend May Day in Llano. Members not fully paid, and others, 
visited the Colony for the first time and to enjoy the festiv- 
ities of the day. 

The first event of the day was the Pioneers' Parade. The 
first comers to the Colony, with single team and one lone cow 
in the rear, trudged along, representing the full quota of col- 
onists and visible possessions of the Llano del Rio Colony 
in 1914. Following the first pioneers came quite a procession 
of arrivals of the year 1915. The line was headed, of course, 
by the founder. Comrade Job Harriman, and as many others 
of the original board of directors as were in the Colony for 
the celebration. Cheers greeted the members of 1914 aud 

Athletics at Llano on May Day, when a number of Llano athletes made 
excellent records in outdoor sports 

1915 as they passed in review. Something seemed to rise in 
the throats of many as memories of the past surged up while 
they waited the procession. 

A tremendously affecting thing it is to witness a large body 
of people doing the same thing at the same time. When one 
realizes what this group of people are in Llano for, and what 
the trudging group meant, a vision overcoming the hardships 
of the past compensates for everything. After all, it's the 
spirit that counts. 

Athletics were held on the open road and some commend- 
able performances were recorded. The standing jump, the 
mile run, the broad jump and several other events were of 
unusual record. One of the pathetic things of life is to wit- 
ness "old timers" attempt to come back. Age creeps on us 
so slowly and unconsciously, providing one is healthy, that 
waning power is not suspected until the reserve is drawn upon, 
and ageing muscles and reserve fail to respond. Some of us 
who prided ourselves on our ability to jump and do other 
feats of strength, agility and endurance, discover that in the 
mad race for something to eat we have neglected to store 
Nature's power, and when a test came we hit the ground 
like a frog loaded with too many woolly worms. 

For fear people may not know to whom I refer, and think 
it is they that are referred to, I will state that one of my great- 
est joys was to out-jump the other fellow. I'm afraid to men- 
tion how far I used to jump, but of course it was some jump. 
When I stood on the jumping board and looked at the best 
mark I mentally commented on the lack of spring in the other 
fellow. But, but — when I jumped! It was no less a mental 
shock than a bodily one to discover that four or five feet had 
been extracted from my record. However, one bright spot 
remains. I beat one fellow, and it happended to be Assistant 
Superintendent Kilmer. 

Athletics continued during a great part of the day, and the 
results are recorded elsewhere in the LLANO COLONIST, and 
right proud will these vigorous fellows be in after years (when 
our publications will run a column "Forty Years Ago Today") 
when they discover some May Day their names shining forth 
as stars of ancient magnitude. Perhaps forty years from now 
they can sympathize, and appreciate my state of feelings now. 

The crowd congregated within the spacious hall to hear the 
speeches of the day. The hall was filled, as is usual, to 
overflowing. Dr. John Dequer was the first speaker on the 
list. His subject was "The Significance of May Day." Dr. 
John IS an eloquent speaker, and it would be embarrassing 
to him for me to tell what other people said about his speech, 
but really it was inspiring, and the marvel to me is where the 
deuce he learned all the stuff he told us, and how he ever ac- 
quired the mellifluous flow of language. I know lots of people 
twice as old as he is who don't know a quarter as much. 
He touched lightly on the past and buiided on the future. 
He told of the solidarity of labor and what May Day meant 
and would continue to mean. His remarks were highly ap- 
preciated, and prepared the audience to hear Comrade W. A. 
Engle tell of the origin and history of the flag, what it stood 
for and what it should stand for. Comrade Engle has been 
with the Llano movement since its inception and has been a 
close student of its affairs, being one of the board. He has 
also been identified with the labor movement for years. Being 
a public speaker, he acquainted himself with the lore of the 
past and interested the large group with his intimate knowl- 
edge of the flags of the ancients. 

Comrade Job Harriman, the president of the company and 
founder of the institution, arose amid applause and remarked 
that, as the other speakers had gone into past and future, 
he would confine himself to the present and tell of the things 
done and doing. He gave a brief history of the Colony 
and interested many newcomers and inspired them with an 
even greater hope. Comrade Harriman has the happy faculty 
of making things plain. Members arrive so frequently that 
much of the history of the Colony is a closed book, and an 
occasional rehearsing of the past keeps clear the difficulties 
overcome and the plans entertained for the future. 

When these wonderful speeches were going on I regretted 
that I didn't have a memory as permanent and retentive as a 
phonograph record. I am sorry that it is impossible to repeat 
what was said, or to convey to you the mannerisms, the tones 
used and the spirit that ebbed and flowed like a wave, as the 
speakers played up and down the gamut of human emotions. 
As the years pass, and the trials of the present become a 
thing of historic and pleasant memory, those of us that were 
permitted to hear these men will remember, and always with 
a comparison in mind. You've always noticed that things of 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 

yesterday were better than those of today. I used to have a 
pepper-and-salt suit that my sister gave to the missionaries, 
which was the best suit of clothes I ever owned. No tailor 
ever made such a good suit since. It's just the same with the 
buckwheat cakes that Mother used to make. Llano of May 
Day, 1917, will linger as a pleasant memory and no May Day 
can ever again compare, no matter how big or how impressive 
the following ceremonies will be. The first cow, of tender 
memory, which the Colony owned is now spoken of with rev- 
erence and adulation. Ancestor worship is easy of explana- 
tion when one looks at things in the light of passing events. 

At the conclusion of Comrade Harriman's spech the crowd 
repaired to the grove north of the hotel and formed themselves 
in lines to be served at the two places of refreshment with 
barbecued meat and other eatables. Two converging lines of 
people, each almost ten rods in length, filed past the serving 
tables until after three o'clock. Colonists and visitors all en- 
joyed the barbecue. 

The Maypole dance, which was to be given in front of the 
hotel, was transferred to the east side on accout of the west 
wind, which made graceful dancing' difficult. The girls de- 
serve great credit for the performance, which was witnessed 
by a large circle of attentive lookers-on. 

In the evening, promptly at 7:30 — Llano time — the Llano 
Dramatic Company offered its special program — the farce com- 
edy, "The Mishaps of Minerva" — -prepared for May Day. Ar- 
rangements were made for a two-night stand, as the Assembly 
Hall does not accomodate all who wish to attend, and there 
were a hundred visitors in Llano for May Day. So it was de- 
cided to repeat the show on Wednesday night and visitors were 
given first rights on Tuesday night, the hall being well filled 
on both nights, with ushers and doorkeepers handling the 
big crowds. 

The performance was so well given that it has since been 
decided to offer it in the small towns of the valley. With 
twelve amateur but well-trained actors in the cast, with the 
Llano orchestra, with the stage lighted by electricity generated 
by a steam engine rebuilt in Llano, the wiring and installation 
done by Llano electricians and helpers, the stage built by Llano 
carpenters, and the scenery arranged and painted by Llano 
talent, the show could well be called a "home production." 

The play was a two-act production, and the performers had 
their parts so well that interest never flagged for a moment. 
It was well handled throughout and made a decided hit. 

The day finally concluded with the dance, the hall being 
even more crowded with visitors and home people. Everyone 
had a good time, and the third May Day celebration was voted 
a greater success than any of the preceding ones. 

There's a description of the May Day events and, after 
glancing at it, I find it totally inadequate to express just exactly 
what was put into the day. While we all enjoyed the parade, 
the athletics, the addresses, the barbecue, the dance, yet there 
is something more about the whole affair that is clear out of 
reach. I can't express it. No use of me trying, and I don't 
believe any one else can do full justice to the day. There's 
a something about May Day that feels like a Fourth of July, a 
Thanksgiving and a Christmas. The dearth and chill some- 
times here and there, a sadness of joys and sorrows experi- 
enced, and hopes and resolutions for the future of New Years, 
are all combined in this day. When looking at the track events, 
it is not merely a competitor we see; it is not the paraders in 
the march we see when we see the winding cortege. It's 
something else. It's the spirit that we feel, the something in- 
tangible that weaves the universe about and binds human 

Scenes at the barbecue on May Day, showing diners lining up at ihe 
serving stands ; bottom, barbecuing the meat. 

hearts and purposes human minds to a goal far beyond. 

No use talking, there is a spirit in Llano that is unusual. 
There is a community of interest that binds, and it is not 
entirely economics. Powerful though the urge of economics 
is, yet life is a hopeless morass without the sweet interchange 
of human affection. Dollars and property cannot take the 
place of heart throbs, and no callous connection of gold ever 
ties a knot that holds. 

Llano, indeed, stands for something else, quite something 

Page ten 

About Llano 

The Western Comrade 

else, than dollars and property and possessions. Dollars and 
property and rights and titles are absolutely necessary for the 
permanence of our existence, yet if we traded entirely alone 
on this our movement would fail, and our living out here on 
these pleasant slopes would be in vain. 

The story of Llano must be told over and over again. Each 
month sees new readers of our literature, and perhaps for the 
first time in their lives a hope is thereby instilled. The unfor- 
tunate part of it, however, is that many people read their 
hopes into the lines. I am trying to reach the great mass of 
people who have just heard of us but are not acquainted with 
our movement, and make them see conditions as they exist. But 
it's impossible. One man left a note for me when he left for 
his home back East to "enter the treadmill," as he expressed 
it, saying that the literature of Llano did not half express the 
spirit or tell of the things done or the potentialities. This 
made me feel good. Therefore it was some shock to listen to 
a gentleman from the southern part of the state say: "I am 
very much surprised. You haven't got anything done that I 
can see. Three years' work! You haven't accomplished very 

Recently I met a man who lives fifteen miles from here. He 
was here the first few months of the Colony's struggles. He 
told me that he was astonished beyond measure at the devel- 
opment shown. Really he ought to know what he's talking 
about, for he has 1 60 acres and has but thirty cleared, while 
our clearing runs into the hundreds. Another neighbor re- 
marked that we surely had done a lot in three years. He said 
he hadn't done very much in that time. A woman told me 
the other day that she would die if she had to stay here a 
month. Another woman, who went in the same party over the 
ranch, said upon returning that she thought this was the great- 
est place on earth and was going to return here as quickly as 

The Colony is big enough and strong enough to stand up 
under most any strain and can stand knocks as well as boosts. 
While knocks and unpleasant things are not delightful, yet 
they come with a certain welcome and helpfulness, for it keeps 
us from getting overenthusiastic. 

As for myself, I am enthusiastic over the future and present 
possibilities of Llano. There are others here who are not as 
enthusiastic as L There's a reason, of course. There's a rea- 
son for most things. In the early struggles of any enterprise 
every one cannot be expected to be happy and contented. 
Our housing is not and has not been what we want. It's the 
hope of better housing that keeps many of us enthused. Any- 
way people are not constituted alike. I can eat most things. 
Some are not so fortunate, and consequently marvel at my 
internal arrangement. It just happens so, and I take no credit 
for anything. If we have starch, I eat it. If we have some- 
thing else, I eat that also, and say little about it. I was in the 
commissary a few days ago and heard a woman give an order 
for lard. We didn't have any. She wanted to know how 
beans could be made palatable without fat pork. This ques- 
tion disturbed her very much. It wasn't my problem, so I 
could look on with amused tolerance. There are some who eat 
to live and while eating live in the future. Some of us live 
right now, every minute, and the big problem presents itself 
three times a day. A man came with his family, and returned 
to the city because he couldn't obtain eggs and cream at all 
meals. So what is one's problem is of no moment to another, 
but perhaps that other has a hobby on something else and is 
as offensive as possible while dilating on his own likes and 

Hope is a tremendous lever to raise oneself above the an- 

noyances of life. One of the hard jobs is to create something 
out of nothing. Few ever succeed at it. Llano comes nearer 
succeeding at this particular job than anjfwhere else, at least 
in this county. We started with nothing, and worse than noth- 
ing — we were thousands and thousands in debt, wiih an organ- 
ized world against us. We have lived and grown, perhaps not 
fat; at any rate we have lived. The struggles have been hard. 
We had to find men — men of tact and managing ability, and 
men with vision. They are here, lots and lots of them, and 
more will come. But, please, please, do not think Llano is a 
ready-made heaven. It is not. There is work to do. Every 
one with the intelligence of a mosquito knows that labor pro- 
duces everything, and if they know and realize it, they should 
know that all good things come to those who labor for them- 

Llano is set in the midst of competition and it is still an 
unexplained group. Under capitalism and while working for 
the other fellow, it is generally known that the results of one's 
labor goes, in most part, to the owner of the job. Here it is 
not so. The results of labor in Llano, so long as it is pro- 
ductive and constructive, 'go to the mass as a whole, and, in 
proportion, to oneself. This is true. Once the labor here gets 
on a self-supporting basis, the division of the proceeds will not 
go to any small group, but to the group as a whole. 

So far as I can see, the future of Llano lies in the soil and 
its allied industries. I mean by this, farming and cattle or 
live stock. There are many industries that will grow out of 
Llano and be self-supporting as a separate entity, but the suc- 
cess of the whole enterprise depends on land and water. The 
land is here, as is well known; the water is here, too, not 
merely according to my judgment, but according to the experi- 
enced judgment of engineers. A visit to the fountain head of 
the supply of water awakes a new hope in the breast of most 
experienced men. However, this is not universally so. A man 
came here not long ago who lived on the bank of a broad river. 
He said we had no water. Of course not, in comparison with 
the vast stream he was accustomed to. 

A girl about thirty-two, I should judge, told me she was 
accustomed to all the luxuries of the land. I was abashed. 
I felt for a moment as if I was in the presence of greatness, 
and even yet when I am close to a great man or woman I 
shiver, so I shiveringly asked her what particular branch of 
business, if she had one, she followed. She proudly said she 
worked as a domestic in the homes of the rich, and therefore 
the larders were always open to her. Llano held no attrac- 
tions for her, and she left to seek her vision ip the palaces of 
the great overlords. 

The above divergence is to show you that Llano is imprac- 
tical and hopeless to some, and a wonderfully real and hopeful 
theme to another. How do you account for it? A half-dozen 
people sit down at the same table and eat the same thing?, and 
three get sick. Why? Every school of healing will answer 
that question differently. How, then, can Llano be made a 
place of satisfaction to every one? 

Some have left Llano, and more will go, but many more 
will come. Those who remain will be the inheritors of the 
labors of the past. The world is not quite old enough to incul- 
cate the lessons of co-operation sufficiently to make a deep 
and lasting impression. However, the earth is being driven 
to it. The great war is setting the pace, and organization and 
co-operation is now almost worldwide, although the products 
are not distributed on an organized basis as yet. However, 
there's hope of this, and the sooner every one realizes the 
necessity of getting together the quicker will the great food 
and economical problems be worked out. 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 

Page eleven 

May Day 

By Dr. John Dequer 

I AY DAY is of all days a day of joy in every country 

Mnot stricken by the grim hand of war. In time 
of peace May Day is a festival sacred to Labor 

I ' throughout the civilized world. May Day, the day 

of flowers, love and song. May Day, the day when the land 
man sees the growing grain present its promise of a life-givmg 
harvest. May Day embodies the spirit of hope for the year. 
And in working-class circles it embodies the ideal of emancipa- 
tion from economic slavery. It is a day sacred to the hope 
preached by the prophets and teachers of the race. It promises 
to the world that out of the seed of Labor Martyrdom shall 
some day spring a harvest of justice, truth and righteousness. 

The blossommg trees, the flowering shrub, the waving grass, 
the singing bird wth love pain vibrating in its little heart as it 
sits swinging by the nest of its mate, hoping for the safety of 
the brood that is to be, proclaim the natural world filled wth 
the creative passion, proclaim the love hour of Nature. The 
flowers in color, the birds in song, the beasts in their noblest 
bearing, rejoice to-day. All Nature shouts the onward march 
of life. May Day, the day of life triumphant for man and beast. 

Nature as such knows neither war or peace. Only mankind, 
with their artificial society, have strangled love and enthroned 
hate among themselves. They have crushed the heart to make 
room for the brain. They have killed the heart to exalt the 
flesh. Civilization based on class government has opened the 
pit of Gehenna and let destruction loose in the world. 

Throughout the world of Nature there is always struggle 
and death between species. Joy for one is often brought with 
pain for others. Still much of life's span is but love's sweet 
agony. It rewards itself in the new life born. It gives us the 
joyous lamb at play. It gives us the yellow-mouthed nestlings 
on their bed of down. It gives the calf and the colt, trotting 
by their mothers' side. True, they were born in agony, but 
they live in joy. A joy to themselves and the being that bore 
them. They live true to the law that all reach a heaven of 
happiness through the reefs and shoals of pain. We win the 
joy of rest only as a reward for struggle. 

The hawk still preys on the dove only to lay it at the feet of 
its young. The wolf still slays the sheep to feed her cubs. 
The cougar purrs with delight over the carcass of a fawn. All 
Nature is still "red in claw and fang." The love passion is seen 
only in the species, but not between the species. 

Here man is an exception. Civilization has given him power 
and knowledge; it has robbed him of justice and feliov.-ship. 
The natural world slays alien species for food. Man walks 
to the goal of his ambition on carpets of kindred flesh. 

"Yet I doubt not through the ages 

One eternal purpose runs. 
And the thoughts of men are widened 

With the process of the suns!" 
These cruel, heartless, soulless, hypocritical conflicts, who 
knows but they may be the birth pains of a new social organ- 
ization that shall be as beautiful and just as the present is 
powerful and cruel? Who knows but that with the death of 
kings, the fall of thrones, the bankruptcy of treasuries, with 
the ruin of the commissary of the world, will come a new era 
fathered by necessity and mothered by love? But our hopes 
do not alter the realities of the present situation. Our hopes 
do not silence the guns. Our hopes do not break the bayonets. 
Our hopes do not extinguish the bombs. Our hopes do not 
take the man from the ammunition and return him to the plow. 

Our hopes do not stem the crimson tide that stains a thousand 
fields. Our hopes are as vain as our prayers, unless they stim- 
ulate us to action. Unless hoping leads to doing, our hopes 
are of no avail. 

Labor and love are the redemption and the resurrection; 
work and wisdom the portals of salvation for mankind. 

To do the social deeds will ere long not be a venture, but 
a necessity. To care for the broken, the halt and the blind 
made by war will become a universal duty. Love divorced 
from charity, kindness purified by knowledge, humanity com- 
pelled by circumstances, will lay the foundation for a new 
earth. And when the new earth is won, heaven will be gained. 
After this war will be the resurrection. Not the theological 
resurrection of dead men, but the spiritual resurrection of dead 
virtues. Justice, equality and brotherhood will rise as from 
the tombs. After this \var the world will be redeemed from 
the threefold curse of interest, rent and profit. 

After this war we shall see the salvation born of production 
for human needs. We shall be saved from the destruction born 
of avarice and greed. 

When the smoke has cleared and the passion died away 
mankind will celebrate a glorious May Day in a new era — an 
era where the self shall feel its dependence on the whole. We 
shall celebrate a May Day of Nature, taking our children to 
our hearts, instead of to the recruiting stations. 

We will celebrate a May Day by beating our guns into 
tractors and our shells into reapers. We shall celebrate a May 
Day throughout the world as we celebrate it here to-day. 

There is something almost prophetic in the birth of Llano. 
It is more than mere circumstance. Less than four months 
before the outbreak of the war the foundation of Llano was 
laid. The first successful co-operative colony was started. 
Like John of old crying in the wilderness, "Make straight the 
paths of the Lord," so Llano cried from her nest in the desert, 
"Co-operate and live." While the battle raged from Liege 
to Arras, while blood flowed from Riga in Europe to Bagdad 
in Asia, while hell's grim fury grasped all the Old World, 
Llano, small and insignificant, cried its message of peace and' 
union to a bewildered world. She labored to change the dust 
of the desert into gardens of grain. 

She battled with the rocks and thorns of Nature and of 
ignorance. Her literature went out into the highways and 
by\vays, into the fields and hedges. She drew the mind from 
scenes of blood to scenes of peace. Many came and stayed 
to fight with us. Some went back to the jobs and bosses of 
capitalism. To-day we celebrate a victory — a victory not 
without pain, but without blood; a victory not counted in 
dead and wounded, but in fields and orchards, in herds and 
industries. We celebrate a victory of co-operative achieve- 
ments, v.'on against capitalism outside and ignorance inside 
and wilderness under foot. We are battling to wn the state 
of California to our ideals. We seek to conquer the world. 
The Angel of Co-operation has come to redeem us from chaos. 
Necessity, the great transformer of men and institutions, sent 
her. She broods with gentle ardor over a self-sick world. She 
inspires new motives, erects new standards. Through the 
wreck and ruin of the old she moves, breathing hope, inspir- 
ing vision and pointing the way. 

Without her presence Llano would be impossible; without 
her benediction upon the efforts of our brains and hands, man- 
kind would destroy itself. Co-operation is the life and resur- 
rection of the human race. 

Page twelve 


The Western Comrade 



ID you ever meet this popular will-o'-the-wisp? If 
so, you are a very fortunate person, because striving 
for efficiency is like chasing a rainbow. By the time 
you have painfully arrived at the place where it was 
when you started after it, it has danced merrily on ahead, 
leaving you to still struggle onward. 

This term has become very popular in the last few years 
and is handed about as cheerfully and carelessly as a new 
slang phrase is by a bunch of rah! -rah! boys, and a person 
who cannot put "efficiency," "psychology" and "submarine" all 
into the same sentence gets a quiet look of 
pity from his or her companions. 

It was the man in overalls, with greasy 
hands, with black finger-marks on his face, 
with his back covered with dust and his 
pockets sagging with monkey wrenches and 
other miscellaneous hardware from crooked 
wires to crank shafts, that put this term into 
the spotlight and made it pop- 

Efficiency is the 
plishment of results in 
best, easiest and quickest way. 
Now it is a fact that the hu- 
man brain is stimulated to ac- 
tion by watching the opera- 
tion of mechanical devices. 
It is also nearly always neces- 
sary to use mechanical de- 
vices when efforts are made to 
accomplish results in better, 
easier and quicker ways. On 
account of this fact it is 
habitual for mechanics, as a 
rule, to be on the lookout for 
better methods to estimate the 
possibility of satisfying the 
need and to devise methods for the ac- 
complishment of the end in question. 

He has talked about it so much and 
has shown such marvelous results that 
the rest of the world has taken the cue 
and today we see in every line of ac- 
tivity time, energy and money devoted 
to the discovery of better, easier and 
quicker ways of obtaining the desirable 

things of life. Like other good things, man will misuse e 
ciency first and injure himself with it, then, having acquired 
experience, he will make proper use of it. In fact, he is 
going through that process now. He started out to get the 
desirable things of life in the best, quickest and easiest way, 
but he has become so interested in the best, easiest and quick- 
est way that he has lost sight of the fact that it was only 
desirable things that he was after, and the present time finds 
him pulling down on his defenseless head an avalanche of 
very undesirable things, and doing it in the best, easiest and 
quickest way. 

Meanwhile he is making discoveries and at the same time 
the will-o'-the-wisp is dancing along ahead, always out of 
reach. The best, easiest, and quickest way under yesterday's 
conditions becomes the worst, hardest and slowest way under 

Think of the 
First we walked. 

Athletics formed one of 
Day. Below is one 


By L. W. Millsap, Jr. 

tomorrow's conditions and our work becomes only relative to 
surrounding conditions. 

Conditions set our standard and conditions change this stand- 
ard from day to day. If we reach our standard on the day 
it is set by conditions we work at one hundred per cent effi- 
ciency. If we reach it a week later when new standards have 
been set, our percentage is very low, and so the will-o'-the-wisp 
beckons us on. 

change of the standards in transportation. 
It was the best, easiest and quickest way to 
get somewhere. Then we forced another hu- 
man being to carry us. Then we devised 
a seat that could be carried by two individu- 
als. Then we put wheels on this seat and 
dispensed with one individual. Then we put 
an animal in the place of the human being. 
Next we put an engine in place of the animal. 
Then we made the seat larger and carried a 
number of people. Then we 
made the engine smaller and 
still hauled the same load. 
Then we laid rails to run it 
on and lessened the time and 
energy; and so on ad infin- 
itum. The canoe, the steam- 
boat, the ocean liner. The 
bicycle, the automobile. The 
balloon, the airplane. 

Every change made it nec- 
essary for manufacturing 
methods, habits and knowl- 
edge to also change, and ev- 
ery little change anywhere in 
the whole industrial fabric 
was felt eventually through 
the whole mass. 

Confusion? Yes. What of 
it is incident to growth, well 
and good; if it is not, there is no effi- 
ciency. Efficiency lessens confusion, 
change of conditions makes confusion 
in related things because it sets new 
standards. The valuable fact is this: 
the confusion it creates is temporary, 
while the lessening of confusion that it 
makes possible is permanent. 
Let us take a concrete example and analyze it. Suppose 
a man starts manufacturing an article in a small, one-room 
shop, and this grows into a big factory. He adds one machine 
at a time and one building at a time until his plant covers 
several blocks. 

At every step he has aimed to take the best, easiest and 
quickest way, but the chances are strong that he took the 
easiest and quickest way, and gave little thought about whether 
it was the best ultimately. Finally he realizes that something 
is wrong. He is not getting the results, so he analyses the 
situation and he may find something like this : His raw material 
is delivered on one side of the plant while the first process 
takes place on the other side. The processes carry the 
material from one detached building to another till the last 
process finds it at a point clear across the yard from where it 

the chief attactions on May 
of the serivng stands. 


The Western Comrade 


Page ihirleen 

Part of the May Day crowd in line before the serving 

must be delivered to the cars in a finished state. It has taken 
time, energy and money to transport material across those 
yards three times when once would have been much better, 
had the machinery been laid out in the proper order. 

There is no cure but to shut down, move all his buildings, 
change the location of all his processes, and place them so that 
the raw material is delivered at the closest possible point to 
the first process, from which it travels the least possible distance 
to the next process, etc., until when the last process is com- 
pleted it is found at the closest possible point to the place 
from which it may be shipped. 

This is called "straight-line production." It causes tem- 
porary confusion to plan the route for the material in process, 
and then to move all the buildings and machinery to their 
places, in conformity with the proper consecutive order, but 
once it is done, less energy, time and money are required 
from that time on. 

Llano has grown to the point where straight-line production 
must be planned and established in a number of places to pre- 
vent extravagant expenditure of time, energy and money, and, 
while the old way was the best under the conditions that de- 
veloped it, a new standard must be set, and we hope to soon 
have some good examples of straight-line production. 

Another modern efficiency measure is called "division of 
labor." Let us suppose that the labor question is repairing bi- 
cycles. In a shop where jobs are few one man must be able 
to do everything. He receives work, fixes tires, makes ad- 
justments, does brazing and keeps books, or more often does 
not keep them. His business increases and he hires men. 
They all do as he does; that is, they do anything that is nec- 
essary on the job in hand. When his business grows to the 
point where five men are employed he realizes that something 
is wrong. He is losing, the men are dissatisfied, and he does 
not know why. Then he analyzes his trouble and makes a 
discovery. Two men wish to use the same bench at the same 
time and there is a local conflict of interest. One sharpens a 
tool for his purpose and thereby spoils it for his fellow worker. 
One estimates the price on a certain job and another estimates 
a different price on the same job, and there is endless conflict 
and loss. So after some study he changes his whole plan. 
He selects the best fitted man and lets him meet customers, 
and receive and deliver work. Another man is given a bench 
to himself and tools for the purpose, and he opens up the 
trouble and prepares the job for a more skilful man to finish. 
Another is given all the rubber equipment and he fixes all the 
tires. Another does assembling and makes all fine adjustments 
while the fifth does brazing and heavier work. From that mo- 
ment on there is no conflict, the men discover better methods 
of doing the tasks in their division, a spirit of team work de- 
velops and the whole organization radiates success and grows. 

stands in the orchard. Over 1000 people were present. 

These two examples will suffice to indicate methods. Besides 
these there are "quantity production," "standardization," 
"simplification of process," "working to schedule," "motion 
study," "scientific employment," and dozens of other efficiency 
measures that are employed in modern industry. As long as 
these are used to obtain desirable things and work to the ad- 
vantage of all, everything is well, but when they are used for 
purely selfish purposes Nature asserts herself and the punish- 
ment is speedy and certain. 

As Llano grows it is the hope of all that these methods 
will be established as rapidly as circumstances will permit, 
and, as all efforts will be directed to make them function for 
the benefit of all, it is easy to imagine how rapidly the will-o'- 
the-wisp will dance ahead and beckon us on into new fields 
of endeavor. With light hearts we will follow as Nature in- 
tended that we should. 

A Social Puzzle 

SOCIETY sat musing, very sad. 
Upon her people's conduct, which was bad. 
Said she, "I can't imagine why they sin, 
With all the education I put in! 
For instance, why so many maimed and sick 
After their schooling in arithmetic? 
Why should they cheat each other beyond telling 
When they are so well grounded in good spelling? 
They learned geography by land and tribe. 
And yet my statesmen can't refuse a bribe! 
Ought not a thorough knowledge of old Greek 
To lead to that v^^de peace the nations seek? 
And grammar! With their grammar understood. 
Why should they still shed one another's blood? 
Then, lest these ounces of prevention fail, 
I've pounds and tons of cure — of no avail. 
I punish terribly — and I have cause — 
When they so sin aginst my righteous laws." 
"Of grammar?" I enquired. She looked perplexed. 
"For errors in their spelling?" She grew vexed. 
"Failure in mathematics?" "You young fool!" 
She said, "The law don't meddle with the school. 
I teach with care and cost, but never ask 
What conduct follows from the early task. 
My punishment — with all the law's wide reach — 
Is in the lines I don't pretend to teach!" 

I meditated. Does one plant him corn, — 
Then rage because no oranges are born? 

• — C. P. Oilman in "The Forerunner." 

Page fourteen 


The Western Comrade, 

The Socialist City 

By A. Constance Austin 

EVICES for minimizing the labor of housekeeping are 
an important part of the general conception of the 
Socialist city. The frightfully wasteful process by 
which women throw away their time and strength 
and money in a continuous struggle to deal with a ridiculously 
haphazard equipment in the ordinary home is one of the great 
and useless extravagances of the present system. 

In our model city modern schools, with their athletics and 
supervised playgrounds, will relieve the mother of all duties 
except the purely maternal ones of loving counsel, comfort and 
never-failing refuge in the stress of human failings and dis- 

The central kitchens will remove the hatefully monotonous 
drudgery of cooking three meals a day, three hundred and 
sixty-five days in the year, and washing the dishes. A few 
improvements, such as stationary tubs, are in general use in 
the better class of homes in many progressive communities. 
It ought to be a penal offense not to have stationary tubs in 
dwelling houses, just as it is to have anything but sanitary 
plumbing. How many women have I seen bringing on per- 
manent internal disorders by trying to lift the ordinary gal- 
vanized iron tub! However, it is a fact that a very small 
percentage of homes have these modern conveniences as yet. 
In our city the stationary tubs will not be important, as the 
people will own the central laundry and will be able to admin- 
ister it so that their effects will not be damaged by careless- 
ness, rough work and chemicals. It may be desirable to put 
a small outfit in one of the roof bathrooms, so that particular 
people can "do up" a few delicate articles when necessary, 
and hang them up on the roof, where they will get the benefit 
of the full blaze of the sun and will not be a disturbing ele- 
ment in the neighbors' view, as the roof balustrades and per- 
gola will provide seclusion even on the outdoor second story. 

Electricity will contribute its thousand conveniences — light- 
ing, heating, power for vacuum-cleaning and sewing machines, 
egg-beaters, irons and who knows what devices the morrow 
may bring forth in this age of miracles. "Built-in" furniture 
solves the problem of unnecessary labor. Cleaning under 
heavy furniture has always been an element of danger for the 
frailer class of women and a temptation for neglect by the 
careless housewife. Beds that can be swung this way or that 
with a touch, and bookcases and sideboards that are part of 
the wall finish, all mean economy of strength and time and 
the achieving of real sanitary conditions. In the good old 
times the more difficult details of cleaning were often deferred 
by a desperately overworked housewife to a semi-annual 
cyclonic disruption of the home. 

Some of the most beautiful modern homes have tile floors, 
which, beside having the harmonious tones of a Persian rug, 
are the beau-ideal of simplicity of cleaning and absolute clin- 
ical sterilizaton. A plan is contemplated in Llano by which 
their only objection — chilliness — is overcome. Highly finished 
cement is the next choice for floors, providing the same ar- 
rangement is carried out. Both these floors require a number 
of deep-naped small rugs, easily handled and placed in strate- 
gic positions. We expect — indeed, vfe are already making — 
very artistic rugs, which will be available to all our colonists, 
not just the chosen few. Waxed or painted wooden floors 
will probably, however, be preferred by the majority, from 
conformity to habit. The children, however, will have an 
opportunity in this, as in many other lines, to acquire habits 

based on more advanced standards of beauty and simplicity. 

Another household bugbear is the windows. As in the 
model city these are nearly all French windows, and are not 
commanded by the neighbors, and as the breezes of Llano 
will all come over alfalfa fields and grasses of the parks, in- 
stead of dusty streets, they can open, which will call for much 
less cleaning. The glass of the sun parlor will be slightly 
coated with paint, like a conservatory, which will diffuse the 
light and reduce the cleaning to an occasional hosing. The 
sun parlor in any case should have a concrete floor, as it 
should be lined with vines and potted plants, and sprinkled 
every evening just before bedtime by sprinklers so arranged 
that by turning a svkdtch every part could be deluged simulta- 
neously. The same arrangement should obtain in the patio 

It is contemplated to deal with the fly nuisance in Llano 
by permanent self-cleaning fly traps, on wings, which at inter- 
vals would also provide the music. A compartment walled 
with screen netting, roofed with glass, v^ith flowers and grass 
for a floor, could be built onto the outside of the sun parlor, 
which is also the dining room. This should be accessible only 
by a bird-proof turntable door at one end. This arrangement 
could be three feet wide and any length, an unimpeded flight 
of sixty-five feet being possible. A little fountain would give 
them permanent fresh water and baths. As any flies would be 
inevitably attracted to the dining room, the usual arrange- 
ment of some sugar and water and a slit would provide the 
flies with speedy elimination by Nature's method — and the 
birds with healthy exercise and normal conditions, which, how- 
ever, would have to be greatly supplemented, as the fly crop 
would soon cease to be. Llano could incidentally develop a 
very profitable canary-breeding industry. It is thought that 
even mocking-birds could be induced to breed in such normal 
conditions. These and other fly-catchers would have to be 
kept in any case with the canaries, as these last are not fly- 
catchers, but only profit-catchers. Fly screens in the doors 
and windows — prolific source of annoyance and one of the 
little fretting conditions which reduce our vitality and efficiency 
— could thus be eliminated. 

The window curtain is another household scourge. Good 
housekeepers — poor martyrs! — keep up a perpetual round of 
washing and stretching and pressing, under which the delicate 
fabrics quickly succumb and have to be expensively replaced. 
Bad housekeepers have soiled curtains, which are much worse 
than nothing. These ornamental draperies are of no particu- 
lar service in keeping out sunlight or even prying eyes — (when 
real protection is desired, you pull down the shades) — but 
merely soften the lines of painfully crude window frames. A 
much better way of treating all wall openings is to make the 
frame so beautiful that no one will wish to mask it with mus- 
lin. The solid frame itself can be delicately carved in low- 
relief in wood or stone, or painted in subdued designs. A 
whole new art industry could be developed in this almost 
virgin field. The actual opening could be further outlined by 
lacy tracery of wood or metal, which would accent the lovely 
vistas of our parks with a transparent frame visible even at 
night in a darkened room. Under these conditions curtains 
would become a pleasant eccentricity practiced by curtain- 
born housekeepers to whom these little conventions are the 
manifestations of their interests and activities. 

(Continued on Page 26) 

The Western Comrade 


Page fifteen 

Making Wood Pulp for Paper 

By R. A. Barber 

N TAKING up the subject of papermaking, the first 

I step is the preparation of the wood, which is to be 
converted into pulp. Spruce is the best wood for 
the purpose, although other timbers are used, espec- 
ially hemlock. None of the hard woods are suitable. 

The wood is first cut into convenient lengths for handling. 
After the trees have been cut the desired lengths, the bark is 
removed either with drawshaves or axes. If the timber is of 
large dimensions, it is cut into shorter lengths and split into 
blocks of the proper size to be fed into the clipping machines. 

Spruce and hemlock trimmings and cull pieces from saw- 
mills, after being reduced to proper lengths, are also utilized 
in pulpmaking. 

The clipping machines, or chippers, as they are termed, con- 
sist of heavy circular plates revolving at high speed in a sort 
of iron hopper. The opening through which the wood is 
thrust against the knives is box-shaped, between two and three 
feet long and about one foot square. This is set at an angle 
with the revolving plate, which gives a shearing cut to the 
wood. If the pieces of wood to be chipped were presented to 
the knives endwise and at right angles the result would be 
more of a grinding process and would not chip easily. 

These chippers reduce the inserted pieces of wood into chips 

chlorine gas is also mixed with this liquid composition and 
held in solution. The pulp, having been properly screened, is 
now conveyed to the bleach tanks. 

The pulp is again submitted to a washing process in the 
tanks, in which a portion of the bleaching liquid is mixed 
with the water, and as the pulp is conveyed from one tank 
to another the amount of the bleaching liquid is lessened until 
the bleaching is completed. 

The pulp passes from the last bleaching tank over the other 
bleach screens, from whence it is conveyed to another wash- 
ing tank. In this a long wooden drum of a peculiar slatted 
construction is revolving. The bleached pulp is mixed with 
water. The water, laden with pulp, passes into both ends of 
this revolving drum, passing out through the slatted portions. 
This causes the pulp to be thoroughly washed and at the 
same time has a tendency to break up any portion of the pulp 
which may adhere, so that the fibers may be distributed evenly 
through the water. 

The water carrying the clean and bleached pulp passes on 
to another tank, where it is ready to be taken and pressed 
into sheet form. This process will be somewhat difficult to 
describe except in a general way. 

Revolving in the last-named tank, which is about eight feet 

Celebrating May Day. — 
Center and right-hand scenes 
show preparations for serv- 
ing lunch to 1,000 persons. 

of varying sizes. They are carried on an elevater to a re- 
volving wire screen similar to a corn popper, only very much 
larger. From this revolving screen the chips are conveyed 
to shaker screens, which remove all the fine sawdust-like por- 
tions, for the chips must have some length to produce fiber. 

The chips are conveyed from the screens to bins located 
above the digesters. These digesters ar about forty-five feet 
in length and fourteen or fifteen feet in diameter, made of 
steel and lined v^ath brick. The digesters are filled with the 
chips, and a liquid, consisting chiefly of sulphuric acid, is 
poured over them. The whole mass is then cooked with steam 
from seven to eight hours. 

The cooked mass is blown by steam from the digesters into 
a tank with a perforated bottom, where the pulp is thoroughly 
washed with a hose for the purpose of removing the acid, dirt 
and other foreign matter that might have adhered to the wood. 

After being washed, the pulp is passed over what is termed 
the unbleached screens, to remove any portions of the wood 
that may not have yielded to the digesters. The pulp is then 
submitted to a bath, composed mainly of salt electrically treat- 
ed, for the purpose of bleaching. The salt is arranged in 
cells and submitted to a current of electricity, by which chlor- 
ine gas is generated. The bleaching liquid is composed mostly 
of lime and other ingredients having bleaching qualities, and 
is reduced to the proper consistency by adding water. The 

long, is a drum perhaps three feet in diameter, faced with 
rubber corrugated in a circular manner, not longitudinal. As 
this drum revolves in the water it picks up a portion of the 
pulp, which adheres to its corrugated surface. 

Running horizontally above this drum and in close prox- 
imity to it, is a canvas-like sheet about eight feet wide, made 
from pure wool and rather roughly woven. As the drum re- 
volves the pulp meets with the wool canvas and is deposited 
evenly on its surface. The pulp now meets a felt sheet of the 
same width running like a belt over the rollers. The roller run- 
ning close to the woolen sheet is made of some polished metal, 
perhaps steel. It is called the press roll. Directly under this 
metal roll is a similar one, and over this the woolen sheet 
passes. At this point and for some distance the woolen and 
woolen felt sheets run together in close proximity. As the 
pulp is carried along on the surface of the woolen sheet it 
comes in contact with the felt sheet and at the same time 
passes between the press rolls and continues on between the 
felt and woolen sheets. This process squeezes out the surplus 
water from the pulp and at the same time converts the pulp 
into sheet form. Later it passes through a set of press rolls 
and becomes a sheet less than an eighth of an inch in thickness. 

At this point we now have our pulp in a somewhat usable 
shape, but still too moist and tender to be handled. This 
(Continued on Page 26) 

Page sixteen 

Was Schmidt Guilty?— Job Har 

[This is the second installment of Comrade Harriman's address in the 
trial of the Los Angeles Times dynamiting cases.] 

SHALL I say perjury? Yes, perjury! It is easy to say 
perjury. It is easy for the District Attorney to scream 
perjury, which he did, but he showed no evidence. 

I shall not only accuse them of perjury, but I shall let 

the poisoned statements that fell from their putrid lips turn 
like the serpents they are, and sink their poisoned fangs in the 
very hearts of their testimony. 

Let us first consider the testimony of the felon Clark of Cin- 
cinnati — Clark of Goosetown fame; Clark, who stealthily went 
to Goosetown and met a man with a basketful of dynamite, 
twenty pounds of 80 per cent nitro-glycerine ! How re- 
markable! Just the amount and just the per cent that the 
prosecution would have you believe was placed in the Times 
Building. He told you that there were about twenty sticks 
weighing about one pound each; that they lay in his little 
basket without wrappers and did not mash or run together 
during the entire trip from Goosetown to Cincinnati and from 
Cleveland to Dayton, Ohio. 

Eighty per cent nitro-glycerine, in sticks, put out by the 
manufacturer without wrappers, and carried in a warm car 
for hours without running together! What a statement! It 
would tax the ignorance of a mule and the credulity of a 
simpleton to believe it. 

One hundred per cent is oil. Eighty per cent is soft and 
mushy. But listen! He took this mushy stuff and kept it all 
night in his home in Cincinnati and picked it up, stick by 
stick, and gently laid it in his valise and inserted a concussion 
cap according to his instructions, he never having performed 
such a feat before. Then he attached sixty feet of fuse, 
closed the valise and took the first passenger train for Dayton 
to do his deadly work. Do you remember the terrible havoc 
and fearful wreck produced by this infernal machine? 

Listen ! It was raining on that fatal night when he stealthily 
stole his way through the sleeping, peaceful city of Dayton, 
to River Bridge, and thence to the engine and crane, where 
this felon placed his infernal machine. Down close under the 
shoe of the derrick the dynamite was pressed and over it 
was placed, closely and snugly, an umbrella, to shed the 
drenching rain, that nothing might interfere with the deadly 
work. The fuse was lighted and the perjured villain found 
his way to the streets of the city and there waited that he 
might hear the terrible crack and know his work was well 
done. The devilish sound of twenty pounds of 80 per cent 
nitro-glycerine came crashing and roaring through the streets 
and lo! it only blew off the skin of this umbrella! 

Look at it! The cloth is gone, but not a ware is bent or 
twisted. The enamel is not even disturbed. 

Look at it! See the handle! It escaped scot-free! Not 
a crack or a scratch on it! Ah! his initials that he carved 
on the handle before he placed it over this terrible infernal 
machine are likewise undisturbed. Look at them! Placed 
there to tell who was guilty of the crime ! He was not arrested, 
nor was the crane broken, nor any damage of consequence 
done. And for this reason, this perjured felon says he was 
not permitted to continue the work of destruction. Again 
I beseech you to inspect this umbrella. See the ribs and the 
stays and the handle and the staff unbroken and in perfect 
form and shape. You, gentlemen of the jury, know that this 

umbrella is telling you the truth. Every rib and stay tells you 
in no uncertain terms that the felon Clark is a villainous per- 
jurer. They tell you that Clark never placed dynamite under 
the crane of the Dayton bridge. 

They tell you that they were in Cincinnati at home with him 
that night. They tell you that this felon was put upon this 
stand to help hang this defendant with a lie. They tell you 
that the prosecuting attorney knows that the felon Clark was 
giving perjured testimony when he swore that this unscathed 
umbrella frame was pressed close down over twenty pounds 
of eighty per cent nitro-glycerine when it exploded. I had 
rather my blood would curdle in my veins than to present 
such evidence with which to take a human life. He would 
have you believe that twenty pounds of eighty per cent nitro- 



IN the May WESTERN COMRADE, on these pages, an an- 
nouncement was made of the purchase of a great strip of 
territory in the San Joaquin Valley. 

When the article was written and the advertisement inserted 
on the back cover page, all details had been concluded and it seemed 
that the deal was finished. 

But the first negotiations had been made before the United States 
decided to go into the war. The prospects of a long and costly war, 
which would place additional burdens on all of the people, and which 
the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony could not hope to escape, led 
the Board of Directors to reconsider their first unofficial decision. 

A visit was made to the new property. After thb, a thorough 
discussion of the probable costs, the hardships that might be imposed 
by war conditions, and which cannot be foreseen though they may 
be judged by what the warring countries are going through, led the 
directors to take a different view of the matter. 

The result was that they have decided that it is too much to attempt 
under the conditions which the Colony, together with the rest of the 
country, must face. 

Therefore, the land purchase must be laid over, and all energy and 





ilie. \ 










glycerine would twist and tear and break a six-inch steel 
beam while the frail reeds of an umbrella in equal proximity 
would go unscathed. You have a right to expect a lie from 
a felon and an equal right to expect good faith upon the part 
of the District Attorney. The rule is that when one is false in 
one thing that you should look with mistrust upon all he says 
or does. This rule should apply to attorney and witness alike. 

It is upon the testimony of this felon Clark that the prose- 
cution hopes to lead you to believe that violence began prior 
to 1906. 

Now let us turn our attention to Mr. Noel's "tender- 
hearted," angelic felon, Davis of Massachusetts. 

Once he, too, was an iron worker. He was no angel then. 
You should have heard the attorney for the Steel Trust de- 



! ll oper; 

Page seventeen 

riman's Address to the Jury 

scribing his villainous heart to the jury who pronouriced hirn a 
felon; a heart rich in abundance with all the criminal im- 
pulses known to the law. Wings? Not then! Barrels of iron, 
with triggers and nitro-glycerine, told the story of his virtues 
and his means of defense. His wings had not sprouted their. 
Only after he became a witness for the state was it that his 
wings loomed up and his angelic disposition appeared. When 
he was in real life, before he became an angel, and before 
his wings had sprouted, he was the possessor of a brace of 
substantial Colt's revolvers, and, though he wore them behind, 
he was unable to fly with them. Yet by his skillful use of 
them he was able to make others fly. 

A strange and remarkable angel this! He was charged with 
an assault with a deadly weapon. An angel with murder in 

of Error 

sources given to a more extensive and thorough development of the 
esent holdings, amounting to about nine thousand acres. 
The WESTERN COMRADE, in making the announcement, had 
get those pages into print in order to get the magazine out on 
tne. When the article was written, there appeared to be not the 
ghtest doubt but that the deal would be finished before the maga- 
ties reached the readers. In fact, the deal seemed to be definite- 

(kid However, though the particular purchase under consideration was 
i,l( »t put through, it shows what the general plan of the Colony is 
n, id indicates what may be expected as an announcement in the future. 
OBjl Notvnthstanding the fact that there are thousands of acres ad- 
»i«l cent to the Colony that will undoubtedly be acquired, the intention 
Ml the Llano del Rio Colony is to extend the holdings everywhere, 
Jlk curing tracts in various places so that the greatest possible variety 
■ products may be grown on lands owned and controlled by the 
jiip jlony. Wheat lands, cotton lands, tracts suitable for growing many 
III nds of fruits, as well as timber lands and grazing lands, will come 
ithin the control of the Colony when the formulated policy is in 
ill operation. 

his heart, produced here "To tell the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help me God!" 

What a travesty! And upon his word a man shall hang. 
He was as vicious then as he is now, and he is as vicious now 
as he was then. He was a felon then and he is a felon now. 
He was a liar and perjurer then, when he said he was not 
guilty. He is a liar and perjurer now when he says that so- 
called conspirators committed violence before the year 1906. 
Why, McManigal himself describes the first explosion and says 
that Hockin, the ringleader, did not know where to get the 
dynamite when they first met. 

Dugan! Who is Dugan? He is the man who swore that 
J. J. McNamara offered to send him nitro-glycerine early in 
1906. He is a self-confessed felon. Is there a single man on 

this jury who would believe that the prison doors would remain 
open to this felon if he did not tell a story agreeable to the 
prosecution? If his story were true, would it be necessary 
to open the doors to this non-union man in order to get the 
truth? He was expelled from the Iron Workers* Union. If 
the truth were against his enemies would he not tell it without 
a bribe? He is out of prison without bonds. The doors of the 
prison are open to receive him if his story displeases the 9 
prosecution in this case. Do you remember the umbrella story 
of Clark? Is there a man on this jury who can believe that 
the District Attorney did not know that Clark was perjur- 
ing himself when he told that umbrella story? Will the 
same District Attorney not demand as rigidly and receive as 
gladly the perjury from this felon's lips? Do you think that 
the prison doors would be opened to a double murderer in 
order to convict a so-called conspirator, if only to convict him 
of murder? Ah! There is more than human life at stake here. 
There are millions of dollars of profits at stake. And what is 
the life of a human being when money is at stake? 

Destroy the labor unions and possible profits become real. 
Fail, and they disappear. Has not the Steel Trust sufficient 
power to open the doors for the desired perjured testimony? 
Would a man guilty of murder not perjure himself if such per- 
jury would save his own life, even though it helped to murder 
another man? And is it any less a crime in the eyes of the 
prosecution to murder with a lie than to murder with a gun? 

Who is this man Dugan? He is the man who shot and 
killed his wife and wounded his daughter in Indianapolis, In- 
diana, the home of the gentleman assisting in this prosecution. 

WOOLWINE. — That is not in the evidence. 

HARRIMAN. — Get the International Iron Workers' maga- 
zine and I'll read the story of the murder. 

McKENZIE. — That is in the volume published some two 
years after the Times explosion, and was only introduced for 

HARRIMAN. — I beg your pardon. I thought the story of 
his murder was published in an earlier volume. This fact is 
not in evidence and hence this cloud shall be lifted from the 
gloom that shrouds the putrid character of this perjured felon. 
Without further comment I must therefore leave him with you, 
together with the other felons who testified that violence 
began before 1906, 

The purpose of this perjured testimony is to throw the re- 
sponsibility of violence upon organized labor while the oppor- 
tunity was open for a fair fight in an open field. After the 
resolution was passed in 1906 the field was no longer open. 
A fair fight was no longer possible. Not only did the Steel 
Trust hold all the erection and construction companies in line, 
presenting a solid front, by refusing to sell steel to whomsoever 
faltered, and by forcing the association to pay the losses of 
each member, but in addition the Steel Trust, with all its in- 
fluence, was able to direct the power of government against 
these union men. The energetic enforcement of this resolution 
cast a gloom over the entire organization and robbed the Inter- 
national officers of all hope of future success. They, more than 
all others, were conscious of the tremendous power arrayed 
against them. Their organization was dissolving. The men 
could not understand why defeat after defeat awaited them 
on every hand. 

("Was Schmidt Guilty?" began in the May number and will run for 
several months. Back numbers, ten cents a copy.] 

Page eighteen 


The Western Comrade 

Dearer Than Honor 

By Ethel Winger 

SUE WINTER looked up from her text of sociology to 
the couch where Anne Marshall was comfortably 
curled as she read. "I wonder how it feels," Sue 

asked, enviously, "to come back to the dorm and 

visit, and not to have to bother with lessons, to get all the fun 
of college without having classes interrupting your school 
work, to have time to read novels " 

"Why," replied Anne, "you long for some lectures to go to, 
and you get so lonesome for 'em you visit all of Father Flan- 
ders' classes and tag Sunny to his; and I'm NOT reading a 
novel. I'm studying the same thing you are — the same sub- 
ject, that is. The difference lies in the fact that your book 
was written by some hidebound theorizer, in the orthodox 
style, while mine is interesting and deals with realities." 

"Is it the text you used last year?" 

"Heavens, no — child! It is Deming's 'Message to the Mid- 
dle Class.' I wouldn't advise you to mention it to your prof. 
He might get a few ideas, and that would prove fatal. And 
this is 'War — What For?' I'm trying to review some points to 
use in my arguments with Don, to see if I can keep him from 
going off to 'somewhere in France.' " 

"Why, Anne, you wouldn't prevent him from using this 
opportunity to serve his country, would you — and humanity — 
in this war for " 

"Bosh!" returned Anne, with the frankness one bestows on 
a best friend. "You make me sick. Of course, I would. I'll 
read you a letter from a highbrow friend I acquired this year. 
He can explain it to you better than I." She fished in a pocket 
and produced a typewritten page. "Listen : 

^' 'This war situation looks serious, doesn't it? In yester- 
day's paper I saw that they are planning more concentratedly 
on this measure for a 'selective draft.' It has been urged that 
the first installment be taken from those from twenty to twenty- 
five years of age, and of course that includes me. But I shall 
not go, if I can help it; it is against my principles. It is not 
that I am a coward, for I think that it takes more courage 
to face public opinion at home than bullets abroad; it is 
simply that all my instincts are against war — especially UN- 
NECESSARY war, as this is. 

" 'In any national crisis, it is supposed to be every patriot's 
duty to offer his life for the cause, whatever it may be. But 
I think it is his greater duty to investigate the cause, and, if it 
is unworthy, to refuse it allegiance. A war like this is a war 
against social order; it places nationality paramount to mor- 
ality. It denies the teachings of the Prince of Peace. It makes 
beasts and butchers of people who call themselves men. I, for 
one, think we have a greater need for volunteers in the Army 
of Social Service. I could no more go to the trenches and 
wait destruction at the hands of men with whom I have no 
quarrel than I could go fight out here in the streets and kill 
the first passerby ITiappened to see. What is the difference? 
In either case I would be killing innocent strangers, my own 
brothers. I may be a mental coward and a moral pervert, but 
that is my sincere idea on the subject. 

" 'I am convinced that there are others, untouched by capi- 
talistic viewpoints, who feel as I do. Since it has been pro- 
vided that married men probably will not be called out at 
first, the report is significant that six hundred men stood in 
line before the marriage license bureau in one of our large 
cities. I do not consider these men necessarily cowards; prob- 

ably their minds, like mine, revolt against war, and they are 
using every legitimate means to avoid it personally.' 

"And that's exactly how I feel about it! Now, don't you 
start an argument — wait until I get back. It's two o'clock, and 
I promised Father Flanders to be at his lecture room with 
these books of his exactly at two. Where IS my hat?" 

Sue watched while Anne crushed on a small sport hat, 
secured by a band under her chin, and noticed how effectively 
the white felt contrasted with the gleaming black hair, the 
sparkling dark eyes and the rich brunette skin. She was a 
vibrant little figure, there before tbe mirror, hastily dabbing 
powder on her saucy nose, and smiling at her own piquant face 
in the glass. Turning to her friend, she announced: "I want 
your tennis racket." 

"In the corner, dear," returned Sue. "Help yourself. But 

who are you tennising with today — Si, or Toby, or Nobby, 


"Why, Sunny Flanders — of course!" 

"I might have known that. I don't mind you playing tennis 
with him, heaven knows. But I do hate to see you playing on 
that infant's affections; he's too big a dear to be turned into 
a cynic for life. Have a heart! Isn't it enough to flirt with 
the other fellows?" 

"My friend, I'm not playing on anything of his except his 
tennis courts, and at that we usually use the college courts. 
I might flirt with him if he were like the other fellows — if he 
had tissue paper for skin, spaghetti for bones, and sour jelly 
between. But Sunny has too much sense — and I am merely 
his dear, motherly sister." 

"But are you sure that's all? Since you've come back I've 
noticed " 

"I've not a second to listen," Anne broke in, as a dull red 
crept over her face. "If I don't beat it right now Father Flan- 
ders will be permitting himself the extravagance of tearing his 
hair. Thanks for the racket. Bye, beloved; see you later." 
And, playfully tapping her friend farewell with the tennis 
racket, she was gone. 

Sue could not keep her mind on her book. What was Anne 
up to now? Did her blush disprove her words? Was her 
haste an evasion? Sue was sure that something was going on 
beneath that flippancy — but what? She pondered again over 
'^the triumvirate," as Anne had dubbed herself. Professor 
Flanders and his only son — called "Sonny" by his father and 
"Sunny" by the adoring students, who loved his wholesome 
gaiety and refused to take him seriously. Western University 
had smiled indulgently the last two years when Anne would 
accompany the professor on his daily walk; it had grinned in 
open amusement when Anne and Sunny strolled off to the 
tennis courts, while certain upper classmen would watch with 
jealous disgust that "upstart" playing with the most popular 
girl in school. But Western University was frankly puzzled 
when Anne, Sunny and his father would go off every holiday, 
laden with inviting baskets, for a hike along the river. Anne 
was reckless. Sue thought. If Professor Flanders, a widower 
as he was, had not been the oldest, gentlest, most loved man 
on the faculty — of the scholarly, classical type you would ex- 
pect in a Latin professor — and if Sunny had not been so irre- 
pressibly boyish, friends with all the girls, but "queening" 
with none; and if Anne had not, notwithstanding her lack of 
conventionality, warmed her way into everybody's heart and 
stayed there because of her human touch, her comprehending 

The Western Comrade 


Page nineteen 

sympathy and her unending vivacity, she might have created 
a lot of gossip. But the three were so childhke in their enjoy- 
ment of each other, so frank in their affection, that nobody 
had the heart to disapprove. They merely pulled Anne away 
for as many engagements as possible outside the little circle, 
and wondered whether Anne were more interested in father 
or son and if father or son were more intrested in her. No- 
body knew — except Sue. Sf-fE knew that Anne always called 
the professor "father" and that during the entire course she 
had given him a daughter's affection and received a fatherly 
love in return. With him she discussed all her ambitions, her 
tendencies, her affairs, as well as philosophical questions of 
the day, in which Anne was unusually well versed for a girl 
of her age. Not until Sunny entered college, in Anne's third 
year, had she grown acquainted with him and gradually devel- 
oped a sisterly affection for him. Anne had understood, as 
did Sue, that Sunny had a keen mind. He had taken all the 
available honors and scholarships as he went along, in spite 
of his relative youth, but, like the rest of the students, she 
never took him seriously, and laujhed and played with him. 

ing the campus the following week when her school was out. 
Sue determined to learn the true state of affairs. But, when 
Anne had arrived, they had so many places to go, and so many 
people to see, that they seemed never to have time for their 
old, intimate talks. And if conversation became gradually 
serious Anne would interrupt suddenly with some appoint- 
ment, as she had this morning, saying, perhaps, "To be con- 
tinued in our next." Well, Anne's visit would last a week 

longer, and some time 

The clock, striking half-past two, interrupted Sue's medita- 
tions. She sprang up, looked with chagrin at her unfinished 
assignment, snatched a sweater and, dashing off, was soon in 
the classroom, buried in the professor's serious explanation of 
the present war as a war for humanity, quite unconscious of 
the fact that, a floor above, Anne was having a talk with 
"Father Flanders" in the Latin room, and that they, too, were 
discussing the war and the drafting situation. 

"Come, father," Anne was saying at the window, "just look 
at that group of boys down there. It's Si and Toby and Nobby 

The reception room of 
the new dormitory, un- 
finished, was used by the 
Western Comrade for a 
display booth ; besides 
the Comrade exhibit, a 
model of the Austin house 
plan was demonstrated to 
residents and visitors. 

and quarreled with him, in a big-sister attitude. Hers was 
the superior wisdom of twenty-three, looking down on the 
boyish precocity of nineteen. And she was inclined to 
"mother" him. 

But Sue wondered. Did Anne realize what Sue had grown 
to suspect — that something lay deeper in Sunny's mind than 
that childish comradeship ? She had watched him after Anne's 
graduation. A more serious look, somehow, was in his eyes. 
And Sue, as Anne's best friend, had noticed, because she saw 
more of him than anybody else. And she realized that it 
was largely because she was Anne's friend that Sunny sought 
her out very often. Always he would speak of her chum, and 
ask what news she had; and when Anne's long, entertaining 
letters came they would laugh and talk over them. Sunny 
was always happier on those days, and Sue named them 
"Sunny days." Did Anne realize what she was doing to 
him? Had her unusual knowledge of human nature, as ap- 
plied to everybody else, failed her with Sunny because she 
never took him seriously? If Sunny had only been like the 
other fellows it would not have been so bad! When Sunny 
had triumphantly produced a letter from Anne, telling of visit- 

Perkins. I love every one of 'em. They're all such manly 
fellows — you don't find many of THEIR kind, even in this old 
university. They're just getting in from surveying. Look at 
them — tall, strong young fellows — 'fine material for the army,' 
as the speaker said in assembly this morning. Just think of it, 
father! The very type of men our country will need for con- 
structive, not destructive, work. Yet, any time, they may be 
called out to the war and they'll go — and never come back, 
perhaps. They think it's their duty! You read those para- 
graphs of my letter — that's the way I feel. Father, you are 
the person who taught me Socialism, even if the college author- 
ities don't know it. You gave me this book, 'War — ^What 
For?' and you understand it better than I. So you understand 
what I feel when I say I'd rather see Si and Toby and Nobby — 
yes, even Sunny! — and I like him best of all — I say I'd rather 
see them shot for treason for refusal to serve, if worst should 
come to worst, than to see them go back on their sense of 
right, their principle, and join the army! Wouldnt YOU? 
Wouldn't YOU rather see them die in the face of public opin- 
ion, martyrs to the cause of truth, than see them go off amid 
the cheers of the populace — to war — to die — however gal- 

Page twenty 


The Western Comrade 

lantly — martyrs to the cause of the munition - makers? 
Wouldn't YOU?" 

Anne's voice was tense. Her hands were clenched. Every 
muscle of her body was taut. Her blazing eyes, seeking those 
of the professor's, softened as she saw his had dimmed during 
her appeal, and she noted his anguish as he turned away and 
sank into a chair. But, still tense, she waited for a reply. 

"Theoretically, yes, daughter." His voice quavered to a 
whisper. "Practically " 

The negation was clearly expressed, although he uttered no 
word. His head fell to his hands on the desk before him, and 
suddenly there swept through Anne the poignant sensation of 
his own anguish — with her own sorrow for him added to it. 
She knew that he was crying over and over in his heart, "My 
son! My sonny boy!" And because convention meant noth- 
ing to Anne, and because she was impulsively human, she 
went to the arm of his chair and put her arm around the old 
man's shoulder. 

"Don't, father. ... I didn't realize how I was hurting 
you. I didn't realize ... I don't yet . . . but I 
understand . . . something of what Sunny means to you. 
I've never known a mother — or any father but you, or any 
brother but Sunny. And I never quite knew what it meant. 
I see better now that I was wrong — and selfish. I shouldn't 
have said that." 

For a long time they sat in silence, neither trusting to speak. 
Then Anne went over again to the window. She caught a 
glimpse of Sunny, tennis racket in hand, going to the library 
— to meet her. All at once there was a tug at her heart. 
Glancing quickly away, she found the professor at her side, 
looking at her. She could not bear the pain in his eyes, for 
she felt the tears growing in hers as she .turned away. He 
spoke : 

"You were right, • daughter — you were quite right. Dis- 
believing in war, and understanding many of the reasons why 
we are involved in this one, I should, in all honor, sacrifice, if 
needed, even my own son to that truth. You, as nobody else, 
understand a little how wrapped up I am in him — how dear 
he is to me — how doubly dear because he cost me his mother's 
life, and because I promised her always to take care of him, 
the care she would have given him. And it is easier for you 
and Sonny to have such strong hearts in a matter of this kind. 
Your aspirations are untried; your hopes are new. The world 
has not yet laid its heavy hand upon you. But I — I have 
lived most of my life now, and in living I learned deeply the 
truth you were reading in that book: that we may hold honor 
dearer than life, but that we cannot — MOST of us cannot — 
hold it dearer than the lives of those dearest to us. In Sonny 
I see his mother living again — Tier sweetness, her sympathy, 
her joyousness, her simplicity. Yet he does not lack the manly 
qualities, the manly strength, in whicTi I failed today. HE 
would Sacrifice his life for that principle, but I — I cannot! — 
would not! were a choice given me, sacrifice my boy! My 
boy! Always my boy, to me. If he is taken, I would die!" 

There had never been such a moment in Anne's lifetime. 
In the presence of his emotion a sword seemed to pierce her 
own heart also. She loved him as she loved nobody else in 
the world. He had been a father to her. And it came over 
her, the truth of what he said: She might be able to sacrifice 
herself — or Sonny — for honor, but she could not bear to see 
her father bear the sacrifice of his son! For her father was 
dearer than honor! Dearer, perhaps, because he was not her 
real father, for a real father would have owed her the kind- 
ness that he had shown her from choice. That, in her life, was 
the thing that had always touched her girlish gratitude. He 

had given her so much of a father's love, vvithout having had 
a father's responsibility. But he was speaking. 

"It has been so, my whole life. I have been a coward — 
not for myself, but for others. It is as this book tells you. 
I was wheat; I hated tares. Yet I have not been willing to 
have all the tares pulled, because some of my wheat might 
come with it. 

"I had the usual expensive, orthodox classical training of 
the men of my day, of my class. Not till I was almost forty 
did I finally embrace Socialism. My travels and researches 
had prevented saving. But I still felt young and brave. Then 
I married. I had my chair in the college, and my work here 
was all I was fitted for. Sunny 's mother was delicate. It 
would be only a few years, I thought, until I would be able to 
get a start. I would stay here quietly and not advertise my 
new belief until I was in a better position to do so — until she 
would get better. But she never did. For her sake, I had to 
provide a few of the best things of life. I could not risk losing 
my position by flaunting my opinions for a while. Then when 
she died and left me Sunny, it was the same thing over. He 
was a sickly child, and I was so afraid of losing him. I kept 
him under a doctor's constant care. It was expensive. It was 
important to Iceep my place. 

"Gradually I gave up all my plans. I was getting old. It 
seemed a hopeless game. I have kept my new light of truth 
under a bushel. For after all I was only a Latin professor, 
even though I was as high up as most in the profession. My 
temperament, my training, were unfitted for propaganda work. 
I have found little time for writing, and I dared not publish 
the manuscripts I had. So I have contented myself with in- 
direct influence, lending my books mostly to young tradesmen 
in the town, and I am giving night lessons in English to the 
mechanics. They get my books, and perhaps after all my in- 
fluence has been as great as if I had not been what I am, in 
a way, a hypocrite." 

"You have! I know it!" cried Anne. "You have put me 
and others on the right track. And so you HAVE been actively 
working in the field. But there is Sunny again. What would 
you do if HE were called out?" 

"I would have him go — if he will — and hope for the hope- 
less chance that he may be spared. And then " His voice 


Something in Anne seemed to snap, and she burst out in 
a sudden blaze of passion: "Father! Isn't it terrible that 
we who know why — and how — the proposed war may be, that 
we who are not the dupes of public opinion, the press, the 
preachers, the capitalists, are forced by circumstances to sub- 
mit! Or, perhaps, if the militaristic spirit increases, to risk 
our lives by refusal! There are thousands who think they are 
fighting for democracy, for their homes, when they go to war. 
Knowing their sincerity, I can only admire their courage. 
But how CAN they think they are fighting autocracy, as op- 
posed to democracy, by slaughtering the workers of the na- 
tions? How can they think they are fighting to defend their 
homes by overthrowing the same kind of homes of the same 
kind of people, with whom thev have no quarrel and whom 
they have never seen? How blindly thev will fight at the 
command of their autocrats! Why can't they see the root of 
things? We can't help them — they won't be helped. We 
can't tell them — they won't listen. And we can't help the 
ones who DO know the causes but who are the victims just 
the same — like Si and Nobby and Toby and Sunny! Surelv 
something will be done — a brighter, sunnier dav will 

dawn " She saw her growing incoherency and flushed, 

but plunged on. "I haven't any right to be selfish, I know. 

The Western Comrade 


Page twenty-one 

How can I hope that Sunny and MY friends will be spared — 
and hope that other girls' brothers and friends will be killed 
instead? But Sunny, in his fineness, his wholesomeness, like 
a ray of sunlight on a gloomy day, a breath of fresh air in 
a vitiated atmosphere — to see all THAT wasted — don't, 
father! If he goes, I will be more than your own daughter — 
you will always have me, you know." A tear dropped on the 
sill before her, falling on the open letter she had read to him. 
It struck the last paragraph. Dumbly she looked at it, uncon- 
scious, and suddenly its meaning flashed to her. "Since it has 
been rumored that married men probably will not be called 

out at first " Anne's heart skipped a beat and then went 

pounding away. What an idea! COULD she? A musical 
chime, contrasting with her turbulent mood, sang slowly 
through the hour. 

"Three o'clock already!" she exclaimed. "I promised to 
play with Sunny at three. And listen, father! I've first 
thought of a way out — maybe. I'll tell you later." She tried 
to laugh, but it was a hysterical little laugh, and impulsively 
she kissed the professor right on the bald top of his bowed 
head. Laughing again, now merrily, she had seized her racket 
and was tapping down the steps before the astonished man 
could recover his senses. 

As Anne hurried through the building she forced her face 
into its usual expression, pausing at the door to make sure 
that her smile was on straight. Then, with an effort, she fell 
into her long, athletic stride. She made a vivid picture in 
her white middy suit, with its blue collar and red tie, for the 
last hour had put a heightened color in her face and a deeper 
flash to her eyes. The freshmen all turned to stare, for she 
was a stranger to them. To avoid the students thronging the 
class, she "cut campus," something no underclassmen would 
dare to do; but in spite of her hurry she was delayed all 
along the way by juniors in their corduroys asking how long 
she would be there, and by the seniors, distinguished by their 
somber sombreros, who wanted to know if they could go to 
the movies or some dance that night, or to-raorrow night, or 
the next. 

Sunny, watching impatiently from a library v^indow, saw 
all this, and tried in vain to kill a certain green monster inside' 
him, which, like the beast of Hercules, seemed to grow larger 
with every blow given it. As Anne neared the building he 
suddenly became absorbed in his "History of Art" and, with 
splendid concentrated enthusiasm, began taking notes from 
his book. He wrote: "Fra Angelico (1387-1455). Painted 
madonnas of the gentle, insipid type, like that Toby out there. 
Same inane grin that would make you wonder if anybody were 
home, if you didn't know already there wasn't." He seemed 
to derive comfort from the process, and he continued. "Fra 
Filippo Lippi (1402-1469). Too bad that Guy Perkins wasn't 
named that — would just have suited him. It's a double- 
decked shame that Titian (1477-1576) died before he saw 
that tie Si Lentz is wearing; he might have got a few new 
ideas in coloring " 

He fumed a page, for he sensed, rather than saw, Anne 
coming toward him, pausing to whisper some greeting to 
students at various tables. With painstaking care he was 
writing out: "Ghirlandajo (1449-14 )" when an un- 
ceremonious poke from Anne's racket closed his book and gave 
him the cue to look up, registering complete surprise. 

"What do you think this is?" demanded Anne mih mock 
severity. "Greek art? Then kindly stir your pediment 
groups, or all the courts w{\\ be full." 

Sunny looked significantly from the clock to the face above 
his chair and, rising, prepared to go. As they started he sug- 

gested, still significantly: "Who is twenty minutes late al- 
ready? A gentleman of honor keeps his appointments re- 
ligiously — religiously, get that?" 

They were hurrying along the campus now. "I left father's 
room promptly at three," defended Anne. "That old library 
clock " 

"Is exactly with the chime. It seems to me it takes you a 
long time to walk half a block." He grinned at her — sig- 
nificantly again. "If you're that slow on the count, I won't 
have any trouble in beating you in love-games today," he 
added, and wished he had not, for somehow that sounded 
significant, too. So he began to bounce the balls alternately 
against the ground. 

"Better conserve your energy, then," Anne warned, "if 
you're going to beat me. A year of wielding the birch should 
have improved my strong right arm." But she hardly knew 
what she said, and walked along in silence. Somehow all her 
old "pep," physical and mental, deserted her. She must 
think hard how to break the news to him. Well, she would 
wait until the game. She threw herself into serving with all 
her might. But she could not play! And so her most igno- 
minious defeat in all their history went on record. Sunny 
won two sets of love-games! 

He approached her at the net with grave solemnity. "This 
is too cruel. I won't play any more with you; it's too much 
like the regulation but reprehensible habit of taking candy 
from kids." 

"Why!" exclaimed Anne, with airy indignation. "I merely 
gave these two to you, so you wouldn't feel so badly next 
set " 

Sunny 's immoderate laughter interrupted her. "Har! Har! 
She says she gave 'em to me! All right — I took 'em. Now 
I'll take your racket, too, and we'll take a hike, but first you'll 
take my sweater, or you might lake cold, and " 

"You seem to be good at taking everything but sugges- 
tions," cut in Anne, icily — a favorite pose, and one which 
Sunny hugely enjoyed. 

"Sure. I'll take suggestions, too. Got any for me?" 

"The biggest one you ever saw." A wave of crimson 
spread over her face. 

"I've got a suggestion, too — this: S'pose you tell yours? 
What is it?" 

No answer. 

"What is it?" 

No answer. 

"All right," he conceded. "I'll have nothing but silence, 
and but very little of that." 

Anne laughed — "I was just thinking." 

Sunny clasped his hands and rolled his eyes piously to the 
skies. "Thank heaven for that," he intoned, fervently. 

But somehow the usual careless badinage fell flat. They 
both sensed it and quit talking. How long they walked, with 
only occasional remarks, they scarcely realized until Anne 
called attention to the sunset. 

"We'll watch it from here." Sunny pulled her to a log. 
"This seat was made for us. Rest your back against the tree." 

Anne obeyed as a child might have done. He looked at her 
closely. "You're tired," he said, gently. 

Something in his tone made a thrill quiver through her 
body. "You're cold, too — poor girl ! Let me pull your collar 
up." His fingers tenderly buttoned the throat of the sweater, 
and when he had finished he let his arm remain around her 

She made no motion of restraint, but sat with half-closed 
(Continued on Page 26) 

Page twenty-two 


The Western Comrade 

Forcing System in Farming 

By Wesley Zornes 

LANO points the way. The world is in the throes of 
a death struggle. Germany is fighting for industrial 
supremacy. The United States, due to her commer- 
cial relations, has been drawn into the terrible vortex. 

The food supply is dwindling. The people are facing a situ- 
ation which means undernourished and underfed men, women 
and children. 

In this world crisis every eye is turned toward the farmers, 
and appeals are being sent out in order that they may see the 
seriousness of the situation. Every available means to increase 
the food supply of the nation is being sought. Under the in- 
struction of trained agriculturists, lots and even lawns are be- 
ing planted to garden stuffs, and still the cost of living con- 
tinues to climb. 

hi spite of President Wilson's earnest appeal to the farmers 
and the speculators in farm products not to speculate on the 
nation's foodstuffs, every farmer is planting the crop that will 
bring him the most returns. 

Lots are being held at exorbitant rentals by real estate 
sharks, gamblers in the nation's welfare. The South is still 
planting cotton, because cotton will bring better returns than 
other crops. The President's appeals go unheeded in the mad 
rush for profit. 

In spite of the urgent requests of the Department of Agri- 
culture, a very large proportion of the land is standing idle. 
Some of the best agricultural lands of the sunny Southland are 
left as harborers of weeds. Land that should be growing from 
two to three crops of vegetables yearly are only producing 
one. Sometimes total failure rewards the poor serf or renter. 

Fine potato soil is being planted to barley, for more ready 
cash can be had from hay at the present price. Large walnut 
groves are left totally barren. Wide strips of land that could 
be producing foodstuffs are left to leach away, in utter dis- 
regard for the fertility of the soil. 

Farm owners, in a great many cases, live in the city and 
rent. The renter must get as much as possible from the soil, 
for rentals must be met. They naturally, sometimes through 
ignorance, often wilfully, crop the soil until almost depleted, 
and then move to another tract. In a great many cases no 
attempt is made to replace the wasted elements of the soil. In 
Virginia there are large tracts of land ruined by continued 
tobacco growing. Similar conditions are prevalent in almost 
any large agricultural region in the United States. 

According to the Agricultural Year Book, 1 9 1 4, no Southern 
state is giving sufficient attention to the producton of food- 
stuffs, either for human beings or live stock. The state of 
Texas imports annually more than fifty million dollars' worth 
of wheat, corn and oats. 

Individualism in agriculture has outgrown its usefulness. Its 
utter disregard for soil fertility and its waste in the application 
of labor has in the present crisis shown us that a more efficient 
method of handling our soils must be evolved, or our country 
will perish in the struggle for existence. Inefficiency and gross 
neglect present themselves on every hand. The crisis is near. 
We must produce more foodstuffs. The great agricultural 
revolution is upon us. Our farms must be intensified. Machine 
methods must be evolved, for, with war devastating the world, 
the flower and manhood of our land will be called to the colors. 
Labor will be scarce. 

Large farm tractors will become an actual necessity. Al- 
ready manufacturers have had an increased demand for trac- 

tors, due to the prohibitive price of horse feed. The small 
farmer will cease to be a factor. He will soon find himself in 
competition with machine methods, and as the hand mechanic 
has been replaced by machine labor, so will the small farmer 
be forced to the wall by superior methods of production. 

J. Ogden Armour, head of the meat trust, is advocating 
socialized production in order to increase the food supply. 
Secretary Lane threatened possible confiscation by the gov- 
ernment of all unused lands in reclamation tracts of the West. 

Agriculturists of the country favor a great industrial army, 
which would be controlled by the government. Edward Bel- 
lamy's great industrial army, it seems, is about to materialize. 

As the war progresses, the great powers will be forced, 
through economic stress, to adopt the most up-to-date and 
scientific methods known to agriculture. Upon the agricultural 
output depends the final outcome of the terrible struggle which 
marks the beginning of the decay of individualism. 

What is to be done? The nation stands helpless against the 
fangs of the speculator and the land shark. Individual inef- 
ficiency spells national failure. We have preacher-farmers; 
doctors, lawyers and even school teachers have tried hard at 
winning a sustenance from Nature. 

Trained agriculturalists represent a helpless minority of the 
great composite whole. Individually they are lost in the mael- 
strom of prejudice and superstition that has befogged the 
brains of so-called farmers for years. Collectively, their train- 
ing can be used and transmuted for the good of all. 

Through their direction waste places will bloom. Soils will 
be adapted to the crops. Soils will be rebuilded. Great tracts 
of wheat lands throughout the Middle West can, with methods 
already evolved, double the yield. What ignorance has torn 
down, science will rebuild. The ignorant doubting Thomas 
who has an orchard full of weeds will be relegated to the 
junk heap. 

With experts at the head of every department, efficiency is 
an assumed fact. Instead of mechanical and professional 
farmers, Llano's Agricultural Department will be a department 
of trained farmers. Llano's farm is a farm of specialization. 
Rapidly specialists are heading every department. This idea 
of specialization is growing, and not only will there be special- 
ized farmers, but specialized workmen. 

Out of chaos we have one guiding star. Llano stands as a 
monument, around which will grow the great agricultural 
future — Llano, our hope, our vision; the guiding hand of 
progress, that points the way from industrial chaos into the 
Great Co-operative Commonwealth of the future. 

When is a Cow Profitable? 

(J. W. Ridgway, Texas A. and M. College.) 
One cannot too often emphasize the importance of every 
dairyman keeping a record of the individual performance of 
every cow in his herd. This subject has been worn threadbare 
at every dairy meeting held during the last ten years. Never- 
theless, dairymen must realize that it is the only means by 
which they can realize their source of profits, and unless they 
do this they are in the dark regarding their business, and no 
individual or concern can prosper under such conditions. The 
fact is outstanding that a cow producing under 200 pounds of 
butterfat in a year is an unprofitable cow. In this connec- 
tion, attention should be called to the value of the manure, a 
by-product which is often overlooked. 

The Western Comrade 


Page twenty-three 

News and Views in Agriculture 

How to Plant Vegetables 

(United States Department of Agriculture.) 

ANY home gardeners wish to know whether it is safe 
to plant any vegetables in the open ground while 
there is still some likelihood of light frosts. To aid 
these home gardeners, the specialists have worked 
out the following grouping of the common vegetables accord- 
ing to their ability, if planted in the open, to withstand spring 
frosts. These directions do not apply, of course, to the plant- 
ing of seeds in hotbeds or seed boxes to secure plants which 
afterwards are to be transplanted. 

Group 1 . — Plants not injured by a light frost. These may 
be planted as soon as the soil can be put in good condition: 
Cabbage, Irish potatoes, early peas (smooth types as distin- 
guished from wrinkled), onion sets, and salad crops, such as 
kale, spinach and mustard. At the same time start in seed 
boxes in the house or in hotbeds tomatoes, eggplant, peppers 
and cauliflower. 

Group 2. — ^Vegetables which should be planted only after 
danger of hard frost is over: Lettuce, radishes, parsnips, car- 
rots, beets, wrinkled peas and early sweet corn. 

Group 3. — These should be planted after all danger of hard 
frost is past: String beans and sweet corn (late varieties). 
A few early tomato plants may also be set out, but care should 
be taken to protect them from any sudden chilly weather, by 
providing a shelter of newspapers, boxes, etc. 

Group 4. — This group should not be planted until all danger 
of frost is past and the ground has thoroughly warmed up. 
Included in this would be: Cucumbers, melons, squashes, 
pumpkins, Lima beans, tomatoes, eggplant and peppers. Plants 
of tomatoes, eggplant and peppers which have been grown in 
boxes or hotbeds should be ready to set in the open at this 

In order to insure a steady supply of vegetables, crops like 
beans, peas and lettuce may be planted every three or four 
weeks, whenever the space is available. Some of these can be 
planted in the spaces made available by removing the other 

If your garden is small, do not attempt to grow potatoes or 
late sweet corn. It is better to select half a dozen crops which 
the family likes than to grow fifteen or twenty. If the size of 
your plot is less than 40x100 feet, or 4,000 square feet, it 
usually is not advisable to grow late potatoes or late varieties 
or sweet corn. 

Succulent vegetables of all sorts contribute bulk to the diet, 
and so are valuable from the standpoint of hygiene, because 
within limits bulkiness is a favorable condition for normal 
digestion and also of importance in overcoming a tendency to 
constipation. They are also among the important sources of 
necessary mineral matters in the ordinary diet. 

¥ * * 

Rural Credits 

(Dr. Ellwood Mead, University of California.) 

The passage of the farm loan bank act creates a new era in 
financing the farmer. The act grew out of the increasing 
needs of the farmer for money. Farms have to be better 
equipped, more money is needed to carry them on. It costs 
more to grow fruit and other Kigh-priced crops than it used to 
cost to grow wheat. In every way the farm requires more 
money in its operation than it did twenty-five years ago. But 

wfe have just come to realize that fact. We have passed a law 
that looks after the interest and business and commercial en- 
terprise which enables farmers to get money at a reasonable 
price and on the right terms. But until the passage of the 
farm loan act there was no means provided that would help 
the farmer to get money at a reasoinable rate of interest or 
on long enough time to enable him to pay it back out of the 
earnings of his farm. This act will give the farmer forty 
years of time, with the privilege of paying up at any time 
within five years. It will enable him to pay it off in uniform 
yearly payments, instead of having to pay it off in a single 
large payment or in a few large payments. If, as seems prob- 
able, money can be furnished at 5 per cent, then the addition 
of the payment of 1 per cent on the principal, or 6 per cent 
in all, will pay off a debt in thirty-six years. In other words, 
under this act the farmer can pay off his debt, principal and 
interest, with a lower annual payment than he now makes for 
interest alone. It is expected that these banks will be ready 
to do business this spring. 

V ¥ V 

Dried Pears Profitable 

(F. G. Stokes, Horticultural Commissioner, Kelseyville, Cal.) 

The demand for dried pears is certainly on the increase, 
the markets ever widening and the price with an upward ten- 
dency. The question as to whether or not to dry pears is gen- 
erally settled by the price paid for the particular product, 
there being much variation in the sugar content and texture 
of the Bartlett, whether irrigated or non-irrigated, and by the 
ratio of evaporation from ripe fruit to dried. Where pears in 
one county dry out from four and five pounds green to one 
pound dried, in many other localities the ratio is as high as 
six and seven to one. The higher the ratio, naturally, the 
higher the cost of manufacturing the dried ton for market. 
Where it costs, without figuring on wear and tear of plant and 
interest on investment, from $35 to $40 labor, etc., to turn 
off each dried ton, in some other places it costs $50 or more, 
assuming the same scale of wages to be paid; and then, on 
the side, it might take one or two tons more of the fruit per 
dried ton. For this reason alone, many counties find it more 
profitable to sell their pears green to the canner or in nearby 
cities or to ship in refrigerator cars to the Eastern markets. 

Choosing Breed of Swine 

(United States Farmers' Bulletin.) 

There is no best breed of swine. Some breeds are superior 
to others in certain respects, and one breed may be better 
adapted than another to certain local conditions. The essen- 
tial point is that after the farmer has once decided upon the 
kind of hog to raise, he should stick to his decision and develop 
the chosen breed to its highest possible standard. It is not 
feasible for one individual to raise several different breeds and 
bring them to perfection. In making his choice, too, the farmer 
should be guided by the kind of breeds already established in 
his locality. If he selects one of these, he is not likely to make 
a mistake. . . . There are two distinct types of swine — 
namely, the lard and bacon types. The principal breeds of the 
lard type are the Poland-China, Berkshire, Chester White, 
Duroc-Jersey and Hampshire. The principal breeds of the 
bacon type are the Tamworth and large Yorkshire, both of 
British origin. 

Page twenty-four 


The Western Comrade 

Co-operation the World Over 

Notes About the Chief Co-operatives Gleaned from Many Sources 

The Extent of Co-operation in The United States. 

It is roughly estimated that there are 870 co-operative stores in this 
country. Only two out of the forty-eight states of the Union have been 
reported as not having co-operative stores. Perhaps fifty of these are 
prospering; the remainder are not on a firm basis, and are struggling 
for life because of the inexperience and disloyalty of members within 
the group and vicious competition on the outside. Notwithstanding these 
drawbacks, however, the future for the co-operative movement in the 
United States was never brighter. 

The greatest success in the co-operative store movement has been at- 
tained by the United Mine Workers in Illinois. The membership of these 
stores consist of several different nationalities, yet complete harmony 
reigns constantly. Twelve of these stores in one quarter did a business 
of $200,000.00, and declared an average dividend on purchases of over 
eight per cent. These Illinois stores are federated into what is known 
as the Central States Co-operative Society, have a central auditing system, 
plan to establish central buying, and intend to unite with the store so- 
cieties of neighboring states. 

Co-operation among the farming class is growing by leaps and bounds. 
The Farmers' Educational and Co-operative Union is active in hventy-three 
states and has three and a half million members. The purpose of this 
organization is to encourage all forms of co-operalion. The organized 
farmers in Oklahoma have a hundred successful co-operative stores. One 
of the most important agrarian movements is the Non-Partisan League in 
the Northwestern States, the purpose of which is to organize a general 
revolt of the farming element against exploitation by affiliating with the 
labor unions and by establishing agricultural co-operatives. This move- 
ment is, perhaps, the most powerful in America. Co-operative marketing 
organizations are springing up by the hundreds. In California, this move- 
ment is best typified by the California Associated Raisin Company, the 
California Fruit Growers* Exchange and the California Almond Growers' 

Industrial or mechanical co-operation has not been so successful. 
Usually this is due to the failure of the organizations to work in connection 
with the organized consumer. Among the successful ones, however, can 
be mentioned three glass companies, one boot and shoe concern, two 
laundries, three barrel manufacturing companies, five bakeries and three 
cigar factories. The Independent Harvester Company has several thou- 
sand farmer members. Five successful silk co-operatives exist in Pater- 
son, New Jersey. Three highly successful printing and publishing co- 
operatives are operated by the Finns in Chicago. 
» ♦ » 

An Illustration of Practical Co-operation. 

From Arcadia, Florida, comes an instance of the value of co-operation 
and the broad spirit of mutual helpfulness which it inculcates. The orange 
growers of that community are associated into an organization known as 
the Associated Orange Growers. During February, a hard frost damaged 
the orange crop, and many of the members would have secured nothing 
for the year's work had it not been for the co-operative spirit shown by 
the more fortunate ones. The extent of the damage was determined by 
the Association, and sixty per cent of the value of the total crop was 
voted to each member, regardless of the damage suffered by each indi- 
vidual. Men who had not suffered were paid but sixty per cent of the 
worth of their crop. Those who had no crop to sell were paid sixty 
per cent of the value of the crop they might have had had no frost 
injured it. The fortunate shared with the unfortunate, and each member 
fared comfortably as a result of the year's work. 

Effect of War on the Co-operative Movement 

In considering developments likely to affect the general welfare of the 
movement after the war, it is well that we should remember the things 
that have gone before. For nothing else proves how very ably the co- 
operative movement has kept its head, so to speak. Its cautiousness 
may be said to be the chief factor of its stability. The outbreak of war 
brought with it all the possibihties of an economic crisis ; commercial break- 
down seemed imminent. The co-operative movement, however, remained 
wonderfully true to its traditions, did much to avert a food panic, and 
kept retail prices at normal levels in many places while its pre-war 
stocks lasted. During the war it has further demonstrated the value of 

working-class control of the means of life as a check to profiteering. 
During 1915 some 210,714 new members joined the movement, taking 
its total membership to close upon the four-million figure. Its sales in- 
creased by fourteen and a half millions, while its total sales reached the 
gigantic sum of one hundred and two millions. The financial position 
of the movement is practically unaffected by the war. It fact, it may 
claim to have been strengthened by the general prosperity of the move- 
ment and the growing utilization by the Trades Unions of co-operative 
banking facilities. No section of the nation has stood more firm, in 
fact, all through the changes of the war than the co-operative move- 
ment. Statistics prove it will emerge from the war considerably stronger, 
in membership, finances, and one dares to add, moral purpose. — George 
Stanton in Co-operators' Year Book, England. 
¥ ¥ ¥ 

Shortage of Tin for Canned Goods. 

All tin is likely to be commandeered by the English Government. All 
co-operative societies using tins for packing and other purposes are 
preparing for a future shortage. — The Producer, England. 

9 if- !/■ 

Canadian Co-operative Apple Production. 

Canadian apples today are known the world over, and, while the 
industry is still in its infancy in some parts of the Dominion, it is well 
established in others, as, for instance, in Nova Scotia, where for some 
years past the organization of co-operative fruit companies has made 
notable progress. There are now over thirty-two of these, and most of 
them are in the combination known as The United Fruit Companies, 
which probably handles something like half the season's apple crop of 
the province. — Walter Haydn in The Producer, England. 

Co-operation the Keystone of Civilization 

Modern civihzation is based upon confidence and co-operation. Con- 
fidence is the foundation upon which all modern business rests; co-opera- 
tion, the keystone that unites the separate units and gives strength to 
the whole structure. The progress and advancement of a certain article 
together with its trade prestige or superiorities, are usually found in exactly 
that degree that its producers may have co-operated to that end. — Cali- 
fornia Almond Growers* Exchange. 

» * » 

Value of Growers' Organizations 

The value of growers' organizations is no longer a matter for theoret- 
ical discussion. It is a demonstrated, practical business fact, now in ac- 
tual successful business operation. It is also not true that co-operative 
business is extravagant and inefficient. This is a purely theoretical asser- 
tion which "practical" men have parroted so often that they have hyp- 
notized themselves into believing it. The chief wastages, extravagances 
and crookednesses are, and always have been, in private business. 
"The best-run agricultural marketing institutions in existence are the semi- 
governmental Landwirtschaftsrath organizations in Germany, and the com- 
pletely governmental currant cartel in Greece and coffee pool in Brazil. 
Illiterate Russian peasants, in their political mirs, look after their farming 
business better than their educated neighbors under private ownership. 
If the evidence of facts means anything, it means that the traditional 
business theory about private efficiency and co-operative inefficiency is 
a pure hallucination. — Fresno Morning Republican. 

* * * 

Government Issues Bulletin on Co-operation 

The importance of the modern co-operative movement is shown by the 
fact that the United States Department of Agriculture has recently issued 
a bulletin from the Office of Markets and Rural Organization which deals 
exhaustively with the subject of co-operative stores in the United States. 
The history of the movement is delved into, the plan of organization in 
general treated comprehensively, and the methods of financing, crediting, 
purchasing, selling and accounting discussed in a broad manner. The pub- 
lication is written by J. A. Bexell, Dean of the School of Commerce, Ore- 
gon Agricultural College; Hector McPherson, Director, Bureau of Mar- 
kets, Oregon Agricultural College; and W. H. Kerr, Investigator in Market 
Business Practice, Office of Markets and Rural Organizations, United States 
Department of Agriculture. The bulletin may be secured by writing to 
the Department for Department Bulletin No, 394. 

The Western Comrade 

Book Reviews 

Page twenty-five 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books ^^ ^- ^-tspa 

"The Truth About the Medical Profession." 

"The Truth About the Medical Profession" gives the views of an hon- 
est physician, J. A. Bevan, M. D. Humor and sarcasm, ridicule and satire, 
abound in the philosophical book. The introduction by the son of Dr. 
Bevan, Mr. Gordon Bevan, and his notes constitute a large part of the 
text. The bugaboos of the medical world are shown in broad daylight, and 
the reader of this treatise will no longer fear the quackery of (he medical 
leeches upon society. 

The author bases his philosophy on economic study and disease 
found to be in large measure the result of low wages, ignorance of the 
people, and the need of the physicians to operate for practice on the 
poor that they may filch large fees for similar operations on the ricli. 
Operations, vaccination, the doping wth drugs, and the whole range of 
medical hocus-pocus that helps to kill off the human race and keep the 
people from getting their share of the world's goods, find an enemy who 
intelligently dissects their hollow claims. 

It is shown clearly that it is absolutely impossible for the medical pro- 
fession to be honest and live. Dr. Bevan quotes examples of the criminal 
ignorance where the medicine killed p?.tients — contending that medicine 
hampers nature in its cures and any patient will recover far better without 
than with the concoctions guessed at by physicians. 

But it is by no means only as an exposure of the quackery of medicine 
the book is worth while. Dr. Bevan and his equally gifted son have 
caught a broad vision of democracy. They have brought to bear on their 
philosophical studies a wide range of general information and clear intel- 
lects. Hardly a phase of human activity is left out of the rapid-fire survey 
of human society. The medical craft is only one of the many-sided citadel 
of special privilege attacked by the Bevans. Their little book ought to be 
vndely circulated. It is time humanity cast aside the hoary myths of the 
Dark Ages. We laugh at the "medicine man" of the naked savage and 
submit calmly to more silly and far deadlier practices on the part of our 
own bungling physicians. "The Truth About the Medical Profession" 
ought to circulate as freely as the Sanger propaganda and the Walsh re- 
port. It is a sane, non-hysterical, economic, philosophical, human docu- 
ment with an enlightening message. (Price $1. Published by the author, 
914 Myrtle street, Oakland, Cal.) 

* * * 

"In the Claws of the German Eagle." 

The first sane book on the Great War from the pen of a newspaper 
correspondent has fallen into my hands. Albert F^iys Williams tells his 
experiences of the early days of the conflict in 1914 in his sketches, "In 
the Claws of the German Eagle." Mr. Williams spent seven years as a 
social worker in the slums of Boston and New York ; so mere battle sights 
were tame to him. He dedicates his book "to those who see beyond the 
red mists of war." In our present state of national hysteria it will be 
well to read this unbiased book by a cool-headed American. 

He tells of the unavailing search of weeks in all Belgium for a bona fide 
atrocity specimen. There were terrible evidences of the full horror of war. 
but the atrocity victims were always "back in such and such a village, etc." 

"Let no one attempt to gloss the cruelties perpetrated in Belgium," he 
continues. "My individual wish is to see them pictured as crimson as 
possible, that men may the fiercer revolt against the shame and horror 
of this red butchery called war. But this is a record of just one observer's 
reactions and experiences in the war zone. After weeks in tlfll contested 
ground, the word 'atrocity' now calls to my mind hardly anything I saw 
in Belgium, but always the savageries I have witnessed at home in America. 

"For example, the organized frightfulness that I once witnessed in Bos- 
ton. Around the strikers picketing a factory were the police in full force 
and a gang of thugs. Suddenly, at the signal of a shrill whistle, sticks 
were drawn from under coats and, right and left, men were felled to the 
cobblestones. . . . If in normal times these men can lay aside every 
semblance of decency and turn into raging fiends, how much greater cause 
is there for such a transformation to be wrought under stress of war when, 
by government decree, the sixth commandment is suspended and killing 
has become glorified. At any rate my experiences in America make cred- 
ible the tales told in Belgium." 

Much of the author's aplomb came from his experiences with Gremberg, 
a Belgian private. "If I had been born a Boche, I know that I would act 
just like any Boche. I would do just as 1 was ordered to." "But the men 
who do the ordering, the officers and military caste, the whole Prussian 
outfit y "Well, I have it in for that crowd, but you see I'm a Socialist, 
and I know they can't help it. They get their orders from the capital- 

ists." . . . "Well, I suppose that you are pretty well cured of your 
Socialism, because it failed, like everything else." "Yes, it did, but at any 
rate the people are surprised at Socialists killing one another — not at the 
Christians. And anyhow if there had been twice as many priests and 
churches and la\vyers and high officials that would not have delayed the 
war. It would have come sooner; but if there had been twice as many 
Socialists there would have been no war." 

A picture of Gremberg forms the frontispiece of the volume — one of the 
many graphic pictures from war photographs. The writer is fair and 
unprejudiced. He gives scores of intimate pictures of life in both the armies 
of the Allies and of the Germans in those early days of the war. (New 
York. E. P. Dutton & Co.) 

* * * 

"The Principles of Natural Taxation." 

C. B. Fillerbrown, author of "A. B. C. of Taxation" and "Taxation," 
brings his subject to date in "The Principles of Natural Taxation." "show- 
ing the origin and progress of plans for the payment of all public expense 
from economic rent." The book contains portraits of Henry George, Ed- 
win Burgess, Sir John Macdonnell and Thomas G. Shearman. Part I., "The 
Authorities," deals with Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Patrick Edward 
Dove, Edwin Burgess, Sir John Macdonnell, Henry George, Rev. Edward 
McGlynn and Thomas G. Shearman. The second part treats of the fol- 
lowing sidelights: "A Burdenless Tax: The Threefold Support Upon 
Which the Single Tax Rests"; "Land: The Rent Concept — the Property 
Concept" ; "Taxation and Housing : The Taxation of Privilege" ; '"Thirty 
Years of Henry George, with a Record of Achievements"; Henry George 
and the "Economists"; "The Professors and the Single Tax"; "A Cate- 
chism of Natural Taxation." The appendix reviews briefly the theories 
of the Physiocrats, Thomas Spence, William Ogilvie, Thomas Paine and 
Herbert Spencer. 

"The object of this compilation," writes Mr. Fillerbrown, "is to trace 
the metamorphosis of the land question into the rent question ; of the 
equal right to land into the joint right to the rent of the land; of the 
common use of the earth into the collective enjoyment of ground rent ; of 
the nationalization of land into the socialization of its rent; of private 
property in land, including the private appropriation of its rent, into the 
public appropriation of that rent without disturbance of the private own- 
ership of land." 

There is a great deal of matter that will be new to most general read- 
ers. In view of the national indorsement of the Great Adventure cam- 
paign in California to restore the land to the people immediately, the 
volume should have a special national significance. (Chicago. A. C. 
McClurg & Co.) 

» » » 

"Social Forces in American History." 

A comrade in Kentucky a few years ago took A. M. Simons' "Social 
Forces in American History" and James Oneal's "Workers in American 
History" as his texts. It was nearly a year before the parents learned 
what he was doing to their children. He is now out of the teaching pro- 
fession. You can't have the truths of American history taught in the 
American schools. You were taught a lot of lies cooked up to make you 
patient slaves. 

The People's College of Fort Scott, Kansas, is conducting a low-priced 
course in American history, conducted by Mr. Simons, consisting of thirty 
lessons. You can learn all about it in a booklet giving the outline of 
the course by sending a card to the college. The studies are based prin- 
cipally on "Social Forces in American History." 

Recently I have looked over the revised edition of this volume. It 
Is one of those books that ought to be in every home, for surely it Is worth 
while for the working class to know the truth about American history. 

Do you know what three Inventions destroyed feudalism? That most 
of the "Revolutionary fathers," including Samuel Adams and George 
Washington, were smugglers and land speculators? That the organized 
labor movement of a century ago demanded universal suffrage and founded 
our public school system? Why the first labor unions after the Civil War 
were secret organizations? These and scores equally valuable are tolj 
by Simons in his history. It Is based on the best researches of the lead- 
ing college authorities, nad not one fact is in dispute. Yet not one school 
In America except the People's College dares proclaim it as its textbook. 
It is written in calm and scientific language, in scholarly style. (New York. 
The Macmillan Company.) 

Page twenty-six 

The Western Comrade 

Dearer Than Honor 

(Continued from page twenty-one) 

eyes, watching the dying colors of the sky. She had thought 
it was going to be easy — but NOW ! 

Impulsively she reached out and took his hand. That 
would make it easier. Suddenly she stiffened up, and slowly, 
haltingly at first, she began the dreaded "suggestion." Then 
fluently, eagerly, earnestly, she threw herself into her words, 
for that was Anne's way. Unfolding her plan, she held his 
startled, fascinated gaze, explaining, as she went, her reasons 
for it. Then abruptly she stopped and dropped his hand. 
She had poured out her impulsive plans and now she felt 
cold. A dull feeling of pain surged over her, and mih the 
fleeting of her impulse came the frantic wish that she had 
not spoken. What could he think? If he would only say 
something! She looked at him; the misery in her eyes was 
matched in his. 

"Anne!" His words seemed a cry, although he spoke 
quietly. "Ever since you've known me you've been hurting 
me. The time you spilled hot sulphuric acid in the lab, and 
it burned through my tennis shoes to my instep; the day you 
accidentally scratched my arm with your absurdly long finger- 
nails; and when you scarred my face with your ridiculous 
fencing. And all the time you've treated me like a baby, and 
flinted with all the other fellows. But all that was nothing 
to this — when you imply that you want to make a sacrifice of 
yourself and marry me just to keep me from having to go to 
war. Maybe I'm just a kid. But I'm old for my years, in 
spite of what you all think. I'm more of a man than you 
think. I'd rather die a thousand times than do that! Just to 
keep me and father from being hurt! " 

"You don't care, then?" breathed Anne, abashed at his 

"About dying? No! When you feel that way. About 
YOU, Anne? I've always cared! I think you knew that 
even if I never told you. You wouldn't have taken me any 
more seriously than the others. I am just that young upstart." 

His bitterness stung her. She, too, was suffering. She 
put her hand on his shoulder. "But Sunny — there's your 
father; and I can't see any other way out if the 'selective 
draft' takes the proposed form. If you go to war and get 
killed, it will kill him. I told you everything he said. You 
are dearer to him than his life — his honor. You don't like 
the idea. But it might save his life. Your father. Sunny — 
isn't HE as dear to you — as LIFE?" 

"You know he is ! " he exclaimed, hotly, "and in honor I 
should be willing to do this thing — since you wish it. But 
you are forgetting the rest of what you said. My father is 
dearer than honor, and even for honor's sake I could not 
sacrifice YOU!" 

Anne had not foreseen this. It was something terrible — yet 
wonderful! For a moment she forgot her plea, and asked, 
smilingly tremulous: "But the old Spanish idea. Sunny? T 
had not loved thee half so well loved I not honor more!' " 

"That is a theory! I don't believe it! If it is true, I am 
a coward." He stood up and looked down at her. "Anne! 
what are you doing?' He stooped t© pull her hands away 
from her face. "Anne! Don't — please!" 

She arose and, unashamed, let the tears fall down her cheeks. 

"Don't, Anne ! " he begged. "You say you wish it, but it is 
just one of your sympathetic impulses — perhaps a sense of 
duty toward father and me. It isn't right. You don't love 
me — I've known that too well! And I cannot let you do it — 

even for father's sake. Such a sacrifice from anybody would 
be horrible. From YOU, Anne, it vvould be intolerable ! " 

"Sunny, dear." Her voice shook, but she met his eyes 
squarely and she put both hands on his shoulders. "Maybe 
you did know part of the truth before, but it's wrong, now. 
I knew you pretty well — better than I knew myself; and, even 
if I didn't admit it to myself, I did know that you cared for 
me. . . . But I didn't know, till now, that I really cared 
for you, too — that way." 

The Socialist City 

(Continued from page fourteen) 

It must be remembered that women are as individual in 
their tastes and abilities as men, only their expression has been 
rigidly repressed into one channel by their economic slavery 
through the ages. The fact that the girl very commonly "takes 
after" the father, would be enough in itself to vitiate the 
theory of the intrinsic conventionality of women. Relieved 
of the thankless and unending drudgery of an inconceivably 
stupid and inefficient system, by which her labors are confis- 
cated and her burdens aggravated in every possible way, she 
springs forward with astonishing elasticity and power. To 
accuse her of lack of originality and organizing capacity is most 
unjust. These manifestations have been imputed to her as 
crimes. She has been most strictly drilled from babyhood to 
isolation in the home and to conformity, while her brother was 
stimulated to aggressive individuality by contact with the larger 
world. In the Socialist City the home will no longer be a 
Procustian bed to which each feminine personality must be 
made to conform by whatever maiming or fatal spiritual or 
intellectual oppression, but a peaceful and beautiful environ- 
ment in which she will have leisure to pursue her duties as 
wife and mother, which are now usually neglected in the over- 
whelming press of cooking and cleaning. 

She will also have fime in the intervals of her rightful 
occupations, or when they are unfortunately denied her, for 
the activities which are personal expressions, her individual 
contribution to the welfare of the community. 

Making Wood Pulp for Paper 

(Continued from page fifteen) 

brings us t** the drying process, which consists of a series of 
hollow iron drums, thirty-eight in nuniber — one row of nine- 
teen above the other, but not directly so, the edge of the upper 
being over the center of the lower. These drums are some- 
what longer than the sheet of pulp to be dried and are heated 
on the inside vnth the exhaust steam from the engines. 

As these drums revolve slowly the damp sheet of pulp passes 
over them, first over the top one and then down under the 
lower one, and so on through the series of drums in a con- 
tinuous ribbon-like sheet of snowy whiteness. After the sheet 
leaves the drums it is reeled on a shaft about sixteen inches 
in diameter. As it is being reeled, two circular, knife-edged 
disks cut the sheets into three sections as it is wound into a roll. 

After the roll has acquired the proper size, the three sec- 
tions are taken from the shaft on which they have been wound, 
and each section is wrapped with the same material, cut in 
proper dimensions for the purpose, and bound and tied with 
heavy cord. 

In this form the pulp is then shipped to regular paper mills, 
where it is converted into paper for high-class magazines and 
other higTi-class paper. 

The Western Comrade 

Page twenty-seven 

First American Conference for Democracy 

and Terms of Peace 


EALIZATION of the futility of the convention of the 
Socialist party held in St. Louis, April 7, and which 
adopted a majority report that has already involved 
prominent Socialists in trouble with the authorities, 
has undoubtedly animated some of those prominent in thai 
convention who are instrumental in calling the First American 
Conference for Democracy and Terms of Peace, May 30, 

Some of the cooler heads at the St. Louis convention 
warned the convention of the danger in which they placed 
themselves and their comrades in adopting and recommendmg 
for circulation the majority report adopted at that time. The 
"Milwaukee Leader" under date of May 19 in a news item 
reports . . "United States authorities, without warrant or 
observing any process of law, raided' the state headquarters 
of the Socialist party of Indiana and seized all literature 
bearing on war. . . The raid is thought to be due to a 
speech made in the Senate of the United States by Hustings, 
Wisconsin, when he bitterly attacked the majority report on 
war and militarism of the National Socialist Convention." 

The WESTERN COMEUDE, in editorials, pointed out the 
danger contained in the majority report. Already the danger 
has been made apparent. California representatives were un- 
able to carry through their clearly outlined program of con- 
structive measures, pertinent to the needs of the day and 
built on the vital issues of the war. 

The New York conference is assumed to be called by those 
who realize that the Socialists of America have failed at the 
moment of the supreme test. There is no other radical or- 
ganization envisioned to the degree of being able to see 
through the immediate issues of the day on toward the end 
of the war with its reconstruction period. American SociaHsts 
are denied, by the American government, the right to partici- 
pate in the convention called to be he'd in Stockholm; pass- 
ports will not be given them and severe penalties are threat- 
ened for any American Socialists who defy the government and 
take part. American Socialists have not justified the United 
States government in believing they are wholly loyal and the 
attitude will be unfavorable to them so long as this condition 

There is left, then, no organized movement in the United 
States that is gifted with foresight to plan ahead. Therefore, 
leading Socialists, radicals of other activities, and those prom- 
inent in great social movements have united in calling the 
conference. Invitations have been sent broadcast, as follows: 

You are cordially invited to participate in the First American 
Conference for Democracy and Terms of Peace, which is to be 
held in New York City on May 30th and 31st. 

The purpose of this conference will be to clarify public opinion 
of the issues arising out of America's participation in the war ; to 
devise means for safeguardmg American liberty and democracy: and 
to formulate the demands of forward-looking Americans as to the 
terms of the commg peace. 

It is also hoped that from this gathering will result such co- 
operation, co-ordination, and solidarity of the democratic forces of 
this country as will make their voice most effective in the councils 
of the nation. 

The enclosed tentative platform will serve as the basis for the 
discussions of the conference. It is presupposed that organizations 
and individuals participating are in substantial agreement with the 
principles set forth therein. 

We eamesly request that you appoint delegates to represent your 

organization at the conference. Kindly facilitate the administration 
of the undertaking by a prompt reply. 
Very sincerely your, 

Former President, Boston Woman's Trade Union League 

Organizer Inter'l Mine, Mill and Smelter 'Workers Union 

Member National Committee of the Socialist Party. 

The reason for the conference is given in the "Call to 
Action," which states: 


It is now less than six weeks since the United States entered 
the world war. In that short space of time the grip of militarist 
hysteria has fastened itself upon the country; conscription is being 
placed upon our statute books ; the pernicious "gag" bill is about 
to be forced through Congress ; standards to safeguard labor, 
carefully built up through years, have been swept aside; the right 
of free speech has been assailed ; halls have been closed against 
public discussion, meetings broken up, speakers arrested — and now 
the danger of a permanent universal military training law confronts 

While all this military organization is going on in America, 
rumors of peace come to us from Germany, Austria, Italy and 
Russia. Shall it be said that we, the latest to enter the war, are 
less concerned about the early establishment of a peace based oa 
justice for all? 

We call on all American citizens to unite with us in the First 
American Conference on Democracy and Terms of Peace, at the 
Holland House, on May 30 and 31, to discuss how best we can 
aid our government in bringing to ourselves and the world a speedy, 
righteous and enduring peace. 

May 7, 1917. 

A tentative program is announced, organizing and executive 
committees have been appointed, and the support of broad- 
minded, energetic, influential men and women throughout the 
United States have been secured. The invitation is signed by: 

James H. Maurer, Harrisburg, Pa. ; Victor L. Berger, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin; A. J. Boulton, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; James J. Bagley, Brook- 
lyn ; Rose Schneidermann, New York ; John C. Kennedy, Chicago ; 
Edward J. Cassidy, New York ; Joseph Schlossberg, New York ; 
E Baroff, New York ; Henri Bereche, New York ; Roy Brazzle ; 
Mary Kenney O'Sullivan, Medford, Mass. ; Arthur LeSueur, Kansas 
City, Missouri ; Algernon Lee, New York ; James O'Neil, Boston, 
Mass. ; Harry Laidler, New York ; Julius Gerber, New York ; Julian 
Pierce, Washington, D. C. ; Job Harriman, Llano, California; Winter 
Russell, New York ; Harry Weinberger, New York ; Rt. Rev. Paul 
Jones. Salt Lake City ; Jenkin Lloyd Jones, Chicago ; Rev. Richard 
W. Hogue, Baltimore, Md. ; Rev. Sidney Strong, Seattle, Wash.; 
Rev. H. L. Canfield, Woodstock, Vermont ; L. Hollingsworth Wood, 
New York: David Starr Jordan. Stanford University, California; 
Simon N. Patten, University of Pennsylvania : Scott Nearing, Toledo, 
Ohio; William I. Hull, Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania; 
Harry L. W. Dana, Columbia University, New York ; Lindley Miller 
Keasbey, University of Texas ; Harry A. Overstreet, New York ; 
Rev. Irwin St. John Tucker, President Hobo College, Chicago ; Brent 
Dow Allinson, Cambridge, Mass. : Grace DeGraff, Portland, Ore. ; 
James McKeen Cattell, New York ; Randolph Bourne, New York ; 
May Wright Sewall; Daniel Kiefer, Cincinnati, 0.; Amy Mali Hicks, 
New York ; Frank Stephens, New York ; Mrs. Glendower Evans, 
Boston, Mass.; Helena S. Dudley, Waltham, Mass.; Lenora Wame- 
son, Kansas City, Mo.; Mrs. Lola Maverick Lloyd, Winnetka, 111.; 
Mrs. Elsie Borg Goldsmith, New York ; Margaret Lane, New York ; 
Edward Berwick. San Francisco, Cal. ; John Reed, Croton-on- 
Hudson ; Edward T. Hartman, Boston, Mass. ; Mrs. L. C. Beckwilh, 
Providence, R. I. : Miss Crystal Eastman, Crolon-on-Hudson ; Anna 
F. Davies, Philadelphia, Pa,; Henry R. Linville, New York. 

Page fwenty-eighl 

The Western Comrade 

Letters from Our Readers 

Colonist for Twenty Years 

Editor Llano Colonist: My first attention was called to Socialism in 
leading about the Ruskin Colony in Tennessee some twenty years ago. 
Thus my idea of co-operation and Socialism was linked from the begin- 
ning. My first lessons in Socialism taught about the Co-operative Com- 
monwealth and National Co-operation. 1 read the Coming Nation, the 
Appeal to Reason and other literature descnbmg the workings of the 
Ruskin Colony from its beginning to its untimely death in Georgia. I read 
a paper two years, the name of which I have forgotten now, established 
by a colony which flourished on the shores of Puget Sound many years 
ago. I can't recall the name of that colony now. I was an earnest seeker 
for their faith and an eager reader of their progress. My wife and daugh- 
ter wanted to go. The pictures they sa^v of this colony life, showing the 
blessings of co-operation, was a rising star in their lives. But alas ! this 
colony, too, went down ! "Faith" in Socialism — died. But I hung my 
faith upon political Socialism and fought the good but losing fight. 

The Farmers* Union and many growers' associations came upon the 
scene with their plans of co-operation, but these all fell far short of giving 
the relief the world seeks. 
Without going into detail 

as to the failures of Socialist 

efforts at co-operation, I will 

say right here that unless the 

Socialist party proves its 

faith by its works, as you 

and others are doing, it will 

die a natural death. The 

Oklahoma Socialist party, in 

its last state convention, 

adopted a report indorsing 

all co-operative efforts, in- 
side or outside the party. 
How encouraging it is to 

learn, afer all the dismal at- 
tempts at co-operalion, of 

the brilliant success at Llano ! 

Again the wife and children 

ask to go, and we are 

straining every effort to 

make our desire a reality. 

Tired and sick of the com- 
petitive war, we hope soon 

to dodge our enemy and flee 

to the "City of Refuge" — 

Llano.— G. M. Fowler, Okla. 

ing, but little things I had thought of for years that I never heard any one 
say, and it pleases me to read it in your paper. For years I have said the 
house I was going to build would have a flat roof, and, while my friends 
said I was crazy, your paper said it was the way Llano houses were to 
be built. The common sense and the advanced spirit of the experiment 
of Llano appeals to me wonderfully. It does my soul good to read in 
the paper of the plans that are to be for the benefit of all. The com- 
munities in which I have lived have been absolutely hidebound. No one 
can or will do cuiything never done before, because no one else has ever • 
done it. Your paper, tells us in Llano you are free from such bondage. 

MRS. G. L. SHURICK, Ohio. 
* * * 

Thinks Everyone Should Subscribe 

I received all the literature you sent to me, and, after reading almost 
every word with great interest, I was very much pleased with the splendid 
progress that is being made by the Llano colonists. It is indeed Inspiring 
to know that in a short time such progress has been made towards the 
great ideal and principles upon which our future civilization must be shaped. 

In order to show the extent of my interest in the Llano Colony, I inclose 

May Day Parade of the first comers to Llano, with inserts showing two groups of the early colonists of 1914-15. 

Likes Llano Papers 

When you print "Write 

what you like best In our 

paper" you are asking something rather difficult from us, who are not 

accustomed to expressing ourselves in writing. 

First, I like the spirit of Socialism breathed in every line; the points of 
view and the conclusions to which Socialism brings one are much needed. 
Most Socialists are converts and require the education your paper gives 
how Socialism works out practically. I was in hopes you would give an 
example of Meyer London, our only Socialist Representative. When the 
war started he brought a measure before Congress to put an embargo on 
foodstuffs going out of the United States. No one spoke on the subject, 
and he was the only one who voted for it. Because he was a Socialist, he 
had the vision and the conscience to stand for the Socialist principles, and 
it is only now, after nearly three years, when the dcunage is done, that 
Congress has waked up enough to wrestle with the subject. 

Another thing I like about your paper is that it attends strictly to its 
own business, which is to exploit Llano and Socialism. The usual news- 
paper is of two kinds, both tiresome beyond endurance, and you have 
avoided both these kinds — the city paper, with its encyclopedlac knowl- 
edge, and its "mays" and "it is saids," which leaves a confused jumble 
in the mind; and the country newspaper, which aims to have absolutely 
nothing in it — not even the local news — for fear of making somebody mad. 

Your paper is condensed and, while entertaining on account of the life 
it expresses, it also gives us the world news, for which we pay for the 

I don't know that it Is the way the paper "Is made up," as they say, 
but it is the kindred spirit I find expressed in it; hardly worth mention- 

money order for the WESTERN COMRADE and LLANO COLONIST. 
Furthermore, I wish to declare my intention to apply for membership in 
the near future. Fraternally yours, M. B., Arizona. 

Much Interested in Llano 

Dear Comrade: You wanted us readers of the Western Comrade to vote 
upon the articles printed in the Western Comrade from time to time, and 
express our preference, giving first, second and third choice, etc. Now, 
comrades, I have no particular choice to give in what I have read in the 
Western Comrade, for almost every article has met with my approval, and 
to make a choice would, to my mind, be showing partiality among the 
writers. There Is not an article in the Western Comrade but what I have 
read, and I am so anxious to gel all the news that I can hardly wait from 
time to time for the next issue to come. And, so that I might hear from 
the Colony more often, I subscribed for the Llano Colonist, and by get- 
ting the Colonist once a week It seems to shorten the time between each 
issue of the Western Comrade. For my part I want to Lear from all, and 
upon all things, that will show what the colonists are doing, and what is 
in the minds of comrades, pertaining to the developing of all our ideals. 
By writing and expressing our thoughts that come into our minds from 
time to time, regardless of the correct way of expressing them, only tend 
towards broadening our minds upon the things for which we are striving, 
and often put a thought into another mind who can with more accuracy 
express the thought so as to accomplish the desired result. 


The Western Comrade 

Page twenty-nine 

Aditorial by the Circulation Manager 

!an You Combine Practice With the Study 

of Theory? 

A SHORT time ago we tried out a 
little experiment. 

We wrote a letter to each of the 
persons in the Grand Membership Cir- 
culation Contest asking for their experi- 
ences in getting subscriptions id the 
Llano Publications. 

And here is the argument that we 
found our contest members met most 

"I already get so many Social- 
ist papers that I cannot take an- 
other; haven't time to read those 
that I am already taking." 

The Llano Publications are the only 
ones in the country that tell of the 
principles of Socialism being applied. 

Now what would you think of a man 
who went to church every Sunday and 
said his prayers every night and de- 
voutly and sincerely worshipped God, 
but who refused to make an effort to 
put the principles of Christianity into 
general operation? 

You would laugh at him, of course. 

But stop a minute. What of the 
Socialist who reads of the Socialist 
theory, absorbs every word of the wis- 
dom of Marx, knows the "Communist 
Manifesto" by heart, is on the mailing 
lists of many Socialist papers and mag- 
azines, yet will not study the practice 
of Socialism? 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Col- 
ony is the practice of the principles of 
Socialism. It makes no difference 
whether you believe co-operative col- 
onies can succeed or not, the fact re- 
mains that virtually every Socialist 
principle is in active, every-day use 
in Llano today. 

What's the use of learning all the 
fine points of Socialism if you don't 
make any attempt to put them into 
practice? What would be the use of 
learning all there is to know about 

medicine if you would refuse to treat 
a patient? 

When any Socialist tells you that he 
has so many Socialist papers that he 
has no time to read any more, direct 
his attention to the fact that he is 
missing the fruit of all his study. 

Make it clear to him that he is theo- 
retically right, but ask him if he knows 
for certain that Socialism will work. 
Ask him how he could prove it to an 

In Llano we are practicing Social- 
ism. No other paper in the country 
can tell of the progress this handful of 
brave Socialist pioneers are making. 

You know how we respect the old- 
time Socialists who went out and soap- 
boxed on the streets, who got them- 
selves put into jail because they were 
Socialists, who sacrificed friends and 
home and fortune and everything for 
the sake of the principles they believed 
in. They were courageous, stout- 
hearted men and women. 

But what of these modern Socialists 
who have the courage to put into pres- 
ent-day operation the things they be- 
lieve in? Are they any less coura- 
geous? How open-minded is the Social- 
ist who refuses even to read of what 
they are doing? How can he hope to 
convince other people that Socialism is 
practical and beneficent, when he will 
not himself show faith in the thing he 
stands for? 

What can you expect of the uncon- 
verted when Socialists themselves re- 
fuse to investigate, or even to read of, 
the progress of the Llano del Rio Co- 
operative Colony which is demonstrat- 
ing the things they have preached for 
so many years? 

These are not idle questions. They 
are the questions that we expect our 
readers to ask Socialists everywhere. 
They are the questions that point the 
difference between mere ineffectual 

talk and purposeless opposition to ex- 
isting conditions, and the positive po- 
sition of really doing the things we 
think are right and which we are ask- 
ing others to accept as being right. 

Socialists everywhere are discour- 
aged, disgusted, hopeless. 

But there is no reason to be. Our 
principles are correct — Llano is prov- 
ing that. It is the application of them 
that the people are looking for. Our 
method of teaching must be adapted to 
the time. We have virtually graduated 
the primer class in Socialism. The 
people of the country are willing to 
concede that Socialism is probably 
right. But they demand proof. 

They are now promoted to another 
class. We must teach this new class. 
The old propaganda they know. They 
do not want it over and over again, 
any more than a little child wants to 
read the same book over and over. 

Our opporhinity is greater than ever 
before. The whole world is teaching 
Socialism as never before. It is our 
time to profit by it. But we must take 
advantage of the conditions of the day 
if we are to do this. 

Llano is the example. It is the 
most perfect and complete example of 
co-operation in the world. It con- 
vinces. We must direct the attention of 
every Socialist to it. We must get 
every Socialist to use it as an argu- 
ment, the most convincing of all ar- 
guments. And to do that it is neces- 
sary to push the circulation of the 
Llano Publications. Will you help? 
Will you get just one Socialist of your 
acquaintance to reading of the actual 
practice of Socialism? 

The COLONIST is 50c a year, or 
$1.00 for a club of three. The COM- 
RADE is 75c a year, or 50c in clubs 
of four or more. 

Both to one address are $1.00 a 
year or 75c in clubs of four or more. 

Canadian rates are $1.00 a year for 
either the COMRADE or the COLON- 
IST. No club rates apply outside of 
the United States. 

Page thirty 

The Western Comrade 


The Truth About the 
Medical Profession 

By John A. Bevan, M. D., Columbia University. 

(Inventor of the Oesophagoscope) 
Grand Ave. Temple Bldg., Kansas City, April 13, 1917. 

". . . It impresses me very favorably indeed." 

"I find a splendid philosophy underlying 'The Truth About the 
Medical Profession," which goes far deeper than the exposure of 
quackery, and its subtle sarcasm and humor are delightful. The 
writer's mastery of his subject is apparent, as is his fundamental 
democracy and knowledge of the ills which beset humanity." 
—Extract from letter from FRANK P. WALSH, Chairman of 
Federal Commission on Industrial Relations. 

" 'The Truth About the Medical Profession' gives the views of 
an honest physician. Humor and sarcasm, ridicule and satire, 
abound in the philosophical book. . . The bugaboos of the 
medical world are shown in broad daylight, and the reader of 
this treatise will no longer fear the quackery of the medical 
leeches upon society. . . Hardly a phase of human activity 
is left out of the rapid-fire survey of human society. . . The 
book ought to be widely circulated. . . It is a sane, non-hys- 
terical, economic, philosophical, human document with an enlight- 
ening message." — Extracts from review in OAKLAND WORLD, 
May 4, 1917. 

RYAN WALKER, the well-known cartoonist, writes: "I have 
delayed in acknowledging 'The Truth About the Medical Pro- 
fession," because I wanted to read it carefully. I enjoyed your 
caustic and keen satire, and I only wish that you could get a 
wide circulation for your showing up of the fakes and humbugs 
of the medical profession."" 

One Dollar a Copy 

Order from the LLANO PUBLICATIONS. Llano, Calif. 


YOUNG MAN, about to take up residence in Los Angeles, 
wants FURNISHED ROOM with congenial private family. Ref- 
erences given. Please address, stating rent by month, 

E. Geist, 427 Investment Building, Los Angeles. 

What Are You Good For? 

Did you ever try to find out? 

Are you employed at work for which you are best fitted? 

Do you KNOW or are you GUESSING? 

Your children — what will you advise them to do? 

The science of Character Analysis will answer the questions you have 
asked yourself. It is not fortune telling. It is not guess work. It tells you 
what you are fitted for and gives you the reasons. It tells you why 
you have not succeded in what you have attempted and will show you in 
which lines you can hope to succeed. 

An analysis of yourself will cost you something and it is worth many 
times what it costs; but information about it — that is free. Just write: 
"Send me free information about Character Analysis and Vocational Fit- 
ness." Write your name and address very plainly. Send it to: 
P. 0. Box 153, Llano, California 


Rales: 25c a line for one insertion; 15c a line thereafter. Twelve words 
to the line. Advertising payable in advance. 

Ocean beds become vast fertile plains. 
even deserts bloom. Deductions solidly based 
ross Publishing 


Earth watered from withm 

upon divine laws. Fifty cents, 

Nuevitas, Cuba. 

no stamps. Ci 



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refund of money if dissatisfied. Degree of LL. B. conferred. 
Hundreds of successful students enrolled. Fourteen-volume Law 
Library upon enrollment. Low cost — easy terms. Be indepen- 
dent. Be a Leader. Write today for free law book — "Law and 
the People." 


Reduced Freight Rates 

on Shipments of 

Household Goods 

from all Eastern points 

to California 

Members of the Llano del Rio Colony will find it especially 
advantageous to raake their shipments through the 

JUDSON Freight Forwarding Co. 

443 Marquette bldg, Chicago; 324 Whitehall bldg. New York, 
640 Old South bldg, Boston; 435 Oliver bldg, Pittsburg; 1537 
Boatmen's Bank bldg, St. Louis; 518 Central bldg, Los Angeles; 
855 Monadnock bldg, San Francisco. WRITE NEAREST OFFICE. 


Can You Reduce Weight? 1 

Information regarding my Obesity Treatments is contained in a ^ 

little booklet and consists of fully explained systems of dieting, exer- g 

cises, bathing, manipulative movements, and various other essentials g 

to effect the desired results. Persistency in this common sense and = 

proved treatment will surely bring results in your case as it has in g 

others. No drugs are used; it is a natural and beneficial way of g 

reducing flesh. It gives full details for daily conduct. In sendmg P 

remittances, state what portion you particularly wish to have re- g 

duced and emphasis will be given as to what treatments will prove g 

most beneficial. = 

Full $5.00 Treatments, $3.00 Mrs. C. M. Williams, Llano, Cal. I 


Flemish Giants. We can supply all ages up to eight months. For further 
information address Rabbit Department, Llano del Rio Colony, Uano. Col.- 

Telephone Home A-4533 




Attorneys at Law 

921 Higgins 


Los Angeles, 


The Western Comrade 

Page thirty-one 

June 30 Closes the Contest 

This is the month to get in your best work. 

The results have been gratifying. Thou- 
sands are reading of the Colony who had 
never before heard of it. 

Discouraged Socialists have seen the dawn 
of a new hope. Sane methods of educating 
the people to Socialism have inspired con- 
structive Socialists with new zeal. 

Non-Socialists have been interested in the 
theory of Socialism through reading of the 
success of applied principles. Concentrated 
Socialist effort instead of scattered, sporadic 
work is achieving results. 

It is impressing the reading, thinking pub- 

Now for a Whirlwind Finish 

The contest began with the beginning of 
1917; it closes when the year is half through, 
June 30. 

Workers throughout the country are 
spreading the story of "Co-operation in 

As soon as possible after June 30 the 
premiums will be awarded. 

Some one will get a membership. 

Someone else will get half a membership. 

Others will be well rewarded for their 
efforts in the behalf of Socialism. 

Now is the time for every contestant to 
do his part. No matter whether a prize is 
the reward, or whether the only reason is 
to spread the news of Socialist achievement, 
let's work to make June the biggest month 
of all. 

Let's have the story of Socialism in Prac- 
tice going to hundreds of new readers as a 
result of June work. 

Will you do your part? 

Literature for Free Distribution 

The Llano Publications have just had printed in the Llano shop 
a number of leaflets for free distribution. 

^e ask your co-operation in getting them before the people 
to direct their attention to Llano and "Co-operation in Action." 

Here are the titles ; send for as many of each as you can dis- 
tribute to advantage, ordering them by number: 
No. 1. Civil Life or Uano Ufe? No. 6. WiU Your ChUdren Fol- 

No. 2. Socialism is Succeeding iu 

Uano Today. 
No. 3. Age Limit a Tragedy, 
No. 4. Is Thb Socialism? 
No. 5. Socialism in the Making. 


low in Your Footsteps? 

No. 7. Llano del Rio Co-opera- 
tive Colony Succeeds. 

No. 8. Watch Co-operation in 
Action ! 



■A C 

o mr ad 


to take over a thirty-acre ran 

ch and 

provide for 




a few years, and have 

the farm for 


A little 

capital and 

good reference 



S. Whipple, 


No. 1, 

Box 25, El 



Llano Job Printing 

The Llano del Rio Printing and Publishing Department is now 
equipped to handle job printing. 

Cards, leaflets, booklets, stationery, etc., will be handled in 
a satisfactory manner, and at prices which will compare more 
than favorably with those found elsewhere. 

All work %vill be given the imion label imless otherwise re- 
quested. Every employee is a Socialist and a union man. 
The Llano Pablications^ Llano, California 


q Tha files in the office of the WESTERN COMRADE lack the 
JANUARY, 1914, number. Anyone having a copy will please 
communicate with the Western Gjmrade, Llano, Cal. 


$2000 contest 

fir^ prize— a LLANO MEMBERSHIP 
second prize — 500 shares Llano stock 
third prize — 200 shares Llano stock 
fourth prize — 100 shares Llano stock 
5, 6, 7, 8th prizes — 50 shares each, Llano stock 

other special premiums to all who 
send in more than 10 subscriptions 

Contest Commences July 1, 1917 

and continues until Dec. 31, 1917 

The Llano Publications have secured stock to be running, the new one will begin. All subscriptions 

used in the Second Grand Membership Circulation received during the last two weeks of June may 

Contest. be credited on the new Contest, IF SO RE- 

The success of the Contest started in January and QULSIED. 
which closes June 30th was great enough on May 1 st Send in at once for literature and supplies, for 

to justify holding another, and plans were made at instructions and suggestions. 

that time to announce it in the June WESTERN Apply at once to be enrolled as a contestant in 

COMEvADE. the new Contest. Be all ready to start at the earliest 

The day following the close of the Contest now possible moment. 

Write at Once for Full Particulars 

get an early start — begin at once 

The Llano Publications, Llano, California 

July 1917 Price 10c 

^^ ^^^ ^,; ^'— ^— I ■ ^^ ^^cj no^^ ^o ^OOP£Fl/\ri^ ^ 

Constructive Editorials by Job Harriman 

Llano — Community of Progress 3 

By Robert K. Williams. 

,^.. Quo Vadis? 9 

By Dr. John Dequer. 

The Play House (Fiction) |0 

By Helen Frances Easley. 

The Co-operative Movement in Great Britain 12 

By George Grazier. 

■^ -df^ ^9 Was Schmidt Guilty? |5 

Third Installment of Job Harriraan's Address to the Jury. 

^ jmri^-^^ ^^am ^^^ Socialist Party — Where Is It? 17 

. '^- "^BtTP '^'' ^^' '^'='="=^^5 Recent Phases. 

News and Views in Agriculture 18 

Co-operation the World Over 19 

What Thinkers Think 20 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books 21 

By D. Bobspa. 


The Gateway To Freedom 

Through Co-operative Action 

the beautiful Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of 
Los Angeles County, Southern California. This plain lies 
between the San Gabriel spur of the Sierra Madres on the south 
and the Tehachapi range on the north. The Colony is on the north 
slope of the San Gabriel range. It is almost midway between 
Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific, and Viclorville, on the Santa 
Fe railroad. 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony is made up of persons 
who believe In the application of the principles of co-operation 
to the widest possible extent. Virtually all of the residents are 
Socialists. It is a practical and convincing answer to those who 
have scoffed at Socialist principles, who have said that "it won*! 
work," who have urged many fallacious arguments. In the three 
years since it was established, the Colony has demonstrated thor- 
oughly the soundness of its plan of operation and its theory. To- 
day it is stronger than ever before in lis history. 


The Llano del Rio Colony is the greatest Community enterprise 
ever attempted. It was founded by Job Harriman, May 1st. 1914, 
and is solving the problem of disemployment and business failure. 
It offers a way to provide for the future welfare of the workers 
and their families. 

An abundance of clear, sparkling water coming from mountain 
springs is sufficient to irrigate thousands of fertile acres. The 
climate is mild and delightful, the soil is fertile, and markets are 
not far distant. 

The Llano del Rio Colony is a horticultural, agricultural, and 
stock-raising enterprise, with such manufacturing as will supply the 
needs of the colonists, with perhaps something to sell when the 
Colony has grown. 

It is a perfect example of Co-operation in Action. No community 
organized as il is, was ever established before. 

The purpose is to solve the problem of unemployment by provid- 
ing steady employment for the workers; to assure safety and com- 
fort for the future and for old age; to guarantee education for the 
children in the best schools; and to provide a social life amid sur- 
roundings better than can be found in the competitive world. 

It has more than 800 residents, making it the largest town in the 
Antelope Valley. More than 200 children attend the schools. Part 
of the children get meals at the school ; some live at the Indus- 
trial school all the time. The Montessori school is in operation, 
taking the children from lYi to 6 years of age. A new school 
building is soon to be built on the new townsite. The County 
school and the Colony Industrial schools are both in operation. 

The Colony owns a fine herd of 125 Jersey and Holslein cattle, 
100 head of young stock are on the range, being heifers and calves 
up to 2 years of age. Over 100 head of horses and mules, in- 
cluding colts, are owned by the Colony. These, with the tractors 
and caterpillar engine, four trucks, and numerous autos, do the 
hauling and the work on the land. 

A recent purchase of Duroc-Jersey sows gives the Colony thirty- 
eight registered high-class breeding sows and two splendid boars, the 
nucleus of a great development along this line. Many new pens 
have been built. Registration will be kept up and the raising of 
fine hogs made one of the leading industries. There are also some 
line Berkshires, and a large number of grade sows. 

Much nursery stock has been planted, a vineyard of 40 acres put 
out, and many fruit trees set this spring. The Colony has more 
than 400 acres of orchards. 

Community gardening is successful, and an increased acreage 
will be put in each year. 

The ideal is to farm on an extensive scale, using all manner of 
efficient labor saving machinery and methods, with expert and ex- 
perienced men in charge of the different departments, 

Llano possesses more than 668 stands of bees. They are cared 

for by expert bee men of long experience. This department ex- 
pects to have several thousand stands in a few years. 

The Colony has secured timber from the San Gabriel Reserve, 
and has a well equipped sawmill. Lumber worth $35 to $40 a thou- 
sand costs the Colony only a few dollars a thousand. 

Social life is delightful, baseball and football teams, dances, pic- 
nics, swimming, hunting, camping, all being popular. A band, sev- 
eral orchestras, a dramatic club, and other organizations assist in 
making the social occasions enjoyable. 

Alfalfa does extraordinarily well at Llano. Much has been plant- 
ed and the acreage will be increased as rapidly as possible. Six 
good cuttings a season can be depended on. Ditches lined with 
cobblestone set in Llano lime, making them permanent, conserve 
water and insure economy. They will be built as fast as possible. 
A square mile has been set aside for the new city. With the 
sawmill running, the lime kiln producing a very superior lime, and 
with sand and rock abundant and adobe brick easily manufactured, 
the time is near when permanent buildings will be erected on the 
new site. It will be a city different in design from any other in the 
world, with houses of a distinctively different architecture. Houses 
will be comfortable, sanitary, handsome, home-like, modem, and 
harmonious with their surroundings, and v^nll insure greater privacy 
than any other houses ever constructed. They are unique and de- 
signed especially for Llano. 


Among the industries of Llano, to which new ones are con- 
stantly being added, are: Printshop, shoe shop, laundry, cannery, 
cleaning and dyeing, warehouse, machine shop, blacksmith shop, 
rug works, planing mill, paint shop, lime kiln, saw mill, dairy, cab- 
inet shop, nursery, alfalfa, orchards, rabbitry, gardens, hog raising. 
lumbering, publishing, transportation (autos, trucks, tractors), doc- 
tors' offices, woodyard, vinegar works, bakery, fish hatchery, bar- 
ber shop, dairy goats, baths, swimming pool, studios, two hotels, 
drafting room, post office, commissary, camping ground. Industrial 
school, grammar school, Montessori school, commercial classes, li- 
brary, women's exchange, two weekly dances, brass band, mandolin 
club, two orchestras, quartets, socialist local, jeweler. 


Following is the plan which has proven successful: Each share- 
holder agrees to buy 2,000 shares of capital stock. Each pays 
in cash or installments, $1,000. Each pays in labor, $1,000. Each 
receives a daily wage of $4.00, from which is deducted $1.00 for 
the stock he is working out. From the remainder comes his living 
expenses. Whatever margin he may have above deduction for stock 
and living expenses is credited to his individual account, payable out 
©f the surplus profits of the enterprise. If an installment member 
falls 111. is disabled or dlsemployed. the Colony gives him every op- 
portunity to recover and resume payments. In no case will he be 
crowded. If he finds it impossible to resume payments, we will, 
upon request, issue stock for the full amount he has paid. This is 
transferable and may be sold to his best advantage. In this we will 
endeavor to assist wherever practicable. Corporations are not 
allowed by law to deal in their own stock. 


Write today for an application blank, fill it out and send 
together with a remittance of $10 or more to secure your member- 
ship. You can then arrange to pay $10 a month or more until 
you can so adjust your affairs that you can make final pay- 
ment and join your comrades who have already borne the first 
brunt of pioneering. 

Address Communications regarding membership, general informa- 
tion, etc., to the 

Membership Department 

Llano del Rio Company 


Political Action 


Direct Action 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Canse of the Workers 

Entered as second-class matter November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

JOB HARRIMAN Managing Editor. «^^ ^ FRANK E. WOLFE Editor. 

Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies 10c; clubs of 4 or more (in U. S.) 50c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so stated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

VOL. V. 


No. 3 

Editorials « 

y Job Harriman 

GREAT excitement prevails everywhere over the food 
situation. As time goes on the excitement will increase 
until it develops into a spasm centered in the abdominal re- 
gions. A food famine is as inevitable as the tomorrow is to 
come. Yet many Congressmen not only oppose conscription 
of food, but they are opposed to a clause»in the food bill which 
would enable the federal authorities "to find out exactly how 
much food there is in the country, where it is stored, and who 
owns it." They fear that "such powers will be destructive of 
individual liberty and will violate the sanctity of property." 

Individual liberty and the sanctity of property have already 
been violated. In fact, there is no longer any such animal as 
the sanctity of property. When Congress passed the conscrip- 
tion law, by means of which two million men may be taken 
even against their will, they dealt a death blow to the sanctity 
of private property. If men may be called contrary to their 
will and forced to bear arms, surely property of every kind 
may and will be seized with which to feed and maintain these 
same men while at war. 

Is it possible that members of Congress think that property is 
more sacred than human life? Or is it true that the law does 
not reach their lives and that they wish also to hold on to 
their property? Some are suggesting that the merchant should 
only make a reasonable profit. Why a profit at all? Are the 
poor soldiers, whose lives are being taken, getting a reasonable 
profit? Are they getting anything? 

Is it not time that a dead level be struck? Shall we not 
treat man as man and nothing more? Is life dearer to the 
man who has property than to him who has none? If there 
is any difference in the anxiety of the rich and the poor, it is 
not due to the sanctity of their lives, but in the "sanctity" of 
their property. He who believes in the sanctity of property, 
being the owner, should go to the front and defend the sanctity 
of property by the strength »f his right arm. Why should he 
be permitted to stay home and hide, cowardlike, behind his 

The question of the hour is a question of service. This will 
continue to be the question as long as the war lasts. Property 
and person will be seized. If any favor is shown, it should 

be shown to persons and not to property. It is more human 
to save man than to save property. Then, too, live men will 
produce and replace property, but property will mold and 
decay without the constant help of the hand of man. 

This war sprang out of the sordid greed of man for profits, 
and it will last until the pain and the anguish of the wounded 
and bleeding millions shall have smothered and buried sordid 
greed and melted men's hearts and souls with sympathy and 
love and inspired them with a persistent passion for mutual 
aid. This is the day of reckoning of private property. When 
the clouds of war shall have rolled away private property will 
have become a thing of the past. Common property and 
mutual interests will have come as a healing balm to the 
hearts of men, and with it the lion and the lamb will lie down 
together and men will dwell in peace forever. 

EVERY industry is a little monarchy. Every owner of an 
industry insists upon running his own business as he sees 
fit. He insists upon buying labor as cheap as he can, and 
using it each day as long as he can. 

These are the necessary sequences arising from private 
property. Competition all but compels the enforcement of 
these rules. Everything tends to induce them, and to support 
the owner in their enforcement. 

The owner of the poorly equipped and less efficient industry 
is compelled by necessity to enforce these rules, while the 
owners of more efficient factories are induced to enforce them 
by the enormous accruing profits. 

These owners, possessed of economic power, play such a 
part in the elections that they succeed in electing men of their 
own views to the Legislature. These legislators enact these 
rules into laws, and thus the state or government becomes a 
composite of the little monarchies. 

Militarism is, therefore, the child of private property, and 
has all the vitality of the industries that exist under its sway. 

It is in the industries that lies the secret of the tremendous 
vitality of the German and English imperialism and the unstable 
and low vitality of Russian imperialism. 

Germany, England and France are industrially developed 

Page four 


The Western Comrade 

to high efficiency. Russia's industrial development is in its 
infancy. Their respective imperiahstic vitaHty is measured 

With her 200,000,000 people her militarism does not com- 
pare in vitality even with that of France. Give her fifty years 
of individualistic development and she will sweep over Europe 
like a tidal wave. 

The United States possesses tremendous imperialistic vital- 
ity. Its industries are developed in many instances to the 
highest efficiency, yet one fatal weakness will develop in our 
European campaign. It seems to have escaped the attention 
of those directing our forces. Surely, if they had considered 
it they would have paused longer. They forget that the field 
of battle is three thousand miles from our seat of supplies and 
the ocean is swarming with submarines. True, our necessities 
will compel a much higher and more efficient form of industrial 
and agricultural organization, but, however efficient it may 
become, it cannot, in our opinion, overcome this enormous 
handicap. The distance is too great. 

Far wiser were we if we should tell England to draw upon 
her colonies for reinforcements, and tell Russia to pour in her 
men while we organize a mechanical and agricultural drive and 
thereby furnished food for them all. It is to be feared that 
the terrible slaughter that must take place along the trenches, 
accompanied by an enormous loss of life that is almost alto- 
gether unavoidable, by the submarines sinking our transports, 
may result in an uncontrollable reaction as soon as a food 
shortage develops. Were the course suggested above followed, 
there could be no shortage of food, and hence no reaction. 

THE position of the Socialists regarding the war is generally 
misunderstood. The fact that Socialists are opposed to 
this war is immediately construed to mean that they are pro- 
German and are opposed to assisting the Allies. This con- 
struction is made by some Socialists who have been prominent 
in our movement as writers, but whose judgment has never 
been taken seriously by the party. 

Charles Edward Russell, who was strongly in favor of the 
Syndicalist school in 1912, now leaves that school, the most 
radical anti-war faction of our party, and goes off almost 
alone into a pro-Ally war campaign. There are several 
others of the same type. They will not have a following 
either of their former factional associates nor of the more 
constructive faetion of the party. 

The real reason why the Socialist party is opposed to this 
war lies in these facts: 

1 . That they look upon this as a war between the powers 
for the domination of the world's commerce. In that they 
feel that they have no interest. There is, however, diversity 
of opinion on this point. They all oppose imperialism, believ- 
ing that imperialism arises out of capitalist institutions, or at 
least out of private control of economic conditions. 

2. The Socialists of the world have met in international con- 

ventions for years; they look upon each other as comrades 
in the same cause; they are bound together by a common 
literature, a common interest, a common feeling of real friend- 
ship and brotherhood such as is known only among the op- 
pressed, and the thought of going to war and shooting each 
other is unbearable. If there is an organization on earth that 
fchould be regarded as conscientious objectors, it is the Social- 
ists of the world. All national lines are to them merely geo- 
graphical lines. Their brothers in Russia, or Germany, or 
France, or Austria, or Italy, are as dear to them as their 
brothers in New York, or Massachusetts, or Illinois, or Cali- 
fornia. They are separated only by geographical lines. Our 
race prejudices have long since perished. In the light of this 
fact, and of the further fact that we have always fought brute 
force as a means of building society (but have always advo- 
cated brotherhood and peace) , can the late Peace Conference 
be understood. 

Every international Socialist should be exempt from inter- 
national military duty. He has a far deeper feeling and, if 
forced to military duty, would suffer greater pangs of grief 
and conscience than any religious sect on earth. 

HOW strenuously all of the papers are engaged in dodging 
the inevitable! But, dodge as you will, the hour has 
come and you must pay the price of your wrongdoing. You 
are trying to eat your cake and keep it. Before you are 
through you will find it an impossible task. Eat it you must — 
but keep it you must not. You wanted the war that you might 
make money out of it; but, alas! you have the war, and its 
necessities will consume both your money and your privilege 
of making money. 

Come, capitalist neighbor, let us reason together. This is 
your government, isn't it? You have made the laws, haven't 
you? You are satisfied with the government's defense of 
your property, aren't you? You are making money out of 
the high prices of everything, aren't you? 

Now, when the government called for soldiers, they did not 
volunteer. The government believed conscription was neces- 
sary, and so did you, didn't you? And conscription became 

The government needed money to carry on the war, didn't it? 

It issued bonds and offered them for sale, and you approved 
of it, didn't you? 

It wanted money for two purposes: 

First — ^To pay the men and to loan money to the Allies. 

Second — ^To buy munitions and food. 

Again you thought this was right, and again you approved, 
didn't you? 

Now hold your breath. Your cake is going. The govern- 
ment will conscript the money you have made while prices 
were high. You will not buy bonds vwth it. You think the 
Allies are bankrupt, don't you ? You are afraid to buy bonds, 
aTen't you? You are afraid your own government will become 

The Western Comrad« 


Page five 

bankrupt in its effort to finance the Allies, aren't you? That 
IS the reason you will not buy bonds, isn't it? 

That is precisely the reason why the government will be 
compelled to conscript your money, isn't it? If this war is 
right, conscription of your money is right, isn't it? 

But this is not all. Prices are soaring so high that the pro- 
ducers and gamblers in merchandise and food are consuming 
all the money that the government is getting for the bonds it 
sells. Hence it will have no money, if this continues, with 
which to buy food, or pay soldiers, or loan to the Allies. But 
if the government fixes prices the farmers and others vwll quit 
producing, won't they? You would not blame them for quit- 
ting if there is no money in it, would you? 

But what is the government to do ? It must have money to 
pay men, and good cheap food to feed them and the 
Allies, and money to buy munitions, and money to loan to 
the Allies. 

What must she do now? She will be compelled to conscript 
the food, and the resources, and the men to operate the 
resources, won't she? Your money will be conscripted, won't 
it? Your privilege of getting money by producing or by sell- 
ing merchandise for more than it cost will be taken from 
you, won't it? And that is right if the war is right, isn't it? 
Now hold your breath. 

That is State Socialism. Before you would surrender to 
it, you required millions of men to be murdered in the trenches. 
Do you not see that your greed has led to the most terrible 
crime of all the ages? And will you still cling to your money 
and force the war to continue? This war will not end until 
capitalism is consumed by the all-absorbing forces of this 
war, and the hearts of men are melted like shot in this terrible 
crucible and merged in brotherly love. 

IN TIMES of war the feelings and forces that make for peace 
are all but forgotten. Those who are involved in wars, and 
especially those who are directing the military force, become 
lost and so absorbed by the surging power of which they are 
a part that all opposing ideas and forces seem to them to be 
wrong. They become the more convinced that the opposition 
is wrong because, temporarily, they have the power to crush 
or overcome it. They forget that the desire for peace is an 
abiding and persistent urge. The more opposition there is to 
peace and to peaceful measures, the more peace is desired. 
The finest mental and heart forces of the world are for peace. 
They stand on the brink of the trenches, the tomb of six million 
men, and cry with unutterable anguish: "Is it not enough?" 
"Are we fiends incarnate?" "Are we maniacs indeed?" "Is 
there no love left in our hearts?" With a deaf ear, the com- 
manding powers moves millions of men in a constant stream 
to the brink, and pushes them over into the slaughter and to 
death. Once, could be forgiven; but what is to be said of 
those who force the butchery of men, day after day, week 
after week, month in and month out, year after year, and 

still cry for more blood, more arms, more men to bleed and 

And shall we be blamed for demanding that our government 
lay down its arms? Do we hear them say there is no escape? 
That they must fight? That conditions have forced, and are 
still forcing, the issue? 

True it is, that this war is the result of the economic con- 
ditions prevailing in the world. And have the powers, at this 
late hour, just come to realize this terrible fact? Realizing it, 
are they still blind ? Do they hope to find safety in implements 
of war, in the grip of men whose hearts are inspired by greed, 
hatred and revenge? Peace and safety are not found there. 

Rifles, cannon and swords are evidences of danger, and not 
of safety. Backed by revenge, hatred and ambition, the im- 
plements of war have become a world menace. They will 
destroy the institutions from which they sprang, or the energies 
of the race vfiW be exhausted and man v^all relapse into another 
dark age. 

The foundations of peace must be laid in economic institu- 
tions. We cannot fight each other in our every-day business 
life and at the same time learn to love each other. The fruits 
of contention and conflict are hatreds. The fruits of victory 
are ambition for greater victory and greed for greater gain. 
The victor and the vanquished are always enemies, whether 
that victory be in the industrial or military battlefield. A 
century of struggling in the commercial and industrial battle- 
fields has hardened the hearts of men and prepared them for 
the more acute and horrible world conflict. 

The war will not end until the elements of war shall have 
passed away. The hour of transformation is at hand. The 
ovei'wheiming needs of the world will force the amalgamation 
of all industries under social control. The conflict between 
individuals in the business world will end. Man will unite in 
a common struggle to save the race. The love of each for his 
own family will enlarge into a love for the race, and in the 
heart of love will safety and peace find an everlasting dwelling 

TYRE and Sidon, Babylon and Egypt, the Caesars, the 
Charlemagnes, the Napoleons and Cromwells, have had 
military power sufficient to have made their governments 
immortal, if force could do it. But always there is in brute 
force the germs of death. Russian imperialism has forced its 
tomb. German imperialism has aroused the antagonism of the 
world and will soon go down. The brutal imperialism of 
England, of Italy, of Turkey, of all the world, has aroused the 
antagonism of the people of the world and must go down. 
The European trenches are the tombs of imperialism. In them 
will every crown and scepter be buried. Over the trenches 
the world's heart will bleed with sorrow. It will bathe its lost 
ones in tears. It will visit the sentence of death on force as a 
rule of life. It will tell men to recompense evil with good. It 
will teach the children of the world to love one another and 
so fulfill the law. 


About Llano 

The Western Cc 

Llano — Community of Progress 

By Robert K. Williams 

NUSUAL weather the nation over, and, it is said, the 
I T world over, an unprecedented late spring has delayed 
\J crops more than two months in Uano. At this time 

last year the alfalfa had been cut twice; this year 

but once. However, a greater acreage is in this year, which 
will more than compensate for the lack of crop at the first 
cutting. Garden truck is behind hand, and the climate has 
not !»een at all up to standard. It has been cold and disagree- 
able in many ways. Reports from various parts of the coun- 
try say that weather vagaries are general. So Llano is no 
exception, but must receive the good and bad with the rest 
of the world. 

Progress, however, may be reported in the garden and field, 
and everything points to a good crop for this year's canning, 
both of vegetables and fruits. It is now beginning to get 
warm in the valley and evidence of new vegetation is springing 
up on every hand. 

The great valley is a mass of flowering plants and the 
ground is really carpeted with varicolored flowers. Bees are 
busy and it will not be long before a new and greater crop 
of honey will be harvested. The bee industry in the Antelope 
Valley offers many attractions for the bee man, as the flower 
season is longer than is generally found in other parts of the 

Visitors are coming more freely than ever to Llano. Indeed, 
few days pass that do not bring interested and curious people 
to Llano. Llano has much to offer, but it is a fact that she 
has not enough to offer. One of the reasons that Llano has 
not grown faster from a farming and industrial point of view 
is due to the fact that people come so very fast. People come 
faster than houses and places can be built. The war, instead 
of stopping the influx of people, will doubtless make it greater. 
Conditions are becoming so on the "outside" that living is 
growing harder and harder, and Llano offers about the only 
place of refuge and safety in the country. 

Most people who come are willing and anxious to put up 
with any sort of housing to secure the opportunity of staying 
away from the turmoil of competitive strife that is found on 
the outside. It is a curious thing that, notwithstanding small 
and inadequate housing for over two years, a place has been 
found for every one who was willing to put up with the neces- 
sary inconveniences. 

However, things are getting better. The road to the timber 
land is almost finished. Hauling actually could be done over 
it now, and there remains but sendmg the tractor after the 
logs to start the mill sawing. When the hum and buzz of 
the sawmill is heard new hopes and aspirations will fill the 
hearts of every one. Vexatious delays have occurred in the 
construction of the road, and minor accidents stopped, for the 
time, the work of going ahead. For instance, work on the 
road was stopped for more than two weeks by the delay in 
the arrival of a s[- ark-arrester which the government insisted 
must be put on the tractor before it could be put to work. 

It is very hard to count on things. When an institution 
such as Llano is growing and the diversion of labor is so 
constant, promises cannot always be kept. It has been re- 
marked often that some people here make promises and then 
don't keep them. That is perfectly true. Conditions, as has 
been said, control Llano. When one "goes on an auto trip 
promises go for nothing. Accidents too frequently occur, and 

to say definitely when one shall be at a certain place under 
such conditions is practically impossible. 

The finishing of the log road and the starting of the saw- 
mill has been expected and promised from time to time. Acci- 
dents and unusual delays occurred and set back the operations. 
These things are not within control. It would be perfectly 
easy to make promises and keep them if conditions were 
standardized. This condition obtains, as well as the other 
one of families arriving with household goods, demanding 
homes and a place to store the furniture. We run a hotel 
and a warehousing and a housebuilding department. 

The question is still asked when we shall begin work on the 
upper townsite. No one can definitely answer that. Promises 
are good, of course, for an early beginning. It would seem 
all possible urge is behind it. There are a half-dozen good 
reasons why we should move from this townsite to the one 
on the slope above. Our intentions are good, and yet there 
seems something just across the horizon of unaccountable 
things that prevents us from going ahead. However, we 

Another View of Scenery Close to Llano. 

believe that it is a question of lumber as much as anything 
else why the work has not been started. 

A few Sundays ago some of the men and women of the 
printing and publishing department went to the old brick yard 
and made a few large adobe brick as a matter of experiment. 
Up to the present these bricks seem to be standing the 
weather all right. If the brick are a success, it was the inten- 
tion to start the print shop first and finish that, and then the 
homes of those who work in that department on the new town- 
site. Adobe brick 6x12x18 inches seem to fill the bill in point 
of size and can be made quickly, using the old method of 
mixing. However, there is nothing absolutely definite about 
this plan. Many changes may occur. 

When the newcomer drives over the upper townsite he is 
inspired with the view. For this if for no other reason the 
town should be moved. Hills off in the blue haze loom large 
and grand to the north, east and west. Small hummocks 
miles and miles away break the monotony of the great valley. 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 


Desert land has a peculiar fascination for most people. Some 
like the mountains and the majestic grandeur, but the desert 
has a mysteriousness that cannot lurk on a mountain crag. 
Light and shade changing, ever changing, lend a charm beyond 
expression and has to be viewed to be recognized and appre- 
ciated. Desert men come back again and again to the magni- 
tudes where solitude lends the allurement. .An Easterner for 
the first time sees little in Western plains, covered with nothing 
but sage, cactus and wild flowers. However, after a study of 
these plans is begun and the aroma of their foliage sinks into 
the blood they are lost to the old ties of the East. 

Some of the worst detractors of the West often stay to 
become its best boosters. It is surprising how little general 
knowledge obtains in regard to California valleys. The great 
valleys seem to be different to every person, and it is seldom 
one finds that the distant impression is correct. One man 
from New York was surprised and disgusted to find "nothing 
but sand and sage more than 1 ,600 miles east of Los Angeles." 
He had forgotten his geography and allowed his feelings to 

The Colony is doing many things, and at all times keeping 
in mind the one idea, that of getting a living. Work on the 
ranch, tilling the soil and growing things, is uppermost in the 
minds of those having in charge this important work. Urgent 
demand come from all sources to increase the output of 

there are a vast crowd of poor people in the nation and jobs 
are quickly snapped up. 

Freedom at Llano is a real thing. The thralldom of bills, 
which is a nightmare to every salaried man or a man working 
for wages, is not a factor at all in Llano. We get what we 
need from the commissary, or else eat at the hotel, and when 
the month rolls round nothing but a statement, showing cred- 
its usually, is received by the worker. Credits, such as we 
work for, have a real value. They connect directly v«th the 
stomach. You cannot come into the hotel and eat unless you 
possess a ticket. The ticket is as good as any tvventy-five-cent 
piece. This one fact alone is a fine argument against the 
necessity of money, though it is the reigning thing, and we 
must not change the system too abruptly. We must grow 
into it. 

The commissary is growing and expanding in a way that 
will make for the betterment of that department. It is true, 
everything cannot be kept there. We haven't got the money 
to lay in a big supply of this and that. We must keep such 
supplies as are demanded by the average. This we try to do. 
The commissary department is always busy thinking out meth- 
ods to improve the condition of the shelves. 

The question has been asked why people leave Llano and 
go to other parts and go to work. There are, of course, many 
reasons, but the most potent, in my mind, is the lack of a few 

I. In the Cabinet Shop. 2. In the Mill Yard. 3. The Tin Shop. 4. View in Machine Shop. 

vegetables and wheat. Recendy a comrade arrived from 
.Arizona. He was refused beans at a grocery store unless he 
would plant them. This demand for more food, while seem- 
ingly an old-time trick, cannot help but make for ultimate 
solution of the age-old question. When the little gardener 
finds it easy to raise stuff with a little help, he will soon see 
that it would be much easier to raise and consume w'ith much 
more help. Llano, through its co-operative efforts, offers to 
the willing worker such an opportunity, and a growing army 
of practical co-operators is beginning to learn about it. 

When a newcomer is asked how he learned about Llano he 
usually mentions some paper or book or one of our publica- 
tions. This shows that the printed page is reaching farther 
and farther, and it is only a matter of time until a great host 
will be acquainted with Llano and its efforts to secure eco- 
nomic freedom. It has been mentioned that the war condi- 
tion will bring people to us. Personally I believe this to be 
true. Evidence shows, since it was definitely known that the 
United States was going into war, that a new impetus was 
given to inquirers and the arrival of families. Economic con- 
ditions will doubtless continue to grow more and more em- 
barrassing, so that the common man and woman will have 
great difficulty in even existing. Of course, it is recognized 
that many industries will be operated more than ever, but 

ready dollars with which to buy some of the commoner of 
little luxuries and things they are accustomed to. We are not 
self-supporting, and it uill be some time before we are. Until 
we make it from the land, through live stock, or industries, or 
some method of financing not yet adopted, we must deny our- 
selves luxuries. Of course, those that are contemplating com- 
ing and have read of us for a long time know the conditions 
obtaining and are striving to accumulate sufficient to pay 
their way in and still have something left over. 

I would like to see every new member comfortably pro- 
vided for. A few extra dollars in Llano goes farther than 
anj-^vhere you ever saw. We carry the ordinary things, but 
are not rich enough and old enough to carry a big line of 
merchandise. When the time comes that the Colony can pay 
some of its wages in cash, there will be a happy crowd in 
Llano. I heard a crowd dreaming about the time when the 
Colony would be self-supporting and every one had cash in his 
pockets to spend. The consensus of opinion was thp.t, while 
they themselves did not want the cash, they thought it would 
make for content and happiness should it be known that 
every one could get cash when he wanted it; which reminded 
me of the story of the old man who thought he would draw 
his money from the bank, fearing it was unsafe. When the 
teller handed it over, the old fellow shoved it back and said: 



About Llano 

The Western Comrade 

"Oh, you still have it." Oftentimes a knowledge of the pos- 
session of a thing is sufficient to make one content. 

The nights in the high mountains are still cold. The snow 
has melted slowly. A little later in the season much more 
water will flow. In the meantime work on the tunnel is pro- 
gressing. Considerably more water has been secured by open- 
mg up the old tunnel. The work of crossing the creek on or 
near bedrock will be pursued. Arrangements to allow the 
Big Rock to flow down the 3,000-foot tunnel are made, and 
when this is actually done a great deal of seepage will be 
avoided and thus saved. At the mouth of the tunnel a new 
ditch has been dug, and, being straighter, will, when cobbled, 
conserve and bring to the land more and better water. The 
engineers and all those interested in this phase of the devel- 
opment of the ranch are sanguine over the water improvement. 

It is too early to speak of preparations for fall food con- 
servation, but it may be remarked in passing that a great 

In last month's story of the May Day celebration an oversight 
occurred in my story which caused me serious embarrassment 
and chagrin. It was no less than an account of Llano's first 
baby show. I herewith append a resume of the artistic affair, 
and beg the indulgence of sixteen mothers whose hearts were 
delighted with the receipt of blue ribbons for their babies. 

Mrs. Robert K. Williams evolved the idea of Llano holding 
a baby show on that festive and historic occasion. The crowd 
was right for it and the setting was perfect for its holding. 
The mothers with babies fell in line and enjoyed the spirit of 
a baby show to the fullest. 

Assisted by Comrades Frank E. Wolfe and Mrs. Wolfe and 
Mrs. M. G. Buxton, arrangements were quickly made for hold- 
ing the baby show in the assembly hail after the barbecue had 
been disposed of. Bunting tacked to posts placed in a semi- 
circle held back the eager crowd which pushed its way to the 
front to view the little tots held on the laps of proud mothers 

or nestled among 

The Llano Dramatic Club which offers such good amusement at intervals for the benefit of the Llano Colonists. 

quantity of beef and pork will be arranged for, so that the 
coming winter will not see a shortage on this score. 

In coming to Llano, I wish again to impress upon you the 
necessity of bringing as much of your household and personal 
effects as possible. All these things have been useful to you, 
and they will be doubly so here. Don't forget this. Also 
bring as much of your clothing as you can. Don't despise 
the homeliest rag. This is the time of saving, so be saving. 
I would advise you to bring as many work clothes, stockings, 
shoes, etc., as you can. If you do this, you will be less of a 
draw upon your comrades here and, in addition, feel a greater 
sense of independence. We, of course, try to supply every 
want, but it is impossible, an.d shortages will occur and trans- 
portation often fail. Don't forget, also, that dollars are good 
everywhere, and they are good to have when you want a 
luxury or two that is not carried in the commissary. 

The spirit of the Colony is good, and there is a steady 
determination ever prevalent of making Llano the first suc- 
cessful colony and beating by a long time the inevitable co- 
operative commonwealth that will be born out of the world 
war struggle. 

snowy drapery in 
buggies. Sixteen 
mothers brought 
their babies. 

Before beginning 
the exhibition. Com- 
rade Wolfe, in a fe- 
licitous address, told 
of baby shows he 
had attended and 
judged, and said that 
years could not dim 
the joy of a mother 
who received a prize 
to show to the child 
when grown to man- 
hood or womanhood. 
At the conclusion of 
his remarks, George 
Bowers, manager of 
the dairy, made a re- 
quest to exhibit the 
latest arrival in the 
Colony. Mrs. Wil- 
liams and the others 
were puzzled for 
a while at the request, litde dreaming what he had up his 
sleeve. However, they gave him glad permission to show his 
friend's baby. 

Mr. Wolfe was assigned the duty of awarding the prize to 
the best baby; he, a diplomat at all times, decided that as 
Llano babies were the best babies, the handsomest babies and 
most perfect babies, that a blue ribbon be given to each 
mother for her baby. 

When the hearts of the mothers were made glad by the 
receipt of a first-prize blue ribbon and the cooing infants 
were safely and snugly tucked away in their go-carts, imagine 
the surprise of the committee, and the gale of laughter and 
surprise, when Bowers came trudging into the hall with a 
two-day-old calf pulling at his forefinger. The sturdy little 
bovine was not at all disturbed by the unusual noise and the 
peals of merriment, but followed greedily on and almost swal- 
lowed Bowers' hand. Proudly picking up the young Holstein 
scion in his arms. Bowers walked around the room, and his 
little one received fond pats and many "Oh, dear, isn't he 
cutes." George was as proud as a mother when a floral 
wreath was flung around the bulging neck of his pet. 

The Western Comrade 

Page nine 

Quo Vadis? 

By John Dequer 

HE working class argues, quibbles and fights. 

T' The capitalists plan and scheme and set the wheels 
in motion. 
The working class speculates on, instead of ex- 
perimenting with, the laws that govern man and society. They 
talk loud of economic forces on which they have no grasp. 
The capitalist meanwhile appropriates the earth. The thinking 
ones among the workers revel in mental fireworks, while the 
capitalist rejoices in material accumulation. As a rule the 
capitalist is not very intellectual ; but he knows how to invest, 
and it is this that renders him substance, and substance gives 
him the power to buy the specialized brain of the workers. 

He pays them for their specialized work, and if they do not 
deliver the goods he fires them without ceremony. Hence, if 
you, as a worker, want to sell your brain power, you must 
have a brain worth buying. 

A marketable brain is one that has accumulated experience 
and trained functions. To acquire these means concentrated 
application. Concentration of thought upon the work in hand 
is the keynote of education. 

Education was given to the workers only because trained 
brains were needed in the business world. All brains, however, 
are not of equal power and capacity. There is an almost im- 
measurable gulf between the gibbering idiot and an intellectual 
giant. There is a long cry between Henry Dubb and a Shake- 
speare. Their brains have different capabilities, different 
inclinations and desires. 

The Earning brain is not a class product, but a freak product. 
It is a case where nature, in the distribution of vitality, has 
endowed the head with a more generous amount of cerebral 
activitj'. This, more than subsequent environment, produces 
the leader, the manager, the capitalist. When nature over- 
endows a single faculty we have a genius or a crank. 

While science has proven that acquired characteristics are 
not inherited by progeny, it has also proven that freaks trans- 
mit themselves persistently. The freak favorable to special 
environment will multiply there and become a type, a variety, 
and finally a distinct species, even as man is a species allied 
to but distinct from anthropoid apes (chiefly in his environ- 

Among both working and capitalist classes certain freaks are 
born. They are termed "idealists." They are about as well 
fitted for the modern competitive business world as the nether 
regions are for a powder house. 

The idealist is a being in whom the soul inclinations are 
stronger than his equistic instincts. They forget self often- 
times in their passion for the mass. They differ one from the 
other in many ways, but in this they are a unit in that they 
possess large social hopes and fears. 

The modern world has no real room for them. They are 
prophets in their own country. Their idea of right and wrong, 
their soul-passion to care for the weak and preserve the 
afflicted, appeal to the ears of many. Hence the idealist finds 
his work on the soapbox, on the platform, in art or in litera- 
ture. If he is mentally not strong enough to reach these voca- 
tions, he will work at something else under protest, but show 
marked tendencies to the aforementioned fields of activity. 
The idealist, be he man or woman, is a prophet of things as 
they, in his or her judgment, ought to be. The capitalist, on 
the other hand, is a master of things as they are. The idealist 
has ideas — mostly unsaleable. 

The capitalist accumulates the things that feed the stomach. 
He also seeks after and develops the talent needed to run the 
world's business for him. He patronizes the scientist, the 
inventor, the discoverer, when these worthies have demon- 
strated that they have something out of which the capitalist 
can make money. True, he will freeze them out, if he can; 
that is true of the small ones, whose ideas are more interesting 
than useful. 

Do not misunderstand me. I did not say that the capitalist 
produces anything. I say he accumulates, and at the smallest 
cost in time or money to him. He therefore watches each 
opportunity, and, as he is no sucker, he generally investigates, 
or sees that some one who is competent investigates, the bait 
before he swallows. 

Mrs. Capitalist often sympathizes with the poor. She is 
charitable to them as long as they are grateful for her smile 
and don't strike. The agitator often proves interesting to her. 
Thus we see the wild-eyed agitator, the long-haired, moon- 
eyed, philosophical anarchist, sometimes in her company and 
sometimes even in her home. But you seldom hear that he 
has married into the family or become a partner in her hus- 
band's business. He is looked upon as a well-meaning, whole- 
hearted, pleasantly conversational pest, who may be depended 
upon to say something perfectly awful, thereby adding breeze 
and zest to the otherwise prosy lives of the idle ladies in the 
homes of the masters of industry. A few times I have been 
so invited, and I am frank to say that I felt as if I were an 
odd-looking bedbug whom they dared not kill for fear of 
being personal. In spite of an occasional dinner party, how- 
ever, the idealist generally dies poor. 

Why? The answer is simple. Life renders two types more 
or less distinct. These types look at life from different angles. 
One wants and seeks liberty, and is willing to shoulder the 
responsibility that liberty entails. The other type wants free- 
dom from responsibility, and therefore has to take the slavery 
that such freedom entails. 

The capitalist sees where markets may be opened, and he 
buys newspaper editors, preachers and teachers, to produce a 
spirit needed to get that market. He therefore shoulders 
tremendous risks in finance, while the workers, as a mass, 
rather fight than think. If they, as a mass, thought, there 
would be no fight, no profit and no capitalists. Here the 
idealist shouts, "Fight is wrong, profit is wrong, capitalism is 

But profit is here, fight is here, capitalism is here. What 
are you going to do about it? Argue, of course. 

This world is not run by argument. It is run by work and 
thought, by brawn and brain. Both are expenditures of 
energy, and in the competitive world men's labor power can 
be bought at its value, as food and clothing, and his brain 
power at a rate often not much higher. The thinker can turn 
his thought into cash and his money into comfort and power 
by the system of markets. There is a great incentive to self- 
ishness. A worker who is endowed with executive brain, who 
brings his cerebral action upward to a high efficiency, is paid 
more so as to create a distinction between the workers. There 
is not room for all in a superintendent's office, we are told. 
Granted: but the room in the really responsible places has 
not yet been overcrowded. The fact that the common labor 
market is generally congested only shows that the mass of 

(Continued on page 22) 

rage ten 


The Western Comrade 

The Play House 

By Helen Frances Easley 

EDRIC watched the Httle girl crossing the lawn toward 
him. She must be the one his father told him about 
the night before, when he had come back from his 
alternating six months, as he himself called his ab- 
sence, having heard some one speak of the decree which gov- 
erned the movements of his baby life. 

Cedric liked girls. Even if other boys did call him a sissy, 
and even though he was seven years old and almost a man, he 
liked their pretty, soft dresses, their flying curls, if their hair 
happened to be curly, or a bobbing "Dutch cut," if that hap- 
pened to be the mode of their coiffure. Of course, he 
wouldn't have wanted such things for himself, but for girls they 
were lovely; girls just couldn't be girls without them, he argued. 
And this new one appeared to be all that he could desire. Her 
eyes were veritable violets, and her hair, a somewhat frowsy 
mass of curls, seemed to be a nest of sunbeams. And she 
appeared to be younger than he — much younger. Why, she 
couldn't be more than six! 

"Hello!" she said, vydth a most engaging smile. "Are you 
the boy that lives here?" 

"Sometimes," he responded. 

"Yes! I know. I've been waiting most of two months, I 
think it is, for you to come home. It's been such a long 
time. My mother said you lived here part of the time, and 
somewhere else part of the time. I think it's such a funny 
way to live ! " 

"I've always lived that way," Cedric maintained, stoutly. 
He did not like to have the dignity of his position assailed. 
"And," he added, somewhat timidly, "I like to travel." A hun- 
dred miles is, after all, quite a trip for a boy to make alone. 

"Oh! So do I," replied his visitor, "but I just couldn't do 
without either my father or my mother. The three of us go 
everywhere together! We are all just crazy about each other. 
Daddy says he has the nicest family in the whole world, and 
mother would just die without him, I know. Why, when he 
is gone just a day or so she watches for him to come back, 
and the minute he gets in the house he holds her close in his 
arms, and she pats his cheek or runs her fingers through his 
hair — it's curly like mine — and calls him her big boy! That 
sounds funny, doesn't it, because Daddy is a really man. 
Does your mother ever call your father a big boy?" 

"No," Cedric responded, slowly. "No, I've never seen my 
father and mother together. People call them divorced. I 
guess that means they don't live together, and they never love 
anybody 'cepting me. When I go to mother's she holds me 
up tight and says 'His father's mouth,' and cries on my head 
a little; and when I come home father mumbles something 
like 'His mother's eyes more than ever,' and kisses me hard 
and almost squeezes the breath out o' me; but that is all they 
ever say about each other, and they haven't anybody to love 
but me." 

"But I suppose you do have awful nice times!" Here the 
innate motherliness of woman was uppermost in the desire to 
sooth and conciliate. 

"Oh! yes," the boy responded, brightly. "Mother and I 
have lovely times together. We go to most places together, 
and she has the cunningest little 'lectric runabout, that I can 
almost run by myself, and we have such nice little parties, and 
mother tells me the nicest stories, nicer than Cinderella and 
Jack the Giant Killer. I do get sort of lonesome for her 
stories, but of course my father is awful busy" — ^with a valiant 

effort to shield the man — "and I can't expect him to play with 
me like a lady would; and anyway I'll soon hear lots of 
stories — I'm going to start to school in September. I'm seven 
years old! But one time father and I almost had a picnic, 
almost. It was just before I went away last time. Father 
said he would take me to his little cabin, so Jane packed the 
big lunch basket and we went in the automobile. It is just a 
teeny little ways, but the lunch basket was too heavy to carry, 
so that's the reason we rode. Why, I could find my way 
there all by myself, I'm sure! We went to that cunning little 
cabin, and father unlocked the door. It was just like a play 
house, furnished with the nicest things, and we walked through 
the three rooms, and all of a sudden father said: 'Son, we 
can't stay here!' I was so 'sprised, 'cause the little house 
belongs to him, but when I told him so he only shook his head 
and locked the door again. We went 'way back in the trees, 
where we couldn't see the little house at all, and ate our lunch; 
and it was pretty nice, only father was sort of quiet; but I 
should like to see that litde house again." 

"So would I," the little girl agreed, her interest stirred by 
the boy's description of the little house and the cunning furni- 
ture. "I just love to play house. I have one for my dolls, 
only it isn't big enough for me to get into. Do you think we 
could go there some time and have a little picnic?" Her eyes 
were very wistful. 

"Oh! lets." Cedric rose eagerly. "I'll tell Jane, and we 
can go now," but he was restrained by a little hand which 
pulled him down again onto the lawn. 

"I can't go now," the lips quivered, although the child 
struggled bravely to control them. "I can't go without asking 
my mother, and I haven't seen her this morning. Nobody has 
paid any 'tention to me since I got up ; even Daddy didn't have 
anything to say to me. I had my breakfast in the kitchen. 
Why, my hair hasn't been combed even ! " Her voice rose 
shrilly and she was perilously near tears. "And I was so 
lonesome, so when I saw you here I came right over ! " 

Cedric 's manhood asserted itself. He reached out timidly 
and touched the shining curls. 

"Oh! pooh! little girl" — here he remembered that she had 
not told him her name — "I wouldn't care about that. Why, I 
like your hair that way; it makes me think of the sun fairies 
my mother told me about. And if your father and mother 
don't treat you nice any more we'll run away to the cabin. 
We'll go to-day!" 

It was an alluring proposition and brought the pink to her 
cheeks. She was contemplating it seriously, when suddenly 
a voice broke the stillness. 

"Alice! Oh, Alice!" 

"That's me!" the child said, sitting up straight. "Oh! how 
funny — I didn't tell you my name. I know you are Cedric 
Wyler, but I guess you didn't know that I'm Alice Roberts." 

"Alice! Oh, Alice!" 

The voice was coming nearer, and suddenly a pretty maid, 
with face flushed and eyes shining, found the children. 

"Oh! there you are, honey!" There was no censure in her 
voice. "I've been looking everywhere for you. Guess what is 
over at your house. A baby brother!" 

Alice was up and flying across the lawn in less time than it 
takes to tell, and Cedric, watching her, was filled with jealous 
rage. He had been sure that he had found a playmate; she 
had almost consented to run away with him, and here she was 

The Western Comrade 


e eleven 

returning to her family, the family who had neglected her for a 
whole morning, returning to them gladly. A baby brother, in- 
deed! Probably she would never come back again if she had a 
brother of her own to play with. He gulped back the lump 
in his throat, and Alice, halting at the edge of the lawn, 
turned suddenly. 

"Oh! Cedric!" she called. "Of course, I have to go home 
now, but I'll come back soon, for I like you lots! I 'most 
forgot to tell you." 

It was comforting, and Cedric, greatly mollified, turned to- 
ward the house, walking slowly. But the 'nearer he came to 
it the quicker became his steps. A brilliant idea had come to 
him. He mounted the broad steps, a sturdy little figure, and 
hurried to his father's study. 


"Yes, son."' 

"I want a brother — no, a sister!" 

"Why, son, whatever put that into your head?" exclaimed 
the man, amazed at the request. 

"Alice, the new little girl. They have a baby brother at 
their house. I guess he just came this morning. Anyway she 
just found out about him, and I think I'd like to have a sister!" 

"But what would you do with a baby in this house? Who 
would take care of it? I'm afraid that neither you nor I 
would have time, and Jane is busy all the time, as it is." 

Cedric dug his heel into the thick rug and twisted his hands 
in the pockets of his diminutive "knickers." He was going to 
mention a subject that was carefully avoided, as if by mutual 
consent. He had never been denied the right to speak of his 
mother, but he always did it timidly, and very seldom, for he 
felt that the conversation made his father uncomfortable. 
However, he felt very brave to-day, and his words came 
steadily as he looked straight into his father's eyes. 

"Why, I thought maybe if we got one, maybe we could get 
my mother to come back and take care of it. Don't you think 
maybe we could 'range it?" 

"I'm afraid not, my son. It's quite out of the question. 
Now run on and play; you see I'm very busy now. I'll see 
you soon." 

He strove to speak lightly and succeeded well enough to de- 
ceive the boy's ears. 

Cedric walked to the door, opened it and stood with his 
hand on the knob. 

"All right, father. I didn't mean to 'sturb you. I just 
thought I'd talk it over with you. Alice thinks we're awful 
queer, and I don't like to be queer. I didn't think you would 
like it either. But she thinks it is funny because our family 
is divorced. She says none of theirs could ever get along 
without all the rest, and when her father is gone for just a 
little while her mother waits and looks for him, same as if it 
was a long, long time, and when he comes home he holds her 
close up in his arms, an' she pats his cheek, and runs her 
fingers through his hair, an' calls him her big 'boy. It sounded 
sort of funny to me, but nice, and I thought maybe — may- 
be " The little voice trailed off apologetically. He had 

taken far too much of his father's time, and so the door closed 
on the imploring gaze of the big brown eyes, so like his 

Malcom Wyler was a young man, only a few years over 
thirty, but as he pushed from him the papers, in which he had 
lost all interest, he seemed very, very old. The face which 
he buried in his hands was working convulsively. What a 
mess he had made of life ! How vain were all his efforts! The 
boy was beginning to awaken, and his little glimpse of other 
people's happiness would constantly cause him to wonder and 

think. He might never 'ask, but there would always be the 
desire for an explanation. 

"Pats his cheek and runs her fingers through his hair!" 

Ugly sobs shook the man. The boy's words had crucified 
him. His heart was fearfully and cruelly torn by the memories 
so ruthlessly brought to mind. 

"Her big boy! " 

No one could ever be sweeter than Laura, no one could 
speak love names more caressingly — or have been truer, he 
added it haltingly, almost grudgingly, for his pride was dying 
a hard death. He had been to blame; he knew it now, he had 
known it for a long, long time, but it was too late. He him- 
self had made it too late. He could never go back; his atti- 
tude had been absolutely unpardonable. No matter how hum- 
bly he might ask for forgiveness, it would never be granted 
now. He had waited too long, and though he was finding his 
punishment well nigh unbearable, he had to admit that it 
was just. 

He did not appear at lunch. When Jane went to his door 
to announce it, he excused himself, saying that he had not 
finished his work and that he had better not leave it. So 
Cedric ate hurriedly and resumed his watch on the front lawn. 
He found the house across the road very interesting. He 
wondered what the new brother looked like anyway. He had 
never seen a teeny-weeny baby, and although he was sure that 
he had been one himself, he had no distinct recollection of 
what it was like. Anyway he must be quite wonderful, and 
perhaps Alice would not come back for a long, long time, 
three days maybe, at which thought a blurriness of which he 
was ashamed came into his eyes. He was thinking very lonely 
thoughts when he was amazed to see Alice waving at him; not 
only that, she was coming across the road! 

He ran to meet her, his face radiant, and she greeted him 
with 'a little, gurgling laugh. 

"That brother is the cutest thing," she confided; "so little 
and soft, but sort of red; only I don't mind that a bit; the 
nurse says it will wear off anyway. But he and my mamma 
are taking a nap now, and so we have to be so creepy quiet, 
so I asked Annie if I might come over to see you, an' she said 
'Yes' right away, that I could stay all afternoon. Everybody 
is so smilly and happy over at my house that they act just 
like they was glad to let me do anything I ask 'em." 

She twisted her belt nervously as she went on shyly. 

"And couldn't we go to the little play house? Next to my 
brother, I keep thinkin' of that little cabin you talked about, 
and I do wish I could see it!" 

Her tone was very whe,edling and coaxing — an absolutely 
unnecessary quality, for at the mere mention of her desire 
Cedric responded with alacrity. 

"I just guess so! An' wait a minute. I'll ask Jane to fix 
us a lunch, just a little one, 'cause we must hurry and get 
started. An' I'll tell her we're going to have a little picnic." 

Several hours later, just at dusk, Annie, the maid of the 
Roberts household, came in search of Alice, and in turn she 
and Jane ransacked the Wyler premises for the children. They 
could find no trace of them. 

"Well, bless my soul!" exclaimed motherly old Jane, "Cedric 
came in and asked me for a lunch and said that he and Alice 
were going to have a picnic in a play house. Has Miss Alice 
a play house?" 

Annie shook her head. 

"Then where do you suppose the little scamps went? I never 
heard Cedric talk about a playhouse before, and I supposed it 
was some contraption of the little girl's!" She meditatively 
(Continued on page 22) 

Page twelve 

The Co-operative Movemeiin 

HAVE been requested to tell you what I know about 

Ithe co-operative movement in England. It is just 
about six years since I left there, and, needless to 

say, those years have been very eventful. The 

whole world has been passing through a series of events which 
will leave their mark on history's pages for all time. 

I well remember that about the time I left England, and for 
a couple of years afterward, great business was being done 
by the emigration agencies. Everything that could be done 
to show the alluring West in a good light and to make it 
attractive was done — on paper. At that time there was a tre- 
mendous army of unemployed, which bid fair in a very short 
time to deteriorate into an army of unemployables. This 
condition, allowed to develop, 'was sure, sooner or later, to 
prove a great menace to the existing order of things. Capi- 
talism had already run its course; its industries were no longer 
able to absorb the requisite proportion of the labor power 
available in order to keep the system running smoothly. We 
know full well that capitalism, for its successful operation, 
needs an unemployed reserve. But we also know that when 

armies were being used to quell the revolting workers. Unem- 
ployed demonstrations and hunger marches were every-day 
occurrences, and each country seemed to be competing with 
its neighbor to see which could make the most pretentious 
demonstration. I doubt whether the acts of diplomacy per- 
formed by the members of the various governments to appease 
the demands of labor have been surpassed even by anything 
that has been done in the great world war. Thoughtful men 
and women wondered what was to be the result of this condi- 
tion. The more acute it became, the nearer the great crisis 
when the system must break down. Even you in this com- 
paratively new country had begun to experience the same kind 
of thing. Hired thugs were sent into the disturbed areas, the 
captains of industry held the upper hand, and Ludlow is one 
of the jewels in the crown of capitalism in this country. 

From what I have said, are not some of you able to under- 
stand clearer what precipitated the great struggle that is now 
in progress between the nations? Do not jump to any conclu- 
sions about the cause of the present war, unless you have 
been a student of economics. The science of economics has 



The mountaiKS abound in picnic spots wUere Llano citizens may enjoy their vacations. 

that reserve grows to undue proportions it is inevitable that 
trouble will arise. Emigration was a kind of safety valve and 
served the purpose of easing the pressure. But, with all this, 
the workers who were left and who could secure employment 
were still able to produce such a surplus that the markets 
continued to be glutted. There was not only a surplus of the 
commodity labor power, but also of the commodities that 
labor produces. The reward of productiveness was starvation. 

One need not be very observant to be able to understand 
how this condition was brought about. The very fact that 
any one can find some other individual who is willing to give 
employment and pay wages has more in it than appears on 
the surface. Industrial concerns do not employ men and 
women because they love them. They employ them because 
their labor is a source of profit to themselves. Now, because 
I happen to have been born in England and have referred to 
the condition that existed there, do not think that I wanted 
you to believe that it was a condition peculiar to that country 
alone. It was not. All the countries of Europe were in the 
same fix. All had the same problem to solve. If markets 
could only be found, the problem would be solved for a time. 
But no such markets were to be found, however. 

Industrial unrest was the order of the day. The standing 

always been spoken of to the workers as the dismal science, 
but, if we only knew, it is the key to the whole situation that 
millions are trying to understand at present. 

But, you will ask, what has this to do with the co-operative 
movement in England? I hope to show that it has much to do 
with the co-operative movement, not only in England, but all 
over the world. And I shall try to show why I think the 
co-operative movement is going to solve the difficulties that 
have arisen from the competitive struggle — not only in solving 
labor's problem, but also in making such a thing as a War 
between nations an impossibility. 

We must understand that, in an industrial sense, England 
is much older than this country. She was well developed 
before this country got its start. In fact, I suppose that most 
of the machinery at first used in this country was brought over 
from England, paving the way unconsciously for a rival in 
the commercial field later. All phenomena takes place in due 
season as the conditions which produce them develop. The 
co-operative movement is older in England than in America 
for the reason that the conditions were ripe for the birth of 
such a movement. The co-operative movement had in England 
a Socialistic origin, for its founder was Robert Owen. Owen 
himself avowed that his grand, ultimate object was "com- 



Page thirteen 

i( n Great Britain 

By George Grazier 

munity in land," \\ith which, he hoped, would be combined 
"unrestrained co-operation on the part of all, for every pur- 
pose of human life." It is thus important to associate co- 
operation with Robert Owen, for, although co-operation did 
not have a continuous development from that time, he had 
the same idea that is guiding the movement, and that is guiding 
us here in Llano. The modern co-operative movement in 
England may be said to date from 1844, when a few men 
in the town of Rochdale, in Lancashire, commenced what 
may be termed "the process of joint stock storekeeping." It 
is true this is something different from the proposition of Robert 
Owen, but we shall see that from the beginning there has 
been a gradual development taking place, and there is a 
growing desire for that "unrestrained co-operation on the 
part of all, for every purpose of human life." 

The Rochdale pioneers were a few workingmen, who, 
instead of shouting about the high cost of living, simply com- 
bined their very limited resources, appointed their directors 
and managers, bought their supplies direct from the manu- 
facturers, and supplied their members with commodities at 

tive movement as it stands to-day, gaining in strength in 
proportion to its economic power, wielding political influence 
because of the force it can command by and through the 
possession of vast economic resources. During 1916 the com- 
bined organizations did one thousand million dollars' worth 
of business, one organization alone transacting a business 
averaging five million dollars per week. Wheat lands in Can- 
ada and tea plantations in Ceylon are owned by them. They 
are acquiring land in England and raising vegetables and live 
stock. They outi eight flour miils, and last year 3,185,963 
sacks of flour were milled and delivered to the various dis- 
tributing societies. This was made into bread, biscuits, cakes, 
etc., by co-operative labor. The only eight-hour-day match 
factories and cake, biscuit, jam and pickle factories in Englamd 
are operated by them. One of the biscuit factories alone 
turns out 1 ,750,000 cream crackers every day, in addition to 
its other products. They are making their own shoes, clothing, 
bedding and furniture, and can construct any kind of building, 
from a rabbit hutch to any first-class public building. Printing 
establishments are owned and controlled by them, and they 

Many such beautiful scenes as these are wilhin walking dislance of Llano Colony. 

first cost, thus eliminating middlemen's profits. The same 
thing was done in other towns and cities, and there is hardly 
a town or city there now without its co-operative store. That 
was all right so far, but any one who takes the trouble to 
analyze the position would soon find that if that was all the 
co-operative movement was going to accomplish it may as 
well have died at its birth. Because, although the organiza- 
tions concerned could supply their members with commodities 
at a somewhat lower price, this advantage would soon be 
counteracted. So long as these men were working for wages, 
producing for manufacturers, how long would it be before 
wages decreased in proportion to the decreased cost of living? 
The men whom they had eliminated from the system of dis- 
tribution would become their competitors for the positions 
which the manufacturers had to offer. Wages would fall 
again to subsistence level and the co-operative storekeeping 
would be of no advantage. But the co-operative movement 
did not stop there, and the men who saw the necessity of a 
distributing medium controlled by themselves, soon discovered 
that they in fact gained nothing unless they began producing 
as well. They learned what was necessary by trying to do 
something. They might have theorized to this day. The main 
thing was to act. They did so, and the result is the co-of)era- 

even own vessels for carrying cargoes which have been raised 
by them or purchjised abroad for their consumption. 

You \\ill readily understand from this that the co-operative 
movement there, although a comparatively recent arrival, is 
gaining such power and momentum that it is to-day one of 
the forces that is fast changing the whole industrial and social 
outlook. Let it not be thought that all this has been brought 
about without opposition, or that it is so strong to-day but what 
capitalism takes every opportunity to challenge its bid for 
supremacy. For instance, the tea brokers of the country have 
always conducted a campaign against the C. W. S., and even 
at the present time are doing so. What moves them to do so 
is the desire to create unpleasantness for their dangerous and 
hateful competitor. Meanwhile the C. W. S. regards these 
attacks with calmness. Thanks to the society's own extensive 
tea plantations and its financial strength, the traders can do 
the C. W. S. no dama-ge. On the contrary, this conflict, as 
often in the past, will serve to strengthen its position still more. 

Many thought that a great war, such as the one in progress 
at the present time, would cause the disruption of the co-opera- 
tive movement. But, on the contrary, the movement has made 
considerable progress. One finds that co-operative organiza- 
tions are based on the principle that the welfare of its mem- 

Page fourteen 


The Western Comrade 

bers shall be the first consideration. When they start pro- 
ducing, it is only natural that the providing of food, clothing 
and shelter shall be the first great object. This was the con- 
dition when the war started. An organization, consisting of 
hundreds of thousands of members and reaching from one 
end of the country to the other, was doing for itself just those 
things which the government was forced by the greed of the 
capitalists to do for the whole people. Capitalism collapsed 
because of its greed and incompetency. It tried to put on a 
bold face in spite of this, and the various interests tried by 
bombastic methods to pursue the old course. The government 
had always been the faithful executive of the capitalist class 
and had always obeyed their every wish. But the government 
began to realize that there was something more serious taking 
place than ever had taken place before. The very nation 
itself was liable to fall into the hands of other exploiters and 
to be dominated by them, so it deliberately said: "If you 
want these glorious privileges preserved for yourselves, you 
will have to allow us to run the business." It took a time to 
convince them, but the fact that the German military machine 
had done this long ago and controlled practically all produc- 
tion and distribution, not only for the army and navy, but for 
the general public as well, convinced them that they must 
give way or lose all. It is a sure thing that if some of these 
keen business men, as they are called, had been allowed all 
the rope they wanted they would surely have come to grief. 
However, their faithful executive, the government, prevailed, 
with the result that the military machine of the Allies is making 
a bid to equal the German machine in perfection. The indi- 
vidual capitalist and corporation there must be careful not to 
be too bold at present. 

But what happened to the co-operative organizations? Did 
the government take them over? No. Why not? Because 
they were organizations founded to render service to their 
members, and the government well knew that if one part of 
the nation was now producing and distributing the necessities 
of life through an efficient organization it would be easier for 
them to manage the rest. Therefore it was a wise policy to 
allow the co-operative organizations to go on the same as 
before the war. There were several reasons for this: First, 
the co-operators were manufacturing and distributing goods 
that the people could not do without. They were producing 
what the people actually needed. Secondly, their factories 
and machinery were such as could not readily be used for 
the manufacture of munitions and implements of war. So the 
government felt that just to the extent of the co-operative 
organizations' activities were their own responsibilities less- 
ened. These very facts prove to the world the difference 
between capitalistic and co-operative production. One is pro- 
duction for profit; the other for use. At the time of a national 
crisis capitalistic methods were found to be useless and a 
hindrance; while co-operative methods, originating with the 
idea of rendering service, filled the bill. The normal functions 
of the co-operative enterprises were of such a nature that they 
were bound to aid in the prosecution of the war. It was 
unavoidable — to refuse to operate would just mean cutting off 
their own supplies and sacrificing all. 

Apart from that, the thing to note is that co-operation as a 
system has proved to be efficient. Where it was not already 
in operation the governments have enforced it to suit their 
own purpose. After the war it will be up to the people to 
see that the system of co-operation is maintained, not to fit 
each nation with the teeth and claws of Mars, but to produce 
those things that are necessary to every nation's well-being. 
Capitalism has starved the people in the midst of plenty. It 

will be the function of the co-operatively managed nations 
in the near future to see that equitable distribution is made, 
thereby abolishing poverty and all incentive to crime, individ- 
ual or national. 

You ask, how is it possible for a nation to commit crime? 
I submit that the principle underlying criminality is the same, 
whether applied to an individual or a nation. To cause un- 
necessary suffering can be construed in no other way, and the 
present war is the greatest crime of the ages. However, those 
that hope to gain by it will find, after all the smoke and thun- 
der of battle are passed away, that instead of the supremacy 
for which they hoped, they have really ushered in a new order 
of society. Very few people realize that at the present time 
a social revolution is being effected. The co-operators of the 
world have tried to effect it peacefully in a practical way. The 
so-called political leaders tried to accomplish it by passing 
resolutions and making speeches. The old trade-unionists 
never had any conception of what a social revolution meant. 
All they ever troubled about was keeping pace with the in- 
creasing cost of living, and a devil of a time they had. 

While speaking of this, I just want to refer to an editorial 
in an English co-operative magazine called "The Producer." 
Commenting on the activities of the Labor Party there, it says : 
"The Labor Party does not yet seem to have realized that for 
the economic betterment of the people, collectively owned 
fields, factories and workshops are better than speeches and 
resolutions ; they could, in fact, be made more effective in 
the economic welfare of the workers than almost any kind of 
legislation. When we are treading the paths of national 
legislation we are upon very uncertain ground, that is apt to 
give way at any moment. But when we capture fields and 
grow wheat, build factories and manufacture goods, erect 
warehouses and distribute the contents one to anotJier, we 
know we are getting on solid ground." 

The progress made in the older countries should give us 
encouragement in our work here. Consider that the organiza- 
tions there have kept in touch with one another in the most 
friendly manner, even though the governments have declared 
the countries to be at war. The co-operators were helpless to 
prevent the war. It was useless for them to pit their forces 
against a machine that was a thousand times as strong as them- 
selves, and which they knew was determined to crush every- 
thing that stood in its way. Co-operators here extend the glad 
hand to co-operators in other countries. Our interests are the 
same. Wars can never arise between us. It is only where an 
antagonism of interest exists that war is a possibility. 

Once get a national co-operation firmly established, and 
war will be a thing of the past. 


Read of Llano in the LLANO COLONIST, the weekly paper telling 
in detail of what is being achieved, giving an intimate peep into 
the daily lives, the smaller incidents of this growing, thriving in- 

Read, too, the WESTERN COMRADE, the illustrated monthly 
magazine, giving more complete articles concerning the Colony, 
showing photos illustrating its growth, etc. The editorials, and 
many other special features, are making it one of the leading 
Socialist magazines of today. 

For subscriptions to the Publications, changes of address, etc., 
please write 


The Western Comrade 


Was Schmidt Guilty? 

[This is the third installment of Comrade Harriman's address in the trial 
of the Los Angeles Times dynamiting cases.] 

ERE let US turn the light on McManigal, the felon 

H called as the principal witness for the state. 
Mr. McManigal is a self-confessed murderer. He 

claims to be guilty of the murder with which this 

defendant is charged. He pleaded guilty to the charge of 
conspiracy in Indianapwlis, and has testified in this prosecution, 
the theory of which is that the conspiracy charged in Indian- 
apolis is a continuing conspiracy, and that every one involved 
therein is guilty of the murder of Charles Haggerty. After 
testifying in Indianapolis, the prison doors were opened, this 
criminal, McManigal, shook off his chains, walked out, was 
given a thousand dollars in cash by the County of Los Angeles, 
and told to go his way in peace. 

That was the price paid for his testimony in Indianapolis 
and upon this stand. What a willing, anxious witness! Why 
should he not be willing? Was not his liberty at stake? 
Would he swear a man's life away for his own life and lib- 
erty? Would he not kill a man, with an oath, for his liberty, 
if he would kill a man with a gun when his liberty was only 
in jeopardy? What a tender-hearted, loving father the prose- 
cution would have you believe him to be. What a fiend incar- 
nate was he before they caught him ! What a change of heart 
the third degree, coupled with a promise of liberty, and a 
thousand dollars cash on the side, will work in the heart of a 
murderer! He was not always thus, a hired butcher, bought 
with the price of his own liberty. He was not always a saint, 
with a loving heart throbbing with parental kindness. In 1907, 
when the violence first began in the 'East, McManigal was 
merely a workingman, that is all. Just a man working on the 
job, helping to erect steel buildings the same as other working 

I want you to pay particular attention as I repeat the un- 
reasonable and improbable and false story of McManigal. 

He testified that he was working in Detroit on the Ford 
building when he met a man by the name of Hockin. That 
statement is probably true. He said that there was a building 
in the neighborhood under way of construction, upon which 
a number of non-union men were working; that the union 
men working on the Ford building were ordered to watch the 
non-union men on the other building and to follow them to 
the car that they took on their way home, and, when they got 
off, to give them a beating; that the men working on the Ford 
building followed the orders of Hockin and beat the non- 
union men, much to the satisfaction of Mr. Hockin, but that 
he, McManigal, refused to obey the orders — that he did not 
believe in that sort of business and remained at home. Do 
you think it was his tender heart that kept him there? Might 
it not have been his physical cowardice? Personal warfare 
with bare fists requires some courage. Are we quite sure that 
this saint of Mr. Noels, made thus by promises of liberty and 
cash payment, has the kind of courage necessary to enter a 
contest with bare fists? You heard he had the nerve to carry 
pure nitro-glycerine on long trips. Well, yes! But he was 
familiar with nitro-glycerine and knew how to handle it with 
safety. That required nerve, not courage. But did he not 
put this nitro-glycerine in many places, under the most difficult 
circumstances? True, he did. But you must remember that 
many cowards are the best shots. It is their cowardice that 
makes them good shots if their hearts are wicked. You will 

remember that this loving father so tenderly cherished by 
Mr. Noel had always with him a brace of .38 repeater Colt 
revolvers. The penalty the law placed upon him for destroying 
property was imprisonment. The penalty he placed upon an 
attempt to catch him was death. What a father! What a 
tender heart! What do you think of a man who would take 
a human life rather than be imprisoned for a few years for 
committing a crime? He could blow down a bridge and mur- 
der a man rather than be caught. If he could murder a man 
with a gun, in cold blood, rather than be imprisoned, how 
much more willingly would he murder a man with an oath, 
rather than be hanged? 

Listen to the story of this man. When he refused to join 
what he calls the entertainment committee, he tells us that this 
man Hockin, hitherto a stranger, told him that since he refused 
to assist in beating the non-union men, he would have to blow 
up a building with dynamite. He testified that he protested — 
that he did not want to destroy property; that it was wrong; 
that he would quit work and go back to Chicago before he 
would do such work; that Hockin was incorrigible and told 
him that he must blow up the building; that if he quit work 
and went back to Chicago he would be boycotted and would 
not be able to go to work; that Hockin told him to wait while 
he went up into Canada, where he would get the dynamite; 
that Hockin went and returned without the stuff. What an 
improbable story. The story is impossible. Do you think the 
organizer of a labor organization would pick up a stranger and 
force him to blow up a building with dynamite? You must 
remember that there was a strike on, and at such times spies 
are as thick as maggots in a festered sore. Do you not know 
that organizers have long since learned to be exceedingly 
cautious at such times? Were the organizer to force such an 
act, it would only be necessary to disclose the fact to one of 
the spies, some of whom are always present and known. 

No organizer or any other man would try to force a man to 
commit such a crime at such a time. By doing so he would 
place not only the strike, but the entire organization, in 
jeopardy, and himself in prison. Of all methods yet employed 
to procure the commission of a crime, this one is certainly the 
most unique. Clever — no, the story is not even clever. It is 
coarse and inconsistent with the remainder of this felon's story. 
Do you not remember that he said they conducted their cam- 
paign of destruction with profound secrecy? Do you not 
know that such acts must be done in secret? Do men herald 
such acts to the world? No! No! Those are the class of 
acts that are kept under the bushel. Indeed, they must be 
kept under the bushel. Whatever success attends them de- 
pends on secrecy. Yet this man Hockin took every chance 
of heralding it to the world by picking out a stranger, and 
forcing him, against his will, to commit a crime. Do you 
believe such stuff? Is this man to hang on such testimony, or 
on the testimony of a man who lends himself to such unreason- 
able stories to gain his own liberty, together with a thousand 
dollars in cold cash on the side? Cash — that was a mere 
"gift" to show that the people of Los Angeles County were 
good fellows! Do you remember the umbrella story? Here 
is another, equally corrupt, unreasonable and false. A story 
so utterly and completely at variance with the methods of 
secrecy that must be employed under such circumstances can 
only be looked upon with disgust. And to him must be turned 
a deaf ear, consigning him to dwell among those angels whose 

Page sixteen 

The Western Comrade 

wings, while on earth, were made of iron barrels, and leaden 
balls, and whose trails were slimy with human gore. 

Now let me tell you what really happened. You will re- 
member that the resolution of 1906 was being rigidly en- 
forced. That there was a strike on in Detroit. That the 
union men were suffering defeat in every quarter and the 
dissolution of the union seemed inevitable. Consternation was 
abroad and their hearts were sinking into despair. 

At this moment McManigal came to Hockin. Who was 
McManiga! then? Not a perjured villian, nor an angel, but 
merely a man who, like other men, was in the struggle to better 
his condition. He was, like the others, struggling for higher 
wages and an eight-hour day. He had been a miner, accus- 
tomed to handling and using dynamite. He knew the terrible 
havoc that would be strewn in its wake. He was cunning as 
a fox, stealthy as a cat and conscienceless as a viper. It is to 
this man that the campaign of destruction is due. 

He went in secret to Hockin. I think I can hear him, whis- 
pering his mildew into Hockin's ear as he tells him of his 
former occupation and how he could turn the tide in their 
favor by destroying the property of their enemies. We can 
almost hear him say, "I can run down to Tiffin, Ohio, and 
get all the dynamite we need. My uncle and father live there, 
and I know the men in the mines, and they will sell me the 
stuff. You give me the money and I will buy the dynamite 
and fuse, bring it back, and you can leave the test to me. 
On thaj: night you had better be somewhere all the evening, 
for they know you and they might arrest you. I am not known 
and they will never suspect me. Take it from me, Hockin, 
after this is over they vnW be afraid of more to follow and 
they will make peace vkith us." 

Facing an inevitable defeat and sinking in despair, Hockin 
grabbed at this fatal straw. Money was supplied and McMan- 
igal started on his way to Tiffin. There he met his father and 
uncle, to whom he told his story with the glee that always 
shows in the face of the man who is about to commit what 
he believes will be a successful crime. His father and uncle, 
of kindred criminal blood, lent their assistance to him in his 
mad career. The dynamite and fuse were bought and he 
went on his way with them to Detroit. You vknll remember 
with what cunning he opened the door leading from the alley 
into the building, where he placed one charge and lighted 
the fuse. Then, closing the door, he returned to his room, 
where he had left the other two charges for other buildings. 
Soon the crash came. Then, lying on his bed, he heard the 
calling of the newsboys, "All about the great explosion." I 
think I can hear him chuckle as he cut the item from the 
paper and sent it to his uncle and father, telling them of his 
great success. Does not this fact prove beyond all question 
that his story was false; that he was not forced to commit 
the crime; that he was not acting under protest; but that the 
crime was of his own choosing; that he was proud of his own 
accomplisment? And that he hastened to tell his accomplices 
of his glee and of conquests yet to come? 

Looking up and down the street, he saw a policeman at 
each corner. He thought that he was discovered. Going 
hence to his own room, he cut the other charges into small bits, 
dropped them into the closet and repaired to the street, leaving 
no trace behind. Rather a successful man to have been 
chosen by chance. No, he was not chosen by Hockin. He 
vvas chosen by himself to carry out his own dire plot. He did 
it with skill, and cunning, and success. 

And Hockin? What became of him? He was arrested, as 
McManigal said he would be. He had prepared his alibi. He 

was at a banquet. He was soon released, and, congratulating 
each other, they discovered that they had launched a unique 
campaign of destruction, with McManigal as the chief actor 
and with Hockin as the directing general. These two, and no 
more, knew the facts at the time. 

This job at Detroit, according to McManigal, was the first 
job pulled off. It was in 1 907. Immediately thereafter Hockin 
went to Indianapolis and revealed the plot to J. J. McNamara 
and Ryan. He told them of McManigal'^ plan and how they 
had successfully carried it out; how the strike was settled and 
the union men in Detroit had been put to work on the wrecked 
building. I think I see these officers as they sit in consterna- 
tion, listening to the story and the proposals of this terrible 
campaign. They were confronted by an overpowering enemy. 
Their efforts were futile. They were suffering defeat after 
defeat at the hands of the Steel Trust, with no hope of success 
by using methods previously employed. They were losing 
their old and staunch metnbers. Members were quitting who 
had faithfully fought long and hard and who were being forced 
by hunger to heed the call for bread. The organization was 
disbanding. Despair was abroad in the ranks, and unless 
something more effective could be done the union would soon 
be a thing of the past. Dangerous as was this new plan, and 
though criminal in its character, yet these men, as all men 
engaged in war, felt that any course that would save their 
organization, and hence the lives of their members, was justi- 
fiable. Expensive as it might be, and dangerous as it might 
become, they concluded that nothing could be more expensive 
nor more dangerous than a funeral. They could not see that 
such a course led inevitably to the grave, but hoped, as all 
men in despair hope, that whatever will save for the moment 
will save forever. 

And thus the campaign of destruction was launched. At 
that time only the four men, Hockin, Ryan, J. J. McNamara 
and McManigal, knew the plan. 

That all matters might be understood and settled beween 
them, McManigal was brought to Indianapolis. It was then 
and there that the terms were settled and agreed upon. You 
will remember that McManigal said it was a matter of business 
with him. That he did not care to go from work to dynamiting 
and thence to work again. That he would either have nothing 
to do with it or he would make it a business and work at it all 
the time. The price agreed upon was $200 a shot, all things 
furnished and expenses paid. 

McManigal testified that he was told not to visit Indianapolis 
nor to be seen with J. J. McNamara except at long intervals. 
Do you know what this means? It means secrecy. Secrecy 
is the primal necessity of such an undertaking. The union 
movement would not support such a course. The law con- 
demned it. Public knowledge meant failure. Stripped of 
every trace that would lead to Indianapolis and communicating 
with that office through Hockin, the machinery was ready and 
McManigal went on his way. 

For the first time in the history of the Iron Workers' Union, 
dynamite was purchased. I say this without fear of contra- 
diction. The prosecution broke into the office of the Iron 
Workers' Union at Indianapolis, took all the records, and is 
armed from head to foot with all the facts in the case. Had 
there been any purchase of dynamite previous to this state, the 
records would have disclosed the fact. The prosecution would 
have presented those letters and you would have been apprised. 

["Was Schmidt Guilty?" began in the May number and will run for 
several months. Back numbers, ten cents a copy.] 

The Western Comrade 

Page seventeen 

The Socialist Party — Where Is It? i 

y M. M. 

EAST and West, North and South, the Socialist Party 
has been rent asunder. Fragments have split off; 
factions have formed; schisms have been created. 

' World-wide problems have wrought world-wide havoc 

v«th every institution, and nationalism has risen superior to 
internationalism. The Socialist Party of every country has 

But in the United States where the party was weakest, where 
the leprosy of dissolving party membership has reduced the 
membership and the tuberculosis of falling vote has closed the 
field of new recruits, while the mal-nutrition of lost interest 
has brought despair to the entire movement, the effect has 
been even worse. 

Two factions have been forming for some time. One looks 
backwards to Karl Marx for instruction, and regardless of 
present day necessities, of the problems of this period or of the 
exigencies of new conditions turns,' like the Moslem, its face 
always to the East. 

The other faction faces the problems 
of today and looks toward the logic 
of today for the answers. Without de- 
precating the wisdom of Marx, this fac- 
tion gently reminds the Socialists that 
Marx is dead, and that the dead hand 
of the dead Socialist is no less dead 
than the dead hand of the dead cap- 

Two significant conventions have 
been held in the last few months. 

One was at Fresno, February 1 7, 
18, and 19. California Socialists met 
and formulated two constitutions, the 
majority report and the minority 

The other was at St. Louis, April 7. 
The emergency convention met and 
formulated a majority report and three 
minority reports. 

At Fresno there was a desire on the 
part of the majority to make a more radical constitution, to 
adopt timely measures, to use methods that would lead the 
party forward. 

At St. Louis, the majority had nothing new to offer. 

The Fresno majority constitution carried by a three-to-one 

The St. Louis majority report is being suppressed by the 
authorities as being seditious, and a number of prominent 
Socialists are in jail or out on bail as a result of distributing 

It is not the fact that the St. Louis majority report is sedi- 
tious that makes it significant; the efforts of the radicals 
everywhere are likely to be considered as such by the powers 
that be. 

The significant thing is that those assumed to be leading 
thinkers in the Socialist movement of America had nothing 
constructive to offer in the face of an emergency and in the 
face of dwindling membership and a reduced vote. They 
could suggest nothing to overcome these conditions. They 
merely reiterated their position, known to every one who has 
ever given the Socialists even a moment's thought. 

How different the sentiment at Fresno! There constructive 
measures were not only given a hearing, but were adopted. 

T^HIS is the new clause that is to 
deliver the Socialist Party of 
California out of the hands of those 
who have choked it slowly till life 
is nearly extinct, who have prevent- 
ed co-ordinated action, who have 
made it an ineffectual shell: 

"Socialist Locals shall be organiz- 
ed without regard to political sub- 
divisions. The jurisdiction of said 
Locals shall be confined to members 

State Secretary Williams has compiled a brief statement in 
which he has enumerated the chief changes. They are well 
worth noting: 

Chief Provisions of New Constitution. 

First — Four regular referendum elections per year — in January, April, 
July and October. 

Second — State Executive Committee to consist of nine members, to be 
elected by Industrial Groups. 

Third — Work of Locals confined to propaganda, education and organ- 
ization. Locals will have nothing to do with the political activity of the 

Fourth — Locals will have no territorial jurisdiction. Locals will have 
jurisdiction over their own members only. 

Fifth — Any five individuals may unite and organize a Local without 
regard to residence of members or the territory covered. 

Sixth — There may be as many locals in any community as there are 
groups of five or more desiring to unite in forming a Local. 

Seventh — All existing branches will automatically become Locals and 

o rrr-otjnized by the State Office. 
Eighth — All of 'the political activity of the party will hereafter be admin- 
istered by all of the party membership, without regard to Local organiza- 

Ninth — No group of comrades can get to- 
gether in a city or county and assume control 
of all political activity of the party, nor can 
they interfere with any campaign being con- 
ducted in some political subdivision of the city 
or county. 

Tenth — In case a majority of the members 
residing in two or more political subdivisions 
of the city \%ish to do so, they may co-operate, 
providing a majority of the members in each 
subdivision are agreed. 

Eleventh — Members of the State Executive 
Committee automatically become State Organ- 
izers for the particular Industrial Group elect- 
ing them, and are amenable to said group. 

Twelfth — All members at large will pay 
$2.50 dues per year, payable in advance. 

Thirteenth — All new applicants for mem- 
bership in the party must pay $1 on admis- 
sion, to be applied as follows : Twenty-five 
cents for the State Bulletin, 15 cents to pay 
for the national dues for three months, and 
60 cents to be applied to the State Organiza- 
ion fund. The member in return therefor will 
receive the State Bulletin for one year, and a membership card, duly 
stamped, for three months. 

The Socialists of California are endeavoring to put the parly 
on a firm foundation. The Constitution was adopted only after 
a systematic and careful study of conditions had been made. 

The conservative element fought it with the arguments 
conservatives usually use. They \vished to continue in the 
same old way. 

One of the worst features the Socialists have to contend 
with is the professional disrupter. He is the man loudest in 
his talk of the "bourgeoisie" and the "proletariat," of the 
"class struggle" and the "working class." With these words 
he establishes himself as a Socialist, and then begins system- 
atically to drive out those who really belong to the working 
class and who feel the class struggle without forever talking 
about it. 

Under the old Constitution the best locals were constantly 
being broken up and the best workers disgusted by the tactics 
of these disrupters, many of whom were honest enough in 
their intentions. 

Under the new Constitution it is easy to form new locals, 
and those who come to cause dissension cannot hold a local 

(Continued on page 22) 

Page eighteen 


The Western Comrade 

News and Views in Agriculture 

Laying Contests Have Shown apart. This will result in the formation of rather compact heads and the 

„ , „„_ , . 11 11- entire plant may then be cut for use. For an early crop in the North, the 

Ihat the zUU-egg hen is a very substantial present-day reanty. „i, , u ij u . . j • u .u j u j: j . i . j 

*, . . r? r 1 1 • r 1 1 1 ocfi plants should be started m a hotbed or cold frame and transplanted as 

Ihat It IS possible for the domestic fowl to produce more than ZDU eggs l j r i .■ r .l o .l .l 

i.iQ. .o j^^^i.o.1^.^ ^^, ...>. i- 66 soo„ 35 hard freezes are over. In many sections of the South the 

'" 4i 1°°*^':" '^* ^yf- ... r 1 1 L r 1 1 seeds are sown during the autunrn and the plant allowed to remain in the 

ihat high fecundity is primarily a strain or ramily rather than or breed. „,„.,„J „„„, , ,;„.«, r i u u i.- .■ u u u ■ .l 

_, ° ,.■' r rill ir 11 1 • ground over winter, rrequent shallow cultivation should be given the 

ITiat the selection and mating of highly prohfic birds can result m a ^^^p. ^^j jj ^^. ^„j ,^„j^^ ,^„^^^ j^ j^^,^^j ^^^. ^^^ ^^^^^^ _^_^_^,[^^_ 

marked miprovement of the average egg production. some form of partial shading may be necessary. 

That the conlmued selection of breeding stock upon lines that emphasize p^^ ^^^j ,^„^^^_ gj^ goston, Hanson and California Cream Butter are 

inherent tendency to ovarian activity is inclined to alter the weight and ^^^j varieties. For loose-leaf lettuce, Grand Rapids or black-seeded 

conformation of certam pure breds. ,,,.,,, , . Simpson are recommended.— United Stales Department of Agriculture. 

Ihat the average weight of the eggs from both high and low producing 
strains can be materially mcreased through selective breeding. D^^-j Use Rhubarb Leaves 

Ihat the trap nest or the single-bird pen is the only absolute index to a 
bird's capacity for egg production. Because rhubarb leaves contain certain substances which make then; 

That when other things are equal the so-called mongrel may be the poisonous to a great many persons, specialists of the United States Depart- 

equal, if not the superior, of many strains of pure breds, ment of Agriculture warn housewives against using this portion of the 

That the absence of male birds from the laying pens does not affect the plant for food. A number of letters have been received by the depart- 

egg yield. ment calling attention to the fact that certain newspapers and magazines 

That the heavier breeds are the best winter layers. are advocating the use of rhubarb leaves for greens, and that disastrous 

That an abundant supply of plain, wholesome food in conjunction with results have followed the acceptance of the advice. — United Stales Depart- 

proper housing and management is conducive to increased production. ment of Agriculture. 

That the cost of feeding does not in itself make for profit or loss in the _. . . _ 

poultry business. Value of Peanuts for Oil and Meal 

That the efficiency of different so-called standard rations cannot be ex- Qne ton of peanuts will yield eighty gallons of oil valuable for human 

actly determined from their use m connection with small expenmental pens f^^j purposes, as salad oil and in cooking, and 750 pounds of meal, which 

of birds of unknown performance.— Charles Opperman m The Country ^^^tains 48.26 per cent protein and 9 per cent fat and makes a more 

Uentleman. valuable live stock feed than does cottonseed meal. 

A Good Contact Insectide for Sucking Insects p P^"""' °'' jf T,i°Lnam'''\^'"'^°T!,■u '""t ''^'^^'nmnnr^'^n'"" 

France uses about |D,UUU,UUU gallons of edible oil and Zi,WO,OuO gallons 

Lime _ _ 40 pounds of low-grade oil in the manufacture of soaps each year, while Germany 

Sulphur (flowers) 30 pounds uses about 6,000,000 gallons of high-grade oil. It is noteworthy that of 

Water, to make „ _ 100 gallons the 1,500,000 gallons of peanut oil annually imported to America more 

,, . . 1 . ^ ,1 1 L I iL- J £ »L I I I than half passes through and is used in the manufacture of oleomargarine. 

Heat in a cooking vat or other vessel about one-third of the total quan- ■■ .. '^ .j..., " * 

tlty of water required. When the water is hot, add all of the lime, and at 

once add all of the sulphur, which should previously have been made into Tlit Improvement of Nurserv Stock 

a thick paste with water. After the lime is slaked, another one-third of 

(he water should be added, preferably hot, and the cooking should be In order that nursery stock may be improved in the broadest sense of 

continued for an hour, when the final dilution should be made, using either the word, the orchardist must be continually on the alert to observe all 

hot or cold water, as is most convenient. The boiling due to the slaking of that is desirable among Nature's raw materials, the chance seedlings and 

the lime thoroughly mixes the ingredients at the start, but subsequent stir- bud sports; the plant breeder must take the most desirable traits from 

ring is necessary if the wash is cooked by direct heat in kettles. After the the best we have in each fruit and endeavor to combine them; the scien- 

was has been preapred, it must be strained through a fine sieve as it is tific investigators of our experiment stations must enter the practically 

being run into the spray tank. — Fred P. Roullard, Horticultural Commis- neglected field of root stock investigation and determine not only the 

sioner, Fresno County. affinity behveen stock and scion, but the root that is best adapted to 

I . I, A * certain soil conditions and best adapted to resist insect pests and plant 

Locating tne Apiary diseases; while the nurseryman, profiting by all that these have done, must 

In selecting a location for the apiary, dense shade is objectionable, get out of the rut of blind and though dess following of old horticulture'! 

whether it be brush, arbor or large trees, on account of the inconvenience *"''= '^af have naught but antiquity to recommend them, and he must 

of getting swarms, which will use this for a settling place. It is also objec- f""y understand the great responsibility resting upon him as counselor and 

tionable on account of keeping the early morning sun away from the bees, S»'^^ '° ™3"y orchardists. He should never forget the cruel dlsappo^nt- 

and thus keeping them m the hive late in the day, when they should be at ™^"* '» ^°"'^ °"^ 'f'*' •""«' inevitably follow either his carelessness or 

work.— J. B. King, Texas Department of Agriculture. his dishonesty if he should allow stock to leave his hands other than that 

which his customer desires. He must place his business on a higher plane 

Use for Peanut Hulls than that of mere buying and selling, and must feel that it is his m'sslon 

,,.,... , . 1 f 1 1 11 T I 1 ,- to be an agent in helping Nature add to the welfare of mankind. — A. L. 

Utilization IS now being made of the peanut hu I. In Johnson County, y^-^^^^^ ^oma Rica Nursery, California, 
lexas, a contract was closed recently for a hundred carloads of peanut 

hulls to be used in a mixed feed for live stock. This utihzation of the entire Government Aid for Purchase of Tractors 

peanut plant will no doubt prove a factor in feed prices next season. 

The general opinion of fieldmen in that section is that the forthcoming ^^ ''^1'*" Ministry of Agriculture has issued a notice fixing rules 

peanut crop will be more profitable to the producer than in the past seasns. whereby agricultural bodies and societies in Italy may obtain a government 

i^_ £ g__ in Jl^g Country Gentleman. contribution toward the cost of acquiring tractors for mechanical plowing. 

The grant will be conceded to these bodies up to thirty per cent of the 

Radishes and Lettuce Directions for Planting 'otal cost and, the Board of Trade Journal states, this figure may be in- 

_ ,. , , , , . , . creased to forty per cent in the event of not less than five tractors being 

Radishes and lettuce are favorite plants in small gardens because, while employed in any one Province. In the case of private persons the grant 

these are attractive additions to the table, they are in a way luxuries on „;!! „„( g^ceed twenty per cent. This is not only a practical solution 

which many housewives hesitate to spend money „f ,he p^blem of greater production that we hear so much about but 

Lettuce does not withstand heat well and thrives best, therefore, in ^ij^ ^jghty good co-operation between government and farmers.— "The 

the early spring or late autumn. In order to have the leaves crisp and Organized Farmer." 
tender it is necessary to force the growth of the plant. The usual method 

of growing the plant for home use is to sow the seeds broadcast in the bed Sweet clover is adapted to a wider range of climatic conditions than any 

and to remove the leaves as rapidly as they become large enough for use. of the true clovers, and possibly alfalfa. — United States Department of 

It is better, however, to sow the seeds in rows fourteen to sixteen inches Agriculture, 

The Western Comrade 


Page nineteen 

Co-operation the World Over 

Notes About t^he, Chief Co-operatives Gleaned from Many Sources 

The Salvation of Irish Farming — Co-operation 

the struggling fanners of Ireland were exploited lo the point 

In 1 

of a bare subsistence by railroads, middlemen, commission men and bank- 
ers. Families vegetated in grinding, degenerating poverty, until nearly ail 
the ambitious young men, cognizant of the doom which awaited them on 
their own soil, emigrated to Amenca. 

Sir Horace Plunkett, father of co-operation among farmers in North- 
western United States, after making an exhaustive study of Irish conditions, 
proposed as a remedy for this wretched poverty — co-operation. With the 
assistance of the enthusiastic Father Finlay, Plunkett induced a group of 
farmers in 1889 to form a co-operative creamery, the first co-operative 
enterprise in Ireland. 

'Ihe first year this society did a business of $21,815. The next year 
Plunkett organized sixteen more creameries, which in 1891 did a business 
of $251,910. At this juncture the movement was strong enough to enter 
the field of co-operative banking. Not having a rational and adequate 
credit supply, ihey established a series of co-operative banks and credit 
societies, lending money for one and two per cent less than that lent by 
private companies. This last move aroused the forces of capitalism to a 
realization of the powerful enemy in the person of Co-operation. For 
seven years the corrupt interests fought the movement bitterly. But 
co-operation triumphed, and to-day is the most inspiring agrarian move- 
ment in the world. 

Ireland now has the following co-operatives: 193 agricultural, 235 
credit, 18 poultry, 18 home industries, 52 pig and cattle supply, 10 flax 
and 29 miscellaneous. In 1913, 985 co-operative societies did a business 
of $16,665,900. There are 300,000 farmers in Ireland, more than a 
third of whom are enrolled in the various co-operative societies. All of 
this has been accomplished under the auspices of the Irish Agricultural 
Organization Sociey, organized and directed by the inspiring genius of Sir 
Horace Plunkett. 

The results? The incomes of the farmers, by abolishing the sources of 
exploitation through co-operative endeavor, have almost been doubled. 
Fanning, previously the most dismal occupation in the island, has become 
a joy and a science. Ambitious and energetic young men and women are 
now remaining on the farms, gladly taking up the occupation of their 
parents — the best proof in the world of a thriving rural population. 

What a contrast here to the suffering and privation of competition! 

Alaska Indians Operate Co-operative Stores 

Through the assistance of the United States Bureau of Education, Alaska 
Indians at Hydaberg. Southeastern Alaska, have been guided in the organ- 
ization of several co-operative stores, in order to abolish the criminal 
exploitation at ihe hands of unscrupulous traders. At these stores the 
natives may exchrnge their wares and purchase the necessaries of life at 
a legitimate price. The stores are owned and operated by the Indians 
themselves. Twelve months after the establishment of the co-operative 
store in Hydaberg the Indians declared a cash dividend of fifty per cent, 
and still had sufficient funds at hand to build a larger store. 

The Co-operative League of America 
One of the most important organizations in America formed for the 
purpose of educating the people to an appreciation of the value of co-oper- 
ation IS THE CO-OPERATIVE LEAGUE OF AlMERICA, with headquarters 
at 70 Fifth avenue. New York City. The aims of the league are: First, 
the explanation through leaflets and pamphlets of the p.-inciples underlying 
the successful operation of co-operative stores; second, the investigation 
of commercial and industrial conditions in the United States in their rela- 
tion to co-operation, so that co-operative enterprises can be advised as to 
how and where to adapt themselves to special conditions peculiar to this 
country; and third, to furnish expert counsel to co-operatives in the 
administration of their business and financial transactions. The member- 
ship of the league is composed entirely of earnest students of co-operation 
who are interested in the growth of the American movement. Persons 
interested in co-operation are urged to become members and to write for 

The Practical Value of Co-operation 

The co-operative movement is teaching people to do things for them- 
selves without asking or accepting aid from the state. It is teaching the 
workers to administer the affairs of society on every scale. It is raising 
up from the ranks of labor raen who are capable of large enterprises. 

In its conflicts with the forces of capitalism, co-operation is the only 

force that has triumphed. Great trusts have gone down before it. In 
Switzerland it vanquished the beef trust, in Sweden the sugar trust, and 
in England the soap trust. It has prevailed against great obstacles. 
Whereas the workers have notoriously suffered defeat at the ballot box 
in their contests with privileged interests, the co-operators, in their great 
contests with the vested interests, have always won the victory. 

The powerful combines, with capital, unscrupulous cJjntrol of politics, and 
the force of vested interests behind them, have been beaten by organiza- 
tions largely composed of working people. Co-operation has succeeded 
against the greatest economic odds. — James Peter Warbasse. 

Co-operation is the act of working together towards a common end or 
uniting for a common purpose. The success or failure of co-operation 
lies not in co-operation itself, but m the individual who co-operates or 
fails to co-operate. — California Fruit Exchange. 

Co-operative Bull Associations 

Co-operative bull associations are formed by farmers for the joint own- 
ership, use and exchange of high-class, pure-bred bulls. In addition, they 
may encourage careful selections of cows and calves, introduce belter 
methods of feeding, help their members market dairy stock and dairy pro- 
ducts, intelligently fight contagious diseases of cattle, and in other ways 
assist in lifting the dairy business to a higher level. Incidentally, the 
educational value of such an organization is great. The history of the 
co-operative bull association shows that it is especially adapted to small 
herds, \\here a valuable bull for each herd would constitute too large a 
percentage of the total investment. Thus the organization enables even 
the owners of small herds to unite in the purchase of one goc-d bull and 
each to own a share m a registered sire of high quality. Though still in 
its infancy, the co-operative bull association movement promises eventually 
to become a very great factor in the improvement of our dairy cattle. 
At the present time there are in the United States thirty-two active bull 
associations, with a total membership of 650, owning about 120 pure-bred 
bulls. — United States Bureau of Animal Husbandry. 

Co-op)erative Canneries 

It is estimated that the co-operative canneries of the United States 
handled over $158,000,000 worth of the canned and dried fruits and vege- 
tables marketed last year. Practically all of the co-operative canneries 
m the United States are found in the Pacific Northwest and California, the 
annual business of these organizations ranging from as low as $50,000 to 
as high as $1,500,000 for a single cannery. The most successful co-opera- 
tive canneries now in operation are those which put up or pack a wide 
variety of products over a long period, some starting with strawberries in 
May and continuing until December with late vegetables. By utilizing the 
various products as they mature, the operating period may be extended 
to about six and one-half months. — United Slates Office of Markets and 
Rural Organization. 

The Value of Co-operation 
Co-operation does away with the grave evils of debt, especially in con- 
nection with little shops. The curse of housekeeping on credit is the 
irresponsibility it breeds, and in checking this irresponsibility co-operation 
has strengthened self-reliance and self-control in a thousand homes. But 
it has done far more than check reckless domestic expenditure. The 
co-operative store trains men and women to act with prudence, and edu- 
cates them in the business of wisely conducting their own affairs. A 
positive sense of responsibility is fostered by co-operation, and in learning 
lo manage the store co-operators gain an experience that is invaluable for 
good citizens. — Joseph Clayton. 

Co-operation in Holland 

Of the 958 creameries in Holland, 680 are co-operative; of its 291 
cheese factories, 201 are co-operative. Co-operation in Holland is used 
also in other lines of agricultural manufacture. Of 21 potato-flour fac- 
tories, 13 are co-operative. There are six co-operative strawboard mills 
and two large beet-sugar co-operative factories. One co-operative artificial 
manure factory supplies half the fertilizer used in Holland. Holland has 
600 credit banks, affiliated with three central banks, all co-operative. — 
Paul V. Collins, Pearson's. 

Co-operative Banks in Italy 

There are 900 co-operative banks in Italy and, until recently, they did 
not even have government inspection, yet their losses for a term of years 
averaged only six hundredths of one per cent. — Albert Sonnischer. 

Page twenty 

Magazine Summary 

The Western Comrade 

What Thinkers Think 

The Substance of Instructive Articles in June Magazines 

Review of Reviews 
Present Agricultural Situation. — For the first time we are thinking agri- 
cuhure in terms of a nation. If we are to have a big increase in 
acreage the nation as a whole and not farmers as a class must take a 
hand. The Department of Agriculture brings to the farmer vast stores 
of scientific information and seeks to stimulate co-operative efforts on the 
part of the farmer, and to help him to market products. By planting such 
legumes as soy beans, cow peas and peanuts the meal supply can be 
supplemented materially this summer. Co-operation must be the watch- 
word. There is no other means of eliminating waste. Wheat ground in 
a hand grist mill in the kitchen is as good as most patent breakfast foods, 
and much cheaper. — Carl Vrooman. 

International Socialist Review 

Shop Control. — The part that organized labor should take in the man- 
agement of industries is the question of the day in England. At the Trade 
Union Congress the president disclaimed any desire on the part of the 
workmen to manage their employers' affairs, but claimed the right to con- 
trol their hours, living conditions and the character of their foremen. Even 
enlightened employers consider this unsatisfactory. Labor unions must 
assume responsibility towards society. The development of labor control 
of industries will proceed as fast as labor shows the requisite power cmd 
undersanding, and the essential thing in modern progress is the devoted 
co-operation with the State of the hitherto irresponsible proletarian trade 
unions. — Austm Lewis. 


Europe's Heritage of Evil. — ^The Roman Imperial idea of the essential 
unity of mankind and the supremacy of law based upon reason and divine 
command failed before the Ottoman assault on Constantinople, and the 
future was seen to belong to the separate nations which alone possessed 
a strong sense of unity. This national feeling developed into an irrespon- 
sible sovereignty of the state before which individual rights and welfare 
had no existence. Even the French revolution merely transferred this ab- 
solutism to the representatives of the people. The modern state has be- 
come an economic as well as a pohtical organ of society; it is in fact 
a stupendous and autonomous business corporation, the most lawless 
business trust, viewing the other nations as business rivals. It is absolutely 
free from effective business regulation and has immensely concentrated 
wealth such as kings and emperors never had at their disposal. In 
struggling for supremacy they adopt principles of action for which in- 
dividuals would be ruthlessly suppressed as dangerous bandits. If there 
were no economic questions involved the conflict of nationalities would 
soon be ended. And with all this wealth and power, it is in the richest 
nations that discontent is deepest and most wide spread. States, like in- 
dividuals, must admit their responsibilities to one another and take their 
place in the society of states in a spirit of loyally to civilization and 
humanity. — David Jayne Hill. 

North American Review 
Industrial Americanization and National Defense. — After a considerable 
period of trying to put efficiency into industry from the outside "experts" 
and employers alike are coming to see that the real development of efficien- 
cy is from the inside and is a matter of the spirit that prevails throughout 
the business. An organization interested in organizing its human side 
can do no better than put its best executive, not its weakest and most 
amiable, in charge of the work. The spirit he needs is a combination of 
a sound realization of business values and a quickened sense of industrial 
justice. A system of promotions and transfers, the provision of proper 
incentives, and American standards of living will release great stores of 
energy now shut off. — Frances A. Kellor. 

The Wings of the U. S. A. — When the world comes to, after the war 
madness, it will discover that the air has become a safer sphere to travel 
than the land. One man makes two trips a day from London to the front 
in France, taking over a good car and bringing back a broken one. He 
boasts that he can bring almost any machine across the channel if the 
motor will pull it. A machine can only be used twenty-four hours at the 
front. Then it needs a week's repairs. It takes six men and three machines 
to keep one flying man in the air. over the front. Machines are being 
built that can carry from one to two tons, with planes so wide and strong 
and stability so certain that men can move about on their wings and adjust 
their engines while in full flight. — William G. Shepherd. 

Woman's Place. — The National League for Woman's Service has been 
established under the supervision of the Department of Labor, to make the 
best use of the present opportunity for organizing the abilities of the 
women of the United States. The idea is to systematize and co-ordinate 
the action of the many women's organizations and to concentrate them on 
the tasks for which they are best suited. The war has already demon- 
strated that bread is as essential as bullets, and the food problem of the 
United States can be very simply solved by preventing waste in buying, 
preparing, cooking and serving, and by planting home gardens. Besides, 
women are being encouraged to learn their husbands' business, so that 
when the man is called away the wife may be able lo maintain the family's 
economic status. — Maude Wetmore. 

World's Work 

The Rise of the Russian Democracy.~The early history of Russia was 
a long struggle under autocratic chiefs to establish its territorial security. 
In the nineteenth century the movement for liberation began. In 1861 the 
serfs were emancipated. In 1864 the Zemstvos, local provincial councils, 
were established. A long educational process followed, marked by con- 
tinuous oppression on one side and occasional acts of violence on the 
other. The Duma was the next step forward — 1905. The Duma and the 
Zemstvos kept up the educative processes, and co-operative societies grew 
like mushrooms, and through them the educated classes were finally able 
to effect a union with the peasants. The bureaucracy, in its last struggle 
against constitutionalism, at last in this war went to the length of treason. 
If the Kaiser had appointed some of the imperial ministers he could not 
have chosen better men for his purpose. In this emergency the army had 
to depend on the Zemstvos for its food and munitions, and when the revo- 
lution finally occurred the Zemstvos officials took charge of all the national 
offices. — Samuel N. Harper. 

The Fra 

Children Nowadays. — One of the illusions with which we mislead our- 
selves is that "this generation is a peculiar one" and that we, their parents, 
are inadequate to the task of solving the problems with which they are 
confronted. But this is not our business. Each set of parents are hyphen- 
ated citizens of the age in which they are rearing their children, while the 
children themselves are natives. We find fault with the children — for what? 
For not being as old as we are! I offer the suggestion that our first duty 
is to grasp intelligently and sympathetically our child's viewpoint of life, 
and not vent on them our middle-aged desire to stagnate under the belief 
that we are correcting them. Our children are as good and as wise as we 
were in childhood. Heaven knows they could not be much worse or more 
foolish! — Strickland Gillilan. 

Scientific American 

The Technology of the Washroom. — A fellowship has been established 
at the University of Pittsburgh to investigate the problems of the laundry 
man. Soaps and cleansing solutions are being scientifically tested in order 
to make the laundry superior to home work not only in cleaning clothes, 
but also in the preservation of fabrics. The exact effect on various fibers 
of different processes of washing and drying are being investigated, and a 
portable chemical laboratory arranged expressly for the laundryman's use 
in testing the material he has to purchase. With this outfit any laundry- 
man can become his own assayisl. 

World's Work 

Labor. — The representatives of the organized labor movement have re- 
cently adopted propositions relating to the share which wage earners should 
take in the war. Their work in producing material and munitions is as 
important as that of the soldier at the front. They should accordingly be 
protected as regards conditions of work and pay, and this can only be done 
by giving the organized labor movement the greatest scope and opportunity 
for voluntary effective co-operation in spirit and in action. Industrial 
justice is the right of those living in our country. With this right is asso- 
ciated obligation. In time of war this may call for more exacting service 
than the principles of human welfare warrant, but this service should only 
be called for when the employers' profits have been limited to fixed per- 
centages based on the cost of processes of production. Labor. further re- 
quires that there is a clear differentiation between military service for the 
nation and police duty, and that military service should be carefully dis- 
tinguished from service in industrial disputes. — Samuel Gompers. 

The Western Comrade 

Book Reviews 

Page twenty-one 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books ^y p. Bobspa 

"A Gennan Deserter's War Elxperience" 

"A German Deserter's War Experience," now in its second printing, is 
the str£iightfor%vard narrative of one of the many Gennan Socialists forced 
to go to the trenches against his will. After fourteen months he deserted 
and succeeded in reaching America. The book surpasses even MacGill 
m its uncovering of the horrors of war to the common soldier — for this 
young comrade did not have to pass his manuscript through the hands of 
the army censor. 

Here we read of the wholesale shooting of officers by their o\vn men; 
we see hundreds of dead thro\\Ti like cordwood to one side to make room 
for further advances; the trees streuTi ^s^th entrails, heads, arms and legs; 
dead and partly dead buried, hundreds together, in big graves; see men 
held in subjection by cruel and brutal force of the junker class; Hsten to 
the discontented mutterings of the German soldiers. 

^^en the Gennan army was mobilized three years ago the men were 
ignoTcmt, up to almost the time of the first engagement, of what country 
they were to fight against. "The soldier is told 'The Belgian is your en- 
emy,' and he has to believe it. . . . 'Never mind; shoot as we order, 
and do not bother your head about it.' " The author was detailed to help 
execute some of the poor Belgian civilians and describes the full horror of 
his feelings. He tells graphically of the hand-to-hemd street fighting, re- 
lating in one case how one German soldier bit a large piece from the face 
of an "enemy" and the reaction so sickened the victor that his life was 

^liile the storj' is mainly devoted to plain narrative, one sees much of 
the psychology of ^^'arfare — how the men gradually become like beasl<:. 
Trench warfare is described — body lice, head lice, rotting corpses and cJl. 
The famous Christmas interchange of greetings between the French cmd 
German soldiers was participated in by the writer of the book, whose 
name is withheld for the sake of his relatives still in Germany. 

This soldier found the Belgian ci\'ilians at first friendly to the Germans. 
The German soldiers ^vere severely punished whenever caught feeding the 
starving \vomen and children or in any way sho\N'ing consideration for 
them. One of the excimples of the means used to inflame the minds of 
the "mass butcherers" against "the enemy" was to station guards at all 
wells and declare the Belgians had poisoned the waters, while the tired, 
hot soldiers went plodding on almost dead from thirst. .At times they dis- 
regarded the soldiers stationed on guard and drank to their limit from the 
"poisoned" wells — without any damage to themselves. 

The officers seldom went into action. They \\ithdrew to a place of 
safety, as a rule, leaving the men in charge of pettj' officials. After ser\'ing 
fourteen months in the war \v'ithout any money, the young man obtained a 
furloush, only to leam that the govemment-o\vTied railroad \v'ould not 
carr\* him until he was able to pay for his carfare. X^liile the book deals 
^^•ilh his personal experiences in the German army, the author, as an anti- 
militarist, hates all war and his narrative is non-partisan. The little volume 
(which sells at $1) is worthy of \vide distribution in this hour of labor's 
fight. It is one of the most illuminating docinnents the war has vet pro- 
duced. (B. W. Huebsch, New York.) 

"Woman : Her Sex and Love Life" 

The world owes a wonderful debt to Dr. William J. Robinson, "the 
sane radical," for his series of books on sex, eugenics and birth control. 
Twenty years ago he began his crusade for a rational conception of life, 
and has taken the public into his confidence in his many popular books, 
while reaching the medical profession regularly through "The Critic and 

"Woman: Her Sex and Love Life," is the latest addition to the little 
library Dr. Robinson has written. Having examined scores of books on 
the subject of sex. I have nearly abs'ays felt, when through with them, that 
thev might just about as well never have been written, because they were 
so haz>' and left the reader in ignorance of anything specific. 

There are those who imagine all e\-ils of life due to woman; others of 
the Vance Thomson school \vho think all that is wrong in the \v'orld sprang 
fro!n the male. Dr. Robinson vie^^■s both sexes as human beings. He 
doesn t attempt to make any kind of sweeping generalizations. His is the 
first book on %voman from a sex standpoint that has covered the sroimd. 
There is no phase of the subject that is not taken up, and I ^vould like to 
see the day when every mother would give his book to her daughter at an 
early age. 

The nasty-minded will look in vain throughout the 400 pages for any 
satisfaction. The book is plain and common-sense, but is pure and chaste 

to a degree that not even the black shade of Comstock could find an 
excuse to take it to court. The mission of the book is "to increase the 
sum total of human happiness." It \vill do this In direct ratio to its sales. 
The hocus-pocus of the medicine man and priest is dropped, and Dr. Rob- 
inson strips the element of mystery and the fogyism of past generations 
from the subject. 

Perhaps a list of chapter captions -will give some idea of the scope of 
the book: The paramount need for sex knowledge for girls and women; 
the female sex organs: their anatomy; the physiology of the sex organs; 
the sex instinct; puberty; menstruation; abnormalities of menstruation; 
the hygiene of menstruation; fecundation or fertilization; pregnancy; the 
disorders of pregnancy; when to engage a physician; the size of the 
fetus; the afterbirth and cord; lactation or nursing; abortion and mis- 
carriage; prenatal care; the menopause, or change of Hfe; the habit of 
masturbation; leucorrhea, the whites; the venereal diseases; the extent 
of venereal disease; gonorrhea; vulvovaginitis in little girls; syphilis; the 
curability of venereal diseases ; venereal prophylaxis ; alcohol, sex and 
veneral disease ; marriage and gonorrhea ; marriage and syphilis ; who 
may and who may not marry; birth control, or the limitation of offspring; 
advice to girls approaching the threshold of womanhood ; advice to parents 
of unfortunate girls; sexual relations during menslrution; sexual inter- 
course for propagation only; vaginismus; sterility; the hymen: is the 
organ necessary for impregnation? frigidity in women: ad\'ice to frigid 
women, particularly ^vives; rape; the single standard of sexual morality; 
difference between man's and woman's sex and love life; maternal im- 
pressions; advice to the married and those about to be; a rational divorce 
system ; what is love? jealousy and how to combat it ; remedies for 
jealousy; concluding words. (The Critic and Guide Company, New York 

"The Gun-Brand: A Feud of the Frozen North" 

"The Gun-Brand: A Feud of the Frozen North," by James B. Hendryx, 
ought to prove a popular seller this season. It is "snow stuff," to borrow 
Charlie Van Loan's movie language. "The Promise" and "Connie Morgan 
m Alaska" acquainted the public %vith the powers of Mr. Hendrvx as a 
novelist. The storj* is intensely interesting from the moment Chloe Elliston. 
granddaughter of old "Tiger" Elliston. braved the unkno\vn wilds of the 
frozen norlhland to found a school for the Indians, to the last page where 
she looks into the face of the big Scotch trader emd miner and tells him 
something that makes further chapters unnecessary. What occurs to make 
this page possible will keep one sitting up late, no matter how sleepy. But 
there is nothing of sensationalism. The intrigues of the quarter-breed free- 
trader, the whiskey runners, the gun fights and the final battle between 
the rival outfits give scope for continuous action. Only one scene might 
be aueslmned — the punishment of Pierre Lapierre, the bad man of the 
novel. With the gun sight MacNeal deliberately mutilated the face of the 
man. The description is vividly written. While he merited even this 
Dunishment — so far worse than death — one shudders at reading of it. 
Tlie fierce passions of man ^\■here the elements preclude the success of 
the weakling, the etemal appeal of "the love of a lass and a laddie," 
combined with a skill in narrative, make "The Gun-Brand" one of the 
season's distinctive books. (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York City.) 

"The Story of the Grand Canyon of Anzona" 

Science and art blend in an attractive booklet, "The Story of the Grand 
Canyon of Arizona," a popular illustrated account of its rocks and origin 
by H. N. Darton, geologist of the United Stales Geological Survey. The 
purpose of the guide "is to point out the more important relations of the 
rocks and to outline their history and the conditions under which the 
canyon was developed. Care has been taken to avoid technical terms so 
far as possible, so that most persons should have no difficulty in under- 
standing every part." In addition to photographs, there are maps, cross- 
sections and lettered views. (Fred Harvey, Kansas City. Mo.) 

"The Mythology of All Races" 

The Marshall Jones Book Company, publishers of "The Mythology of 
All Races." the most monumental work of its kind ever attempted, an- 
nounce that Professor Axel Olrick of Copenhagen, one of the most distin- 
guished scholars in the field of mythology, who was writing the volume of 
Eddie Mythology, died in February. He had practically finished his work 
on the book and his Scandina\'ian colleagues will complete his task. There 
are to be thirteen volumes in the completed set, each written by the 
world's best authorities in their respective fields. 

Page twenty-two 

The Western Comraae 

Quo VadiS? (continued from page 9) 

men are but the garden variety. The fact that the sons of 
the middle class are sinking eighty-three per cent into the 
workinr; class, fourteen per cent into the professional class, and 
three per cent into the capitalist or, rather, middle class, shows 
conclusively the signs of the times. It will bring on revolution, 
you say. Perhaps. But mob revolutions but play into the 
hands of the Napoleon. It would simply be St. Bartholomew's 
night for labor. The revolution of the proletariat would sim- 
ply be a butcher's feast. Workers can be hired, for wages, to 
kill those who seek wages. 

So there is. then, no hope for mankind? 

Yes, there are already stars in the social skies that point the 
way. Let the iconoclasts silence the argument about right or 
wrong, and band together, not with rifles, but with tools. Let 
them play the game the capitalist plays, for their collectivity. 
Let them co-operate. The hope for the present and the future 
lies in industrial and co-operative action. It lies in adapting 
ourselves collectively to capitalistic requirements. It can be 
done now, here, without delay. The world has closed the 
debate on co-operation. The victory is awarded to collectiv- 
ism. Competition in business has been weighed and found 
wanting. Co-operation broods with creative force over the 
wreck and ruin of dying order. No longer need we argue. 
We must act. We must enter the field with pitchforks, not 
pamphlets. We must enter the diggins with spade instead of 

Collectivism does not come as the idealist wanted it. 
Through the using of an instructed working class, it looms 
up as the result of economic pressure upon those who hold 
the places of responsibility. 

The Play House (continued from page 1 7) 

tapped her foot against the floor. "Just a minute. Miss, and 
I'll ask Mister Wyler if he knows anything about them." 

She found a haggard-faced man, with a great pile of papers 
still before him. 

"Pardon me. Mister Wyler, "but we can't find Cedric." 

"Er — what, Jane?" 

"We can't find Cedric," she repeated. "He and the little 
Roberts girl. I fixed him a lunch and he told me they were 
going to have a picnic at the playhouse. Do you happen to 
know where that is? It's getting late and we're worried." 

Jane had never been told about the cabin, and for a mo- 
ment Wyler did not comprehend, but suddenly he remem- 
bered. That was what Cedric had called it on his one visit 
there. Hastily rising, he hurried from the house. 

"I'll find them," he called back. 

He went down the path through the woods, now growing 
darker every minute, and what memories the old path brought 
back! Laura and he had spent their honeymoon days in that 
little cabin. What a wonderful picnic time it had been! He 
stopped short in amazement. Even now there was a light 
twinkling at the window! 

He strode forward and pushed open the door, only to stop 

There before him at the tiny table sat the two children and 
the woman who had been his wife! 

The silence was long and heavy, and she was the first to 

"Don't scold us, please, Malcom! I came last night on the 

same train with Cedric, although he didn't know it, and no 
one saw me. I didn't mean to bother you. I didn't suppose 
you would ever come here, and you remember I had a key, too. 
But when the children came this afternoon I made them stay, 
for I thought maybe you would come to hunt them ! " 

She had begun bravely enough, but her voice broke pitifully, 
and tears brimmed the 'big brown eyes as she looked at him 
beseechingly. What a child she was, and how like Cedric 
when he had been in mischief and wanted forgiveness! All 
the man's hunger for her surged through him overwhelmingly. 

"You wanted me!" 

The glad incredulity of his words was heartrending, and 
she nodded mutely, to find herself crushed in his arms. Her 
answer had wiped out all differences. Nothing else mattered. 

Cedric drew himself up proudly as he looked at Alice. He 
had heard enough to know that some ceremony was necessary 
in a matter of this kind. Jane was largely responsible for his 
knowledge of ethics, but he was sublimely sure that everything 
was coming right. Alice could no longer call them "queer." 

"I guess," he said, with adorable dignity, "that we'll get 
some preacher to spoil that divorce, 'cause my family seems 
real crazy about each other! See! My mother is patting my 
father's cheek!" 

The Socialist Party --Where Is It? 

(Continued from page 1 7) 

down to a few members, forbidding other locals to be formed 
within its territory. The day of the troublemaker is to be less 
easy than of yore. Their absolute control of the party is gone 

Another important provision is the industrial organization 
of Socialists. Instead of mixed locals, it will be possible to 
form industrial locals, composed of members of a craft or 
calling. There wll be nine industrial groups, and the state 
organizers of these groups automatically become the state 
executive board. 

The classification of members into groups is as follows: 
Farmers, Miners, Transportation Workers, Manufacturing 
Workers, Building Trades, Printing Trades, Housekeepers, 
Office and Service Workers, Professional Workers. They are 
to be registered as such in the state office. 

It is planning to make organization as easy as possible, and 
to make it as difficult as possible for those enemies of the 
party to get in as they have in the past. 

In California everything is for progress. In California the 
Socialist party first began to deteriorate. It had gone down 
until something HAD to be done. And, when that time came, 
the loyal members did it. They have forsaken tradition and 
have plunged forward, ready to risk making the mistake of 
a wrong procedure, but enitirely unwilling to stand still an'' 
constantly look back to the Past for guidance. 

To stand still meant further decay. To change the c.'d 
method and to go onward might invite disaster, but no disaster 
can quite equal that of senile debility. 

Will it work? The next few months will show that. But, at 
least, there is the certainty that nothing is to be lost and 
there is every likelihood that much is to be gained. The 
motto of the Socialist party was never better apolied than 
when applied to the Socialist party of California before the 
new Constitution was adopted: "Workers of the party, unite; 
you have nothing to lose but your chains, you have a world 
to gain ! " 

The Western Comrade 

Page twenty-three 

Important Notice! 

Dear Comrade: 

It has come to our notice that enemies of this Col- 
ony have inspired an attack that is calculated to do 
us considerable injury unless our installment members 
and correspMJndents are able instandy to discover the 
nature of the attack, and understand its real character 
and aim. 

It you receive a printed circular well designed to 
cast suspicions upon the integrity of your comrades 
who have worked ceaselessly with honor and in good 
faith to make this Co-operative Colony a success, you 
will know that certain influences inimical to your in- 
terests and to the interests of the Colony are at work. 

If you receive such a circular, please communicate 
with us at once concerning the matter, and we will 
give you information covering developments in the 

This attack was timed when Comrade Harriman, 
founder and president of the Colony, was in New York 
as a delegate to the World's Peace Conference. 

All we have ever asked is even-handed justice and 
fair play. 

Many times we have been asked if we did not fear 
that our demonstration of success would bring in- 
sidious or open attacks by the agents of capitalism. 
Our answer has been that we are proceeding with 
honor and sure intent, and that we did not despair of 
successfully defending ourselves against any injustice. 

Our protest at this moment is against circulars sent 
out without fair and honorable investigation and a 
hearing of our side of the case. If you have received 
any circular, will you not do us and yourself the jus- 
tice to write us fully, to the end we may explain or 
aid you to dispel any doubts planted by your enemy 
and ours? 

We are making a success of a great co-operative 
enterprise and we shall continue it. We do not expect 
to do this without difficulties and, possibly, attacks. 
All we ask is fair play, and you can help us get it. 
Will you do this much for your pioneer comrades here 
on the front who are making a demonstration of the 
power of collective effort with the view that the move 
may spread to universal co-operation among all men? 

Yours fraternally, 


Llano del Rio Company. 

Llano Job Printing 

The Llano del Rio Printing and Publishing Department is now 
equipped to handle job printing. 

Cards, leaflets, booklets, stationery, etc., will be handled in a 
satisfactory manner, and at prices which will compare more than 
favorably with those found elsewhere. 

All \vork will be given the union label unless otherwise re- 
quested. Every employee is a Socialist and a union man. 

The Llano Publicatians, Llano, California. 

What Are You Good For? 

Did you ever try to find out? 

Are you employed at work for which you are best fitted? 

Do you KNOW or are you GUESSING? 

Your children — what will you advise them to do? 

Tlie science of Character Analysis will answer the questions you have 
asked yourself. It is not fortune telling. It is not guess work. It tells you 
what you are fitted for and gives you the reasons. It tells you why 
you have not succeded in what you have attempted and will show you in 
which lines you can hope to succeed. 

An analysis of yourself will cost you something and it is worth many 
times what it costs; but information about it — that is free. Just write: 
"Send me free information about Character Analysis and Vocational Fit- 
ness." Write your name and address very plainly. Send it to: 
P. 0. Box 153, UaRO, Califonua 

Reduced Freight Rates 

on Shipments of 

Household Goods 

from all Eastern points 

to California 

Members of the Llano del Rio Colony will find it especially 
advantageous to make their shipments throagb the 

JUDSON Freight Forwarding Co. 

443 Marquette bldg, Chicago: 324 Whitehall bldg. New York; 
640 Old South bldg, Boston; 435 Oliver bldg, Pittsburg; 1537 
Boatmen's Bank bldg, St. Louis; 518 Central bldg, Los Angeles; 
855 Monadnock bldg, San Francisco. WRITE NEAREST OFFICE. 


Rates: 25c a line for one insertion; 15c a line thereafter. Twelve words 
to the line. Advertising payable in advance. 

MIDDLE-AGED GENTLEMAN, of good morals, desires correspondence 
with womanly woman of some refmement, education and in good health, 
between ages of 28 to 36. No neurotic or prude. Object, matrimony. 
"Serious," care of this journal. 

"THE NEW EARTH." Ocean beds become vast fertile plains. 
Earth watered from \vilhin; even deserts bloom. Deductions solidly based 
upon divine laws. Fifty cents, no stamps. Cross Publishing House. 
Nuevitas, Cuba. JJA 


Remish Giants. We can supply all ages up to eight months. For further 
information address Rabbit Department. Ll ano del Rio Colony. Uano. Cal. 

at the People's Library, 2079 Sutter street, and at 1350 Fillmore street 

Have You Enrolled in the 

$2000 Subscription Contest? 

This is the Second Grand Membership Circulation Contest. 
It commences July 1 and finishes December 31. 

Now Is the Time to Enter 

Write at once for full information about this opportunity to 
earn a membership in the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony. 

Next month we will be able to announce the name of the winner of the first 
contest, which closed June 30. 

If you enter now and work steadily, you may be the winner of this contest. 

Here Are The Premiums 

Second Prize, 500 shares Llano stock 
Third Prize, 200 shares Llano stock 
Fourth Prize, 100 shares Llano stock 
5, 6, 7, 8th Prizes, 50 shares each, Llano stock 

Other Special Premiums to All Who 
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Write at once for complete information, literature, rules, subscription 
blanks, etc. 


The Llano Publications, Llano, California 





Walter Thomas Mills 

who has now associated himself with the Llano del Rio 
Co-operative Colony, will contribute a special exclusive article 
to the WESTERN COMRADE every month. 

Walter Thomas Mills is known the country over for his 
keen insight into economic and social problems, and his con- 
structive economic policies, and his alignment with the prin- 
ciples of "Co-operation in Action" will be welcomed by our 

What Next? 

By Walter Thomas Mills 

Inspiring Editorials by 
Job Harriman 


Editorials 3 

By Job Harriman. 

Llano Getting on the Map 6 

By Robert K. Williams. 

What Next ? 8 

Walter Thomas Mills, who is now a memher of the 
Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony, discusses Current 

Unfair District Representation 9 

By Cameron H. King. 

For the Length of the Story (Fiction) 10 

By Helen Francis Easley. 

Why Not Ragtime? 12 

By Professor A. G. Wahlberg 

Montessori — ^What It Achieves 13 

What Shall We Do To Be Saved? 14 

By Dr. John Dequer 

Fires of Love .15 

By Ethel Winger 
Was Schmidt Guilty? 16 

Fourlh Installment of Job Harriman's Address to the 
Jury in the Schmidt Trial 

Co-operation the World Over 18 

News and Vievk's in Agriculture 19 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books 20 

By D. Bobspa 

Poems: To the Ideal 2! 

By Dr. John Dequer 

A Workingman's Soliloquy 21 

By Clinton Bancroft 

August 1917 

Price 10c 

The Gateway To Freedom 

Through Co-operative Action 

the beautiful Antelope Valley, in the northeaslern part of 
Los Angeles County, Southern California. This plain lies 
between the San Gabriel spur of the Sierra Madres on the south 
and the Tehachapi range on the north. The Colony is on the north 
slope of the San Gabriel range. It is almost midway between 
Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific, and Viclorville, on the Santa 
Fe railroad. 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony is made up of persons 
who believe in the application of the principles of co-operation 
to the widest possible extent. Virtually all of the residents are 
Socialists. It is a practical and convincing answer to those who 
have scoffed at Socialist principles, who have said that "it won't 
work," who have urged many fallacious arguments. In the three 
years since it was established, the Colony has demonstrated thor- 
oughly the soundness of its plan of operation and its theory. To- 
day it is stronger than ever before in its history. 


The Llano del Rio Colony is the greatest Community enterprise 
ever attempted. It was founded by Job Harriman, May 1st. 1914, 
and is solving the problem of disemployment and business failure. 
It oifers a way to provide for the future welfare of the workers 
and their families. 

An abundance of clear, sparkling water coming from mountain 
springs is sufficient to irrigate thousands of fertile acres. The 
climate is mild and delightful, the soil is fertile, and markets are 
not far distant. 

The Llano del Rio Colony is a horticultural, agricultural, and 
stock-raising enterprise, with such manufacturing as will supply the 
needs of the colonists, with perhaps something to sell when the 
Colony has grown. 

It is a perfect example of Co-operation in Action. No community 
organized as it is, was ever established before. 

The purpose is to solve the problem of unemployment by provid- 
ing steady employment for the workers; to assure safety and com- 
fort for the future and for old age; to guarantee education for the 
children in the best schools; and to provide a social life amid sur- 
roundings better than can be found in the competitive world. 

It has more than 800 residents, makins it the largest lovni in the 
Antelope Valley. More than 200 children attend the schools. The 
County school and the Colony Industrial schools are both in oper- 
ation. A new public school will be built for the 1917-18 term. 

The Colony owns a fine herd of Jersey and Holstein cattle, 
100 head of young stock are on the range, being heifers and calves 
up to 2 years of age. Over 100 head of horses and mules, in- 
cluding colts, are owned by the Colony. These, with two tractors 
and caterpillar engine, four trucks, and numerous autos, do the 
hauling and the work on the land. 

A recent purchase of Duroc-Jersey sows gives the Colony thirty- 
eight registered high-class breeding sows and two splendid boars, the 
nucleus of a great development along this line. Many new pens 
have been built. Registration will be kept up and the raising of 
fine hogs made one of the leading industries. There are also some 
fine Berkshires. and a large number of grade sows. 

The Colony has more than 400 acres of orchards. 

Community gardening is successful, and an increased acreage 
will be put in each year. 

The ideal is to farm on an extensive scale, using all manner of 
efficient labor saving machinery and methods, with expert and ex- 
perienced men in charge of the different departments. 

Llano possesses more than 668 stands of bees. They are cared 
for by expert bee men of long experience. This department ex- 
pects to have several thousand stands in a few years. 

The Colony has secured timber from the San Gabriel Reserve, 
and has a well equipped sawmill. Lumber worth $35 to $40 a thou- 
sand will cost the Colony only a few dollars a thousand. 

Social life is delightful. A band, several orchestras, a dramatic 
club, and other organizations assist in making the social occasions 

Alfalfa does extraordinarily well at Llano. Much has been plant- 
ed and the acreage will be increased as rapidly as possible. Six 
good cuttings a season can be depended on. Ditches lined with 
cobblestone set in Llano lime, making them permanent, conserve 
water and insure economy. They will be built as fast as possible. 
A square mile has been set aside for the new city. With the 
sawmill running, the Hme kiln producing a very superior lime, and 
with sand and rock abundant and adobe brick easily manufactured, 
the time is near when permanent buildings will be erected on the 
new site. It will be a city different in design from any other in the 
world, with houses of a distinctively different architecture. Houses 
will be comfortable, sanitary, handsome, home-like, modern, and 
harmonious with their surroundings, and will insure greater privacy 
than any other houses ever constructed. They are unique and de- 
signed especially for Llano. 


Among the industries of Llano, to which new ones are con- 
stantly being added, are: Printshop, shoe shop, laundry* cannery, 
warehouse, machine shop, blacksmith shop, planing mill, lime kiln, 
saw mill, dairy, cabinet shop, nursery, alfalfa, orchards, rabbitry, 
gardens, hog raising, lumbering, publishing, transportation (autos, 
trucks, tractors), doctors' offices, woodyard, vinegar works, bakery, 
fish hatchery, barber shop, baths, art studio, hotel, drafting room, 
post office, commissary, camping ground. Industrial school, grammar 
school, Montessori school, commercial classes, library, two weekly 
dances, brass band, mandolin club, orchestras, quartets, socialist 
local, soap making, tailor shop. 


IN conducting the affairs of the Llano del Rio Community it 
has been found that the fewer inflexible rules and regulations 
the greater the harmony. Instead of an elaborate constitution 
and a set of laws the colonists have a Declaration of Principles 
and they live up to the spirit of them. The declaration follows : 

Things which are used productively must be owned collectively. 

The rights of the Community shall be paramount over those of 
any individual. 

Liberty of action is only permissible when it does not restrict 
the liberty of another. 

Law is a restriction of liberty and is only just when operating 
for the benefit of the Community at large. 

Values created by the Community shall be vested in the Com- 
munity alone. 

The Individual is not justly entitled to more land than is suffi- 
cient to satisfy a reasonable desire for peace and rest. Productive 
land held for profit shall not be held by private ownership. 

Talent and intelligence are gifts which should rightly be used 
in the service of others. The development of these by education 
is the gift of the Community to the individual, and the exercise of 
greater ability entitles none to the false rewards of greater pos- 
sessions, but only to the joy of greater service to others. 

Only by identifying his interests and pleasures with those of 
others can man find real happiness. 

The duty of the individual to the Community is to develop ability 
to the greatest degree possible by availing himself of all educational 
facilities and to devote the whole extent of that ability to the 
service of all. 

The duty of the Community to the individual is to administer 
justice, to eliminate greed and selfishness, to educate all and to aid 
any in time of age or misfortune. 


Llano Publications, Llano, California 

Political Ac tioB 


Direct Action 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Cante of the Workeri 
Entered as second-class mailer November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, under Act of March 3, 1879. 

JOB HARRIMAN Managing Editor. "^p» 7 FRANK E. WOLFE Editor. 

Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies lOc; clubs of 4 or mora (in U. S.) 50c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so stated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

VOL. V. 


No. 4 

Editorials i 

J Job Harriman 

WHEN Constantinople falls, the real issues of the world 
war will stand out in bold relief. 

The Ottoman Empire will move its seat of government from 
Constantinople to Turkey in Asia. The Empire will lie ad- 
jacent to the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles, the Suez Canal, the 
entrance to the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. These are 
the gateways of the world's commerce, and Turkey will still 
hold the key to the situation. She lies so close to these gale- 
ways that she will soon be a menacing power. She is at the 
juncture of Asia, Africa and Europe. The gateways between 
these continents are in the palm of her hand. 

Each and every world power will be jealous of her advan- 
tage. She will yield to none and have no friends among them. 
The arena of war will be shifted to her fields. The hordes 
of China, Japan and India can land in Turkey by water 
through the Persian Gull as easily as the Occidental empires 
can arrive on Turkish soil. 

This war will end in a titanic struggle between the Orientals 
and the Occidentals to control Turkey with the gateways of 
the world's commerce. 

Unless a peaceable adjustment is made before that crisis 
comes. Occidental civilization may go down forever. Our 
vitality is well spent. Three more years will exhaust the 
Western powers while the Eastern powers will only be ready 
to enter the struggle. The cry for peace without victory \n\\ 
then be too late. Peace vsithout victory may be possible now, 
but that day will forever pass when war is declared between 
Oriental and Occidental civilizations. 

THE relations between nations are governed by treaties. 
When treaties fail, nations resort to arms. For this 
reason, all nations are constantly contriving to establish such 
treaty relations as will make their combinations more powerful 
than any other possible combination with which their interests 
may conflict. Hence treaties come within the modern meaning 
of preparedness for war. 

The entire theory of treaties between nations is wrong. 
They establish ambitions that lead as inevitably to war as do 
armaments of nations. 

This war has answered all arguments for preparedness. It 
is answering with the lives of the first-born and the blood of 
the nations. Whoever has believed that preparedness pre- 
serves peace, can believe it no longer. Peace is not the child 
of shot and shell, but of the deep and genuine affections of 
the heart. Men will fight if they hate one another but they 
will first prepare. Men will not fight if they love one another, 
nor will they prepare. 

How long would our nation last if each state were armed 
and set against the other? How soon would the conflict arise 
if the states were to enter into interstate treaties? Nothing 
could more effectively aid and abet civil war than the right 
of states to enter into treaties. These rights must be governed 
by general law. 

So also should treaties between nations be abolished. In- 
ternational relations should be governed by international law, 
and a parliament of the world established. 

DIFFERENCES of opinion in these days of world stress 
must be expected within the ranks of the Socialist party, 
as well as within the churches, political parties and other 

What attitude should be assumed viath reference to the world 
war will always remain a mooted question among Socialists 
as among other people. These differences will arise not only 
out of varying conceptions of economic causes, but also out of 
moral ideals, religious and spiritual attitudes, patriotic 
emotions, and different opinions as to what the war is all 
about. Every phase of every question is being forced into 
bold relief and our opinions and convictions must necessarily 
be in a state of flux. 

Some of our best members as well as some of the poorest, 
will withdraw from the party, but this is also true of other 
organizations. In this respect we will suffer less than any other 
organization in the world that attempts to assume a position 
on the war. 

The churches have lost members by tens of thousands. The 
really spiritually-minded people cannot believe that this 
terrible slaughter, hitherto unparalleled in the world's history. 

Page four 


The Western Comrade 

can by any theory be excused Eunong the followers of the 
Prince of Peace. They believe in his life, try to live according 
to their convictions, and can not cease to abhor war and its 
resultant butcheries of men. 

The Democratic party fought untiringly for its candidate 
because of his peace policy. Now it is rent asunder and its 
forces are scattered to the four winds. 

The Republican party is reeking with dissension, some in- 
sisting that this country was forced into the war to protect 
the interests of Wall Street, some that is was brought about 
by the shippers of munitions, some one thing and some another. 

The Progressive party has almost altogether disappeared. 

The Socialist movement still lives, still weathers the storm, 
and is increasing in cohesive force and power as the days 
go by. The Socialist party has suffered and will suffer. There 
is a difference of opinion in regard to the statement in the 
majority report as to the policy to be pursued during the war, 
but not as to the causes of the war. The Socialists the world 
over agree absolutely that this war is the logical result of 
capitalism. Those who leave the party are no less convinced 
of this fact than those who remain. In all other organizations 
men differ fundamentally but the Socialists differ only on the 
matter of tactics. We do not even differ on the tactics them- 
selves. When the question was put up to the National Exe- 
cutive Committee as to what the members were to do with 
regard to supporting mass action against conscription laws, 
they refused to give advice but replied that each must act for 
himself, act on his own responsibility and take the conse- 
quences. This fact establishes beyond the least doubt that 
that portion of the majority report was a mistake. Any state- 
ment of a policy that cannot be actively supported is a mistake 
and a tactical blunder. 

It is upon this one point that we differ from the majority 
report. And it is upon this point that the majority of our 
differences rest. Upon the philosophy of socialism, imperialism 
and almost all war questions, there is substantially no differ- 
ence. The movement itself is not affected by internal dissen- 
sion but has grown, and is growing stronger. The form of our 
party organization is bound to undergo great changes in its 
adjustment to the new conditions but this shows life and 
adaptability, not death and dissolution. All organizations 
that were in line with the capitalist system are in the process 
of decay. The differences of opinion, the dissensions, and the 
warring of conflicting interests and opinions will constantly 
increase until final dissolution overcomes them. 

The Socialist movement is taking on a new form. It is 
just now passing from youth to manhood. It was born in 
capitalism, thrived under its persecution and will arise to 
power upon capitalism's decay. 


THIS world refuses to be ruled by force, but pleads for love 
to be its king. What service will life withhold from 
love? Yet it will begrudge every trifle of service it renders to 
torce. Love inspires service. Force inspires resistance. 

DEMOCRACY! A wonderful word. Militarism! Equally 

One is the child of the people ; the other is the child of the 

The one is humble; the other is ambitious. 

The one is peaceful; the other is belligerent. 

The one bears the world's burdens ; the other imposes them. 

The one loves; the other hates. 

The one governs by civil rules; the other by martial law. 

The one forgives; the other condemns. 

Is Militarism fighting for Democracy or is the world de- 

Believe this: Democracy will not follow this riot of military 
power unless universal hunger sweeps Militarism aside and 
opens the way for the human heart to function freely in love 
and affection. 

IS DEMOCRACY dead in America? Whosoever, thinks it is 
is counting without his host. It is true that plutocracy has a 
grip upon our institutions but it is also true that the American 
people have enjoyed large liberties too long to submit to these 
sudden suppressions. Freedom has been indulged in so long 
in so many respects that it has become a matter of impulse 
and instinct. This is the profound fact in American life. 
Whosoever undertakes suddenly to crush it is as certain to 
meet his Waterloo as death is certain to end the war. 

FORTUNATE indeed is occidental civilization that the 
crown of Russia has fallen. After it will go the imperial- 
ism of Russia. Imperialism of Russia will be torn up, root 
and branch. Socialism will soon be in full blast there. 

Privately owned industries, the foundation of imperialism, 
are being transformed into publicly owTied industries, the 
fouF-dation of democracy. 

Industries will no longer be operated in Russia yielding 
fortunes to the few; but they will be operated by the nation, 
yielding comforts to all. It is in fact that the security of 
Western Europe lies. Had the Russian crown and imperialism 
survived this struggle during another half-century of industrial 
development, it is beyond the ken of man to conceive what 
might have been crushed beneath its iron heel. But we need 
not fear. Every militaristic government is only as powerful as 
that portion of power which it has left over and above the 
power necessary to hold its discontented element in subjection. 

Every militaristic power confronts the same fact. Within 
its bosom are the germs of its own decay. Every additional 
call for soldiers adds to the popular dissatisfaction, reduces 
the productive forces, increases the public burden and adds 
discontented soldiers to the troops, until finally the arms of the 
nation are in the hands of the discontented, when the crown 
falls. The crowns of Germany and England are standing on 
the brink of their graves. They are each pushing the other 
into their tombs. It remains to be seen what they will drag 
after them. 

The Western Comrade 


WHO are the traitors? Are they the members of the 
I. W. W. or the captsvins of industry? 

President Wilson tells the story when he says the shipowners 
"are doing everything that high freight charges can do to 
make the war a failure. . . Prices mean the same thing 
everjrwhere now, . . whether it is the government that 
pays them or not." 

Bisbee, Arizona, is suffering from the same fact of which 
the President is complaining. The greed of the industrial, 
commercial and financial kings is the trouble in Bisbee as 
well as in foreign transportation. The ship ovmers have raised 
the freight rates. There is absolutely no reason for it. This 
act is as diabolical as the bottomless pit. Their cargoes and 
bottoms are insured against loss. The bulk carried is enorm- 
ously increased. The carrying cost per ton is less than ever 
before, but the charges are outrageously high. 

This fact the President says is "natural enough because the 
commercial processes which we are content to see operate in 
ordinary times have, without sufficient thought, been continued 
into a period where they have no proper place. . . We 
must make prices to the public the same as the prices to the 

There is but one way to make freight prices the same to 
the public as it is to the government and that is for the 
government to take over, own and operate the business of 
transportation in times of peace as well as war. This holds 
good alike on land and water transportation. The President 
had as well tell a rattlesnake to put only a taint of poison 
in its fang as to tell a merchant to add only a little unjust 
profit to his charges. 

Greed will not listen to the admonitions of the President, 
however just they may be. Greed knows only how to gorge. 
Gorging increases greed. Greed thrives on land and sea alike. 

The mine owners and merchants at Bisbee are as viciously 
greedy as are the merchants of the high seas. The prices of 
food in Bisbee are soaring as high as the freight charges on 
the Atlantic. The I. W. W. boys must have food if they work. 
They cannot buy sufficient food at the present prices with the 
wages they get. The mine owners refuse to raise wages, and 
the merchants refuse to lower prices. The I. W. W.'s stand 
between the devil and the deep sea; between the merchants 
and the mine owners. 

The merchants and mine owners, in the language of the 
President, "are doing everything that high prices can do to 
make the war a failure." 

These boys cannot dig copper without food; without copper 
we cannot make cannon; v^thout cannon we cannot slaughter 
the enemy. Whether or not we should slaughter them is not 
the question. The question is: Who is responsible for the 
Bisbee strike? 

The fact is the I. W. W.'s cannot work without food. They 
cannot work without a fair wage. 

Who are the traitors? 

Why do they not arrest and imprison the strikers? 

The answer is simple enough. 

They have committed no crime. They are being deported 
contrary to law by the mine owTiers and merchants who are 
raising prices and lowering wages in violation of the laws of 
life, who are the traitors. 

Even though we are content to indulge such commercial 
processes in ordinary times, yet since they have been carried 
into this period where they have no proper place it is up to 
the President to take over the mines and the storehouses and 
to see that the men are treated as human beings, not herded 
and driven about the state like a drove of cattle. It is high 
time that the traitor merchants and mine owners and shippers 
be handled by the government, and that their great iron jaws 
and paws be taken from the trough for sure. 

The President vinll soon be forced to the necessity of taking 
over the mines and stores, else the mine owners and merchants 
will, by sheer greed, lead this country to downfall and defeat. 

NOW China comes clamoring to enter the war. Japan, too, 
is on her way. And India is looking into the West. 
In this hour of stress vAW they forget how the occidental 
powers proposed their dismemberment only a few years ago? 
Will they forget the days of Clive ? 

Are they coming with the olive branch, oblivious to "The 
Opium Wars" and the "Manchurian Slaughter"? Or is it the 
mane, the lashing of the sides, and the thundering roar of the 
lion of Asia, as it is waking from its centuries of slumber? 

SO RAPIDLY did events take place immediately prior to 
America's entry into the war and since that time, that the 
American people seemed to have been psychologized by their 
very sjjeed. Conscription and draft, censorship and suppres- 
sion have come, individual liberties have been curtailed or 
taken away, and there has been no organized opposition. 
How long will it continue? Even now people are becoming 
surfeited with rising in public gatherings when the flag is 
displayed. Will they become tired of bureauocratic govern- 
ment? In Europe several good jobs have been vacated by 
gentlemen who held them by "divine right." In the United 
States officials are taking on dictatorial powers and many 
have become petty kings in the absoluteness of their power. 
Does it prophesy the coming of a new day in this country or 
is it that the people are just dazed and have not awakened yet? 

WHOEVER and whatever employs brute force as a means 
of survival invites the antagonism of the world. Who- 
ever and whatever is gentle and loving invites the affection 
and admiration and receives the aid and succor of all. 

FORCE is the law of death. It possesses the powers of dis- 
integration. It calls to its aid cruelty, hate, revenge, 
tyranny and all things that make for destruction and death. 

LOVE is the law of life. It is the only thing that possesses 
cohesive power. It calls to its aid reason, patience, for- 
bearance and all things that make for fjeace and growth. 

Page SIX 

Abon t Llano 

The Western Cc 

Llano Getting on the Map 

By Robert K. Williams 

PEOPLE are talking about Llano. Of course, some are 
saying unkind and untrue things. And others are 
saying pessimistic things. And some are drawing 

liberally on their imaginations. Perhaps some are 

even telling lies. 

But aside from those who are talking fluently for and 
those who are talking influentially against, there are others. 

These others are asking questions. They are seeking in- 
formation. They are neither for nor against. They have no 
previous convictions and co-operation is not a principle with 
them. They just want to know. 

Here is an instance: ' 

Kate Richards O'Hare came to Llano and told us things 
about ourselves that we didn't even suspect. She told us that 
she had been asked by three large agricultural publications 
to come to Llano to investigate our system of co-operative 

That's fame! At least it is one of the stepping-stones to 
fame. It shows that people are hearing about Llano. 

When in Washington, D. C, in June, Comrade Harri- 
man sitopped off to see a prominent official. He was granted 
five minutes of that busy man's time by appointment. When 
the five minutes was up, the official was so interested in the 
account of Llano that Comrade Harriman talked for two hours 
about Llano. 

A governor of a state gave half an hour to listen to an 
account of Llano while a crowd waited to hear him speak. 

Men and women prominent in the radical movement, es- 
pecially those who believe in constructive methods, want to 
hear abodt Llano. 

Phil Wagner, Kate Richards 0' Hare, and Walter Thomas 
Mills have visited Llano within a month. 

All came without notice. Meetings were held for each of 
them, meetings that would have cost from $50 to $100 or 
more anywhere else. 

Hall rent is free, advertising is no expense and is unneces- 
sary, music is a social service, and speakers give their ser- 
vices freely when they come to Llano. 

Kate Richards O'Hare spoke on war in general, but devoted 
a portion of her time to Llano. And this is what she said: 

"I am going out to the world and tell those who are eager 
to hear the message, the story of Llano. I have something 
new and encouraging to say. I am going to tell them that out 
here in the center of the great Antelope Valley a band of a 
thousand courageous pioneers has wrested from the grim 
desert a home where the ideals of Socialism are not TALKED 

about, but are PRACTICED in the every-day problems of life. 

"You colonists may think you are comparatively unknovra 
and unheard of throughout the United States. If so, I would 
inform you that you are badly mistaken. While coming out 
to the West on my lecture tour, I have been asked by several 
large argicultural journals in this country to visit the Llano 
del Rio Colony to secure articles for publication on the system 
of food production and distribution practiced at Llano. And 
I have been offered for this work many times more than the 
labor to secure the information is worth. Is not that proof 
that the eyes of the nation are on Llano?" 

Mrs. O'Hare saw all of Llano that she had time to see, and 
asked all of the questions that she could think of. And she 
expressed herself as being pleased — more than pleased — wth 
what "Socialism Applied" can achieve. 

Comrade Phil Wagner made a short address when here and 
he, too, saw the big ranch and was pleased with it. Like Mrs. 
O'Hare, he found many friends and acquaintances here. 

Walter Thomas Mills surprised and pleased his hearers by 
telling them that he had concluded to join the Colony. 

Comrade Mills is not without experience in colonization 
ventures. He has visited Llano several times, has kept himself 
in close touch with the project from the first, and is assured 
of the success of the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony. 

He told his hearers many interesting things concerning the 
war, the Colony, his personal experiences, and his ambitions 
in connection with Llano. Comrade Mills is an organizer of 
wide and recognized ability. He expects to initiate some new 
lines of progress and to extend the influence of Llano in many 

The same evening. Comrade Job Harriman, just back from 
the East where he had attended the First Conference for Dem- 
ocracy and Terms of Peace and had addressed a crowd of 
20,000 persons in Madison Square, spoke to the colonists, 
showing the meaning of America's entrance into the war, the 
measures that are being taken, the reasons for these measures. 
He said: "This war may last for years. It is a question 
whether starvation or arms will terminate the conflict." 

Had any other community held a meeting with Job 
Harriman and Walter Thomas Mills billed as speakers, with a 
band, with a hall to pay rent for, with advertising, etc., the 
expenses would have been more than $ 1 00. Llano heard them 
and there was no expense. It is one of the advantages of 
living where rent is abolished, where profit is not the incentive, 
where the only interest is the interest the people feel in their 

Left, honey tanks made at Llano to accommodate 1917 honey crop; center, Llano bakery products; right, making honey frames, 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 

Page seven 

Progress on the Ranch 

ONE of the most interesting phases of Colony activity is the 
work being done in perfecting the tunnel. 

This tunnel, begun over twenty years ago and abandoned by 
the company undertaking it because of insufficient funds, is 
situated about four miles south of Llano on the Big Rock 
Creek where the Big Rock road forks to the right to Little 
Rock and Palmdale, and to the left to Valyermo. 

The purpose of the colonists in renewing work on this tunnel 
is to secure the underflow of the Big Rock Creek that is now 
seeping off into the sands of the desert where it is practically 
wasted. The wide bed of the Big Rock Creek is a big sponge 
of sand and gravel. By honeycombing the bed from under and 
catching the underflow, it is believed that a very valuable ad- 
dition to the present water supply will have been obtained. 

The main tunnel runs north and south, just a trifle northeast 
and southwest. It is parallel with the road, running under in 
two places. It is 3075 feet in length, has an average width 
of five feet and an average height of seven feet. Solid rock 
has been tunnelled through almost the entire distance. There 
are four air-shafts. 

The incline shaft, situated at the south end of the tunnel, 
is about seventy-five feet long, is forty feet underground and 
has a pitch of thirty degrees. To haul up the gravel and rock, 
the Colony's share of the welter in the Big Rock Creek is di- 
verted into a lateral ditch and run down a race the full 
seventy-five feet where a water wheel, manufactured and in- 
stalled by the colonists, is stationed on the floor of the tunnel. 
A tremendous power is thus obtained, sufficient to elevate the 
cars containing 2000 pounds of gravel and rock to the surface. 

At and near the incline five branch tunnels exist. These 
branches veer in different directions, all of which go out under 
the bed of the creek. One extends probably 500 feet to the 
southwest. Two others, fifty feet in lenght, run almost due 
south. In all of these, bedrock has been penetrated and gravel 
reached, so that an appreciable flow of water is secured. 
Another branch, originally started to serve as an additional 
tunnel, and running almost due east, will in the future, be 
extended up to the damsite which is about 600 feet east of 
the main tunnel. Definite plans have not yet been arranged 
with reference to the construction of the dam, but eventually 
the underflow from the damsite will be carried through this 
east branch. 

The work of the colonists so far has been that only of clear- 
ing away the debris that has accumulated in the abandoned 
tunnel for years. As soon as the loose and encumbering gravel 
and rock has been removed sufficiently, the further extension 
of the branch tunnels will be eittempted. The work was begun 
last winter and praiseworthy progress has been made. 

A very material increase in the flow of water is anticipated 
with the completion of the tunnels under the creek bed. One 
of the colonists working in the tunnel recently met the con- 
tractor who started the work over twenty years ago. The con- 
tractor stated that far out under the bed of the creek is a 
sump thirty feet deep, and that two of the branch tunnels run 
to it. If, he said, this were reached a very decided increase 
in the flow of water would result. These branch tunnels were 
stopped with bulkheads at a short distance from the main tun- 
nel before the work was abandoned. From these bulkheads 
the seepage from the gravel bed behind them pours out in a 
steady stream of water. 

The present flow from the tunnel is about the same as that 
in all seeisons and is now 1 30 inches. The limit to the increase 
of this underground supply cannot be estimated accurately. 

That a very material increase will follow as the tunnels are 
pushed, however, is certain. 

In addition to the tunnel work, the colonists are now in- 
stalling a sump in the creek bed at the head of the Hubbard 
ditch, about a quarter of a mile north of the mouth of the 
tunnel. A small tractor will be used for power with which to 
pump. It is expected that the sump will increase the water 
supply considerably. 

Llano's Social Life 

ONE of the most artistically and daintily arranged social 
events that have occurred in Llano was the wedding of 
Miss Louise Vaiek and John Wesley Irwin, Tuesday night, 
June 12. So harmoniously did all the details of the marriage 
ceremony blend and so exceptional was the ability displayed 

Left, Myrtle Kemp, flower girl ; right, Kathryn Miller, bridesmaid ; center, 
Louise Valek (now Mrs. J. W. Irwin) ; rear, John Wesley Irwin. 

in perfecting the arrangements, that the event deserves incor- 
poration in the monthly ranch story. 

When it became known that Miss Louise and Wesley in- 
tended to slip quietly away to the city to join their fortunes 
by having the knot tied, Mrs. Robert K. Williams conceived 
the idea of having the wedding conducted along artistic and 
orthodox lines. Both the young people approved the idea at 
(G>ntinued on Page 22) 

Page eigK 

r o p a g a 


The Western Comrade 

Whclt Next? By Walter Thomas Mills 

THE trades unions have fought for the soli- 
darity of labor for a long time. Still the over- 
whelming majority of all the workers are un- 
organized, misled, pitted against each other 
and robbed in the same old way. 

The co-operative societies have struggled for 
solidarity and economy, both in producing and 
in buying for a like period, and still the work- 
ers are paying more to the plunder of private monopoly than 
they pay for means of life. Unable to consolidate to exchange 
their services with each other, they are scattered and robbed 
on every hand. 

For long years the Socialists have been preaching the doc- 
trine of solidarity, a solidarity which they have approved 
in theory but have never been able to achieve as a fact. 

The world war has come to disorganize, to confuse and 
finally, with one hand to break the power of the trades 
unionists, the co-operators, and the Socialists, and with the 
other hand, to force industrial solidarity and co-operative 
economy as a war necessity. 

What Shall We Do About It? 

Staggered at this unexpected turn in things, and disappoint- 
ed at long delays, still something must be done. Trades 
unionists, co-operators, and Socialists have all been struggling 
with the same problems — all have been seeking relief from the 
same wrongs. They must not now stand still, stunned, con- 
fused and silenced. 

All the world over, the dominant political powers have con- 
solidated. The exploiting forces in society as represented by 
the various political parties and through these joint organiza- 
tions, have become a single party as a military necessity in ad- 
ministering war policies, but they have also become a single 
party in aggravating and protecting both national and inter- 
national gamblers in raising prices and in making war on 
labor. In the face of this situation, the trades unionist, the 
co-operator, and the Socialist cannot consent any longer to 
go their separate ways, not even with the conviction that they 
are separate paths, leading to the same goal. No matter how 
these paths may show on the maps made by the theorists, if 
kept separate, they can lead nowhere except to continued 


The trades unionist has accomplished very much, but there 
are problems which cannot be solved by the weapons available, 
only in an industrial dispute. The strike and the boycott can- 
not reach and finally determine the questions involved in 
land, transportation, banking and marketing. Other agencies 
are available, and these other agencies must be used if labor 
is to be completely emancipated or, if even the fruits of the 
strike and the boycott are to be preserved. 

The co-operators have sought to save the waste of duplica- 
tion and the extortion of monopoly by voluntary association 
in production and in purchase, but no co-operative society 
less than the whole country itself acting through the agency 
of the government, is sufficient to eliminate waste or to avoid 
extortion in the control of natural resources, transportation 
or in the great industrial and commercial monopolies. Their 
power as citizens, as well as producers and purchasers, must 
be brought into united action. 

The orthodox Socialist has frequently won a debate in prov- 
ing that the only final solution for both waste and extortion 
is to be found in the political solidarity of the working class 
but while they have won the debates, so far, they have never 
won deliverance. Whatever may be true of the final solution, 
the immediate task is not the final one and mere controversies 
about the proper ending of the journey cannot help in the 
overcoming of obstacles intinediately before us. Standing 
aloof from trade controversies, avoiding responsibility for co- 
operative societies, co-operative colonies, cash buyers associa- 
tions, have been quite successful in escaping the real burdens 
but have not been successful, either in having any share in 
immediate progress or in misleading the public to suppose 
that the Socialists were not incompetent, simply because in- 

Stolen Joys 

By Ethel Winger 

Lake De Smet — you thief, with color stolen from 

the sky — 
You nestle smugly unashamed 
Beneath Wyoming's snow-kissed hills. 
In dreaming peace — and so do I. 
I, too, forbidden, rashly brave. 
Have come to dip beneath your icy wave. 
And on your grassy banks, unclothed, unseen. 
Except by noisy ducks and chiding gulls, 
And flowers nodding on the green; 
To lie, and dream the golden hours away. 
Your breeze sings by with gentle warmth. 
Your sun sends down a throbbing ray. 
De Smet! — you thief! your waters stolen from the 

sky — 
You bask here unashamed in dreaming peace, 
And so do I. 

active in these particulars. Whatever may be true of the final 
solution, the immediate task of the Socialist is to render some 
vital service in the midst of the immediate difficulties or con- 
fess himself without reasonable excuse for his existence. 

What Next? ' 

If the above reflections are to be approved, then it is per- 
fectly evident that the hundreds of thousands of people in- 
terested in co-operation, the two and a half millions of trade 
unionists, three millions of organized farmers, and the five 
or six millions of people who are ready to give support to the 
economic proposals of the Socialists, if freed from the preju- 
dice of sectarian propaganda and the limitations of a partisan 
spirit, must get together. That is next or the next can be 
nothing other than the deepening of disaster. 

The Western Comrade 

Page 1 

Unfair District Representation 

By Cameron H. King 

HE Socialist Party has always stood for a just and 
proportional system of representation in the legis- 
lative bodies of the country. The action of the 
Fresno convention this year is however the first 
attempt to really get action in a state-wide campaign for the 
achievement of that object. An initiative proposition is now 
being prepared by the committee elected by the convention 
and pretty soon the petitions will be in the hands of the mem- 
bership for circulation. 

As a preliminary matter of interest the following facts are 
published, showing the injustice of the district system of elec- 
tions by the very unequal representation secured by the dif- 
ferent groups of voters at the various elections held in the year 

In 1912 for State Senator the Democratic Party cast 103,- 
328 votes out of 301,345. It elected only four out of the 
twenty-one Senators to be elected; whereas casting one-third 
of the vote they were clearly entitled under a just system to 
seven Senators. The Socialist party, casting 45,291 votes 
should have been represented by three Senators. But they 
had a predominating strength in no single district and were 
left utterly without voice in the upper house of the legislature. 
The six Senatorships which the Democratic and Socialist 
voters were thus deprived of were gained by the Republicans. 
This gave the Republican party an overwhelming majority, 
16 out of 21, instead of the 10 they were properly entitled to, 
and left the Senate misrepresentative of the will of the people. 

In the elections for Assemplymen the same year, 1912, the 
Democratic voters got only twenty-five candidates elected, 
while if the election had been held under the proportional 
system they would have elected twenty-nine. The Socialists 
fared still worse. They were entitled proportionally to thirteen: 
they elected only one. As in the Senate the Republicans ben- 
efited by the unjust district representation system, electing 
fifty-four members of the Assembly, thirteen more than a 
majority. But their vote was so much less than half that they 
were proportionally entitled to only thirty-eight, three less than 
a majority. These figures show how the district system leads 
to a direct misrepresentation of the popular will, giving to a 
minority of the voters an overwhelming majority in the legis- 

The injustice and unfairness of the district system of re- 
presentation to the individual voter is seen in glaring colors 
in this election. For instance, 91,785 socialist voters are given 
only one representative in the legislature, while 272,774 Re- 
publican voters only three times more numerous are given 
fifty-four times that representation in the Assembly alone. 
The Democrats, a little more than twice as numerous as the 
Socialists, are given twenty-five times the representation. Even 
so the Democrats with 75 per cent of the voting strength of 
the Republicans got less than 50 per cent as much representa- 

Turning to the Congressional elections of the same year, 
we find the district system inflicting the same inequitable 
results upon the electorate. For Congress the Republicans 
cast 265,796 votes and elected seven Congressmen; the Demo- 
crats cast 196,610 votes, nearly four-fifths of the Republican 
vote, but they elected only three Congressmen, less than one- 
half. The Socialists with 104,122 votes elected no one, while 
the Progressives with 20,341 votes elected one Congressman. 
This shows how utterly unrepresentative of the actual divisions 

of the electorate the legislative bodies become under the dis- 
trict system of elections. 

In 1914, the inequitable operation of the district system 
cannot be shown with the same startling discrepancies between 
vote and representation because it was a year of political 
confusion. For the Senate, to which twenty members were to 
be elected, there were nine different groupings of electors 
resulting from the endorsement of the same candidate by two 
or more parties. Still some comparisons can be made which 
show the almost total lack of relationship between the vote 
cast by a group of voters and the representation they secured 
in the Senate. For instance 79,390 straight Republicans 
elected two Senators, while three-eighths that number, 29,564, 
Progressives, also elected two. And a group of Republicans 
and Progressive numbering 73,747 (more than 5000 less than 
the straight Republicans) elected five Senators. Compare this 
last group of Republican Progressives with the straight Demo- 
crats who with 86,463 votes only elected four Senators. An- 
other group of Republicans, Democrats and Progressives 
numbering 10,072, elected two Senators, thus giving to each 
voter of this group eight times as much influence in the 
Senate as a straight Republican and four times as much 
influence as each straight Democrat. 9,942 voters of Repub- 
lican and Democratic faith elected one Senator; but 39,550 
Socialists (four times their number) elected no one. 

Such figures show that the district system of representation 
is simply a hap-hazard system of misrepresentation. In 1912 
the Democrats and the Socialists were the chief sufferers. In 
1914 the Republicans find their representation one-half what 
profxirtionally it should be. 

In the Assembly elections, in 1914, the Progressives became 
the victims-in-chief. They cast 147,762 votes which should 
have entitled them to fifteen seats in the Assembly. The dis- 
trict system with ruthless injustice cut them down to seven, 
while at the same time, it gave to a combination of 57,196 
Republicans, Democrats and Progressives eight Assemblymen, 
one more for considerably less than one-half the number of 
voters. And Republicans and Democrats in combination 
numbering 42,300, less than one-third the number of Progres- 
sives secured almost equal representation, six to the seven for 
the Progressives. Of course, whosoever wins, the Socialists 
lose. With twice the vote of this last Republican-Democrat 
combination they got one-third the representation. They got 
two Assemblymen when they were proportionally entided to 

For Congress in 1914 we find the same old district system 
beating the Republicans out of one representative among the 
eleven to which California is entitled. 292,906 Republicans 
elected only three members, whereas proportionally they 
should have obtained four. 187,704 Democrats, 85,000 less 
in numbers, elected as many Representatives as the Republic- 
ans. In addition a group of 32,575 Democrats including a 
few Socialists added one more to the Democratic representa- 
tion. But the straight Socialists, twice as numberous, with 
68,215 votes elected no one. 

The confusion of returns resulting from the multiparty 
grouping behind candidates continued from 1914 to the elec- 
tions of 1916. And the inequitable results of the district 
system shine through them just as clearly. 67,731 straight 
Democrats succeeded in electing two Senators when they 
should have had four. A combination of Republicans and 

(Gintinued on Page 22) 

Page ten 


The Western Comrade 

"For the Length of the Story'' ^y "-» 

ea Frances Easley 

It offered no reason 

Y the way, Marion, have you written that story yet?" 
The tone in which the question was asked implied 
a perfect understanding and good comradeship. It 
was between dances and they were seated at the end 
of the porch, where they could watch the other guests, and yet 
were far enough away to permit a conversation without fear 
of being heard. 

"No, Perry." 

The answer was not at all satisfactory, 
and that was what the man wanted. 

"And why not?" 

"Because I donit know how." 

"But you never have had any trouble writing others, why 
should this bother you?" 

"But a love story. Perry! I've never written one of those, 
I just can't seem to imagine one," she said as the man laughed. 

"Don't imagine it," he advised. "Such affairs happen 
every day, can't pick up a paper without running onto a para- 
graph which begins 'One of the most romantic secrets of the 

season is just being announced .' Take one of those, 

Marion, and with all the modern day conveniencies for speed, 
you ought to fix up a corker!" 

"But it wouldn't be quite fair, would it, to send some girl's 
secret for a lot of people to read?" 

"Oh, that's a case of 'they should worry,' but if you don't 
like the idea, fall in love yourself, and write your own ex- 

This time the girl laughed, a little tremulously, and fortun- 
ately blushes are not discenrable on porches dimly lighted by 
the moon. The soft dreamy strains of a waltz, which the 
orchestra had just commenced, seemed scarcely more musical 
than that little laugh. 

"Why, I must admit that I had never thought of that. But 
what good would it do to fall in love by myself? That 
wouldn't be any experience. But I'll think about it. Really. 
Now hurry along and don't keep your partner waiting. I 
haven't this next dance, so I'll stay out here, thank you." 

Fall in love! She was already so deeply in love, that it 
hurt her to think of it just now. It had always been called an 
immodest thing to give a love unmasked, and yet, how could 
a person help it, when love insisted upon taking up his abode 
in one's heart? The more one tried to keep him out the more 
he persisted, and once in, there was no such thing as locking 
him in and forgetting his presence. After all, being in love 
did not always mean a great happiness. 

And the man? The man was Perry! There had been only 
Perry, for a long time, only she had not known it. She had not 
known that there was anyone. She remembered when his 
first real business success had come to him. She had been 
so happy that she cried, even while she called herself a silly 
little idiot, but she remembered that no other man's success 
had so affected her, and suddenly she knew why. It was be- 
cause he was the man, the one man who really counted. 

She had not quite decided whether or not she ought to be 
ashamed of her love. No one would ever need to be ashamed 
of being in love with Perry! Manly and right, he held the 
admiration and respect of everyone who met him socially or 
in a business way. No, he was absolutely the sort of a man 
a girl should care for, and as long as no one knew it, it could 
not possibly bring sorrow to either of them, and perhaps some- 
time everything would come right. 

Marion had thought all this vaguely. She had never thought 

to dwell on the one-sidedness of the affair. She was happy 
to go about with him, glad when he was glad and sorry when 
things went wrong for him. 

Nor did she once allow herself to think that Perry showed 
her any special attention. His interest in her stories was no 
more than he would have given to anyone else under like 
circumstances. Ever since the days of high school themes, 
he had thought she was clever, and he wanted her to succeed, 
and his "don't forget I'm rooting for you all the time, Marion" 
had been a source of never-failing encouragement. But he 
would have said the same to anyone of the other girls whom 
he saw as regularly as he did her. As Alice North had said, 
"He was one man a girl could be proud to go about with." 
And when one of them announced that she was going to such 
and such a place with Perry Bently, she always did it with an 
dir of conscious pride that was adorable. There was no silly 
sentiment in the attitude, it was merely a friendly tribute, and 
no one had ever given it any other meaning. 

As for Marion, her interest in Perry had not sp)oiled her 
friendship with other men. She had always been a great 
ravorite, her happy disposition made her so, and if she ever 
tired of being a good fellow, no one ever suspected it. 

She rested her hot face in her hands. She was glad that 
she was alone just then. She had gone along happily, trust- 
ingly and suddenly she had been awakened by Perry's advice 
to fall in love. It hurt terribly, but even at that moment she 
remembered that it might have been worse if it had come 
later, and it couldn't last always. There was something stoical 
in her reasoning. 

Suddenly she sat upright. She would pretend! For the 
length of a story she would pretend that Perry had fallen in 
love with her. She would change names and places so that no 
one would recognize them, but in her mind, no, in her heart, 
it would be Perry's and her love affair. For that little while 
she would be perfectly happy, she would dream and dream 
that Perry cared more for her than for anyone else and had 
told her so! She would pretend that the two had known 
each other always, just as she and Perry had, and they had 
always been the' best of friends, only he would be one of those 
lovable stupid sort of men who never realize what they want 
until it is almost too late. There would be another man, an 
older man, who would pay her enough attention to bring Perry 
to his senses. She laughed softly as she considered this sudden 
acquisition of suitors, but it was only for the length of the 
story, the love story she had said she couldn't write. And if 
it was accepted she would tell Perry that he had given her 
the idea, and he would consider it a good joke. It wouldn't 
do any harm, she was sure of that. 

The next few days were busy ones. Marion wrote and re- 
wrote, considered and re-considered. It was really amazing 
how the older man improved on acquaintance. She found 
that they had a great many tastes in common. He had trav- 
eled a great deal, in strange countries that were full of stories, 
he was interested in the books that she read and altogether 
he proved to be a very charming addition to her circle of 
friends. Still she couldn't be quite reconciled to his blase air, 
there was nothing of that about Perry. Then she would 
always remember Perry's eyes and close curling hair. With 
a start she thought of how tiny youngsters with fluffy curly 
hair had always appealed to her. She drew herself together 
sharply, before it occured to her that for the length of the 

The Western Comrade 


Page eleven 

Story her imagination, her dreams could lead her unrestrained 
into all the dear fancies of heart-land. After that she would 
have to put them away, if she could. 

However, the old man continued to be attentive. Marion 
had to admit that she admired him, and the family seemed 
greatly impressed, all except Martha, the little sister, who 
continued to think that Perry was simply the nicest person 
she knew. But in the end Perry suddenly discovered that he 
was in grave danger of seeing someone else win the girl he 
loved, but Marion forgave him his negligence and everything 
ended happily. Except that she was rather sorry for the old 
man, he had been very, very nice to her. 

Marion was pleased with her story. It was different from 
anything she had ever written. In a way she had lived it, 
part of it at least, her caring for Perry was no pretense, and 
she had so woven the rest around that real part of it, that the 
whole story seemed alive. She hoped it didn't seem conceited 
to have made herself the object of two men's affections, when 
in reality there seemed to be no one. That part amused her. 
She was sorry when it was finished, and yet there was a sense 
of happiness that she could not explain. No matter what else 
came, that much was hers. 

In a months time, the story was accepted, and Marion com- 
menced to wonder whether or not she should tell Perry. Since 
the night of the party the subject had not been mentioned, 
although she had seen him a number of times. Yet he would 
think it queer if she didn't tell him, she had never forgotten 
before, and he had been just as pleased with each succeeding 
bit of success as he had been with the first. Well, he was com- 
ing up that evening, perhaps she would broach the subject, 
although her heart pounded unmercifully at the thought of it. 
What would he think! Had she been presumptuous? But then 
it was only a story; he himself had suggested the method she 
might use to imagine it. She was absolutely sure of his 
attitude, he would be amused, nothing more, except, of course, 
pleased that she had done what he was so positive that she 
could do. 

When he arrived that evening she was surprised to find that 
the prospect of her confession did not disturb her in the least, 
after all it was only a story. 

"You remember, don't you. Perry," she reminded him, 
"about telling me how I might write that love story? Well, 
I did it!" 

"Why, I told you to fall in love yourself, did you do that?" 
As one would say of an actor in a moving picture his face 
registered shocked consternation. 

"Oh, not that. Perry," Marion reassured him, quite truth- 
fully, for indeed she had not fallen in love with him for the 
sake of writing about it. "I merely pretended and since I 
know you so well, and you suggested the idea to me, I thought 
you wouldn't mind if I pretended that you were the man, one 
of the men, I mean," she added hastily. 

"So there are more than one?" he queried, "a regular 
eternal triangle affair?" 

There was no sarcasm in the tone, but there was something 
that would lead one to suspect that Perry would have been 
more pleased if there had been only one man. 

"Certainly," she replied blandly. "There are generally two 
men in a love affair, especially in a story. The extra one 
serves to keep up the interest." 

"I see. But go on and tell me the story. I'm anxious to find 
out my place." 

Marion obeyed. It was rather an interesting little narrative 
and she gave quite a complete outline. The man listened 

intently, his expression changed at each turn of the story. 
His first comment was startling. 

"Who is the older man, Marion?" he demanded. 

"The older man?" she echoed, not comprehending. 

"Yes, he sounds like a pretty good sort, reminds me of 
Captain West who was here last summer. Marion, tell me, 
do you think him as fine as you have him in the story?" 

Marion gasped. She had utterly forgotten Captain West. 
He had visited her uncle that summer before and had called 
at the house frequently. But she had never dreamed that 
anyone thought he had come esj>ecially to see her. But in 
spite of the fact that she had not had him in mind, her descrip- 
tion of the older man fitted him nicely. Perry seemed to have 
forgotten that he was the real man of the story. He evidently 
understood that he had been put in merely because he was 
an old friend and wouldn't misconstrue her meaning. But 
the other man, a man she had knowTi only so short a time, 
that was very different, surely he must have made a most 
favorable impression. 

Marion laughed hysterically, she was perilously near tears. 

"Why, Perry! I didn't think of him once, truly. The older 
man isn't anyone, the only real ones are you and I — -" She 
said this impetuously and then stopf>ed shortly, she must not 
say such things as that, "and anyway it was only pretending" 
she went on, "perhaps I shouldn't have written it, I didn't 
think. Will you forgive me?" 

The man rose. There was a peculiar wearinesf about the 
movement that Marion had never noticed before. His face 
was white and for a moment there was a curious expression 
that was absolutely new, but he smiled the same old friendly 

"There is nothing to forgive, little girl, and I shouldn't have 
spoken as I did, I have no right to pry into your secrets, even 
though I have always been your old Perry friend. But I want 
to thank you for letting me be the right man for even just 
that little while, it was mighty sweet and I shall never forget 
it — " 

Suddenly he caught her hands and drew her close to him. 

"Oh, little Marion girl, I can't bear to think that there is 
any other man. I know you don't think of me that way, but 
I guess the story has gone to my head. I'm not as slow or 
blind as you have me in the story. I've never once forgotten 
what I would give the world to possess. I've been loving you 
always. I was going to suggest that you fall in love vrith me 
that night at the party, when you sent me away, and smce 
then I have not dared come back to the subject. I realized 
then that I had no more claim on your friendship than the 
other fellows. I've been afraid to say a word for fear it might 
spoil it all, but I've got to say it now, no matter what happens. 
Do you think " 

He got no farther. 

Marion was sobbing in his arms. She knew it was a happy 
cry, the same as the one when she had found out herself, so 
long ago, where her heart belonged, but he had no way of 
knowing it, so one hand crept up against his cheek, confid- 
ingly, lovingly. 

"Why, Perry, I didn't pretend myself in that story," she 
whispered, "that has been real for oh! so long. I just pre- 
tended you, because I love you! " 

As he stooped to kiss the lips so near his own he said some- 
what unsteadily, 

"And how long is this story going to last?" 
Together they repeated the promise. 
"Forever and ever. Amen ! " 

Page twelve 


Tke Western Comrade 

Why Not Ragtime? 

By Professor A. G. Wahlberg 

HERE is a growing tendency among people to ignore 
ithe higher music, and cHng almost exclusively to 
the lower forms well typified by what is commonly 
termed "ragtime". Some otherwise intelligent per- 
sons have even gone so far as to assert that ragtime is superior 
to what is known as classical music. A friend once remarked 
that the merits of music were not to be judged by the difficulty 
with which one must render it or the number of harmony 
combinations which it possessed, but by its power to move 
and incite to action its hearers. He further argued that at a 
Fourth of July picnic, a political convention, or in an army 
marching to war, a few lively selections of ragtime would do 
more toward filling men with enthusiasm than the composi- 
tions of all the Wagners and Verdis lumped together. 

As this view seems to be prevalent universally, I will 
endeavor to shed some much-needed light on the subject. 

First, I will give the reader a few definitions that he may 
understand clearly any terms or words that may subsequently 
be used: 

Music — The art and science of expressing emotions 

through the medium of tones so arranged rythmically and 

melodically, as to produce a satisfactory effect upon the ear. 
Classical — A term applied to music of sufficient merit to 

bear repetition — standing the test of time, because of purity 

in form and structure. Not necessarily difficult. 

Measure — Two or more regularly recurring pulsations, 

represented by a space between two bars. 

Rhythm — The division of musical ideas or sentences into 

regular portions. The swing of a selection. 

Syncopation — ^The unequal division of time or notes or 

tones; an artificial accent which is usually followed by the 

natural rhythm; or, music having measures with displaced 

accents — five or six different kinds of forms. Ragtime is 

the lowest formi of syncopation. 

Ragtime — The cheapest form of syncopated music, be- 
cause of its appeal to physical action of little value. 

Good 'music is not necessarily complex in its harmony 
arrangements. Some of our choicest music is exceedingly 
simple and easy to render. The Welsh melody will live for- 
ever. Auld Lang Syne, America, Onward Christian Soldiers, 
Sweet and Low, with scores of folk-songs and hymns, will be 
sung many generations later than the best ragtime selection 
yet to be written. 

A great many of our songs and hymns are but excerpts from 
the works of the masters of tone. 

The difference between the good and the bad in music is 
the difference between an audience (order) and a mob (dis- 
order). It is not difficult to incite a mob. A mob is easily 
moved. Ragtime will do it. 

As I was once much interested in politics, I will concede 
that my friend was right in stating that ragtime is best for 
political conventions. Representatives from all classes are 
there, especially the "mob", the saloon gang, the "ward- 
heelers," "job-hunters." the "mentally and morally ragged." 
Give them rags! I have never heard of anybody coming 
away from a political convention any more refined than before 
going in 

The "good book" tells us that we are prone to wander. We 
are likely to do this on sprees and holidays. It is when we are 
a little naughty or when we start to wander that some of us 
like "rags". 

As ragtime is less than twenty-five years old, it is certain 

that the Army of the Republic did not use it in the Civil War. 
It played and sung "When Johnny Comes Marching Home 
Again," "Just Before the Battle," "Battle Hymn of the Repub- 
lic," "Marching Through Georgia," and a number of other 
melodies written by George W. Root. These with the national 
airs were used, and none of them constitutes ragtime. In the 
Spanish-American War, the bands did play "There'll Be a Hot 
Time" while capturing a city. This was probably justifiable 
under the circumstances because of the sentiment and the 
consequent fulfillment. 

People ignorant in the structure of music rhythmically and 
melodically are likely to confound popular and other fleeting 
music with ragtime. "I Love You, California" cannot be class- 
ed as ragtime as there are but four syncopated measures in 
it. It is a popular song with a poor text and cheap musical 
structure. Advertisement and the sentiment have kept it alive. 
One seldom hears it now. "Tipperary" is not ragtime, for 
there is not a single syncopated measure in it. It was written 
by Americans and was a failure as a popular song until made 
famous by British bands who played it in the European war. 

The national airs and melodies are the ones which inspire 
on the battlefield, where men are dying — not ragtime. 

Ragtime wsls introduced in, by and through, the "Minstrel 
Show" where in song and dance, the singers and dancers 
would, so to speak, "take off" the negro — the emotional darky 
— with gestures and movements far more rude and uncouth 
than cultured and refined. Out of these experiences came 
"ragging" and nearly all low dances of the modern dance hall. 
The difference between the good and the bad in music is also 
the difference between aesthetic and "rag" dancing. 

Music is built upon rhythm. Rhythm came out of the 
dance. G. Stanley Hall has said that one reason for the fact 
that ragtime is holding the attention of the musically untrained 
is due to the fact that the most successful ragtime numbers 
have short motives or phrases. The elemental mind cannot 
grasp much. Another has said that the difference between 
the good and the bad in music is identical vkith the difference 
between some of our modern writers and Shakespeare. 

An argument against ragtime is its short life, for we find 
that even its proponents tire of it. A ragtime selection seldom 
lasts more than a single season. 

In conclusion, ragtime appeals to the limbs or the animal 
side of human nature. In it, there is no appeal to the heart 
or the intellect. Good music requires an intellect for further 
understanding; consequently all without culture or an intel- 
lectual understanding of music are not touched by good music. 
The music which will stand an intellectual analysis, which 
appeals to the highest motives v^nthin us, which touches the 
heart as well as the head — that which is spiritual — vidll remain. 

A poor man is ever at a disadvantage in matters of public 
concern. When he rises to speak, or writes a letter to his 
superiors, they ask: "Who is this fellow that offers advice?" 
And when it is known that he is without coin they spit their 
hands at him, and use his letters in the cook's fires. But if 
it be a man of wealth who would speak or write or denounce, 
even though he have the brain of a yearling dromedary, or a 
spine as crooked and unseemly, the whole city listens to his 
words and declares them wdse. — Li Hung Chang. 

A good mjan never makes a good soldier. The soldier is 
nothing but a legalized murderer. — Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The Western Comrade 


Page thirteen 

Montessori — What It Achieves 

THE announcement made recently by the San Diego 
Montessori Association that Dr. Maria Montessori, 
founder of the Montessori system of education, would 
conduct a summer class for teachers at San Diego is 
one of the most notable ever made in educational circles. 
This will be the last appearance of Dr. Montessori in the 
United States for several years, as large classes await her in- 
struction in many countries of Europe. 

The elementary courses, as well as the courses in sub- 
primary work wnll be included in the summer course. The 
former deals with the teaching of children from the sixth year 
until they are ready for high school instruction. The institu- 
tion of several demonstration schools to exemplify the prac- 
ticability of the Montessori method is a feature of the course 

Dr. Maria Montessori is perhaps the most inspiring figure 
in the educational world. An understanding of her work and 
methods is essential not only to teachers and students and 
parents, but to all who profess to be versed in the social 
sciences. Originally appearing as the apostle of a system of 
education purporting to sharpen and develop early the facul- 
ties of the child, she now leads a great movement having for 
its goal race improvement — individual, biological and social. 
Hers is no freakish, fanatical philosophy; its value is perman- 
ent and indisputable, because all its theories have stood the 
test of science and reason, and its methods proved successful. 

Dr. Montessori is a physician, a scientist and a pioneer in 
the field of education. She began her phenomenal career in 
the educational world in Rome by conducting experiments 
with mentally deficient children. Observing that her methods 
restored imbecilic children to sanity, she proceeded upon the 
hypothesis that an elaboration of the same system could be 
used successfully with normal children. Experiment proved 
her assumption to be correct. 

The gist of the Montessori method is the careful watching 
of children so as to assist in the spontaneous development of 
capabilities or special faculties which they may possess. Dr. 
Montessori believes that the old conception of discipline con- 
fuses inaction with demeanor. In her method, liberty is al- 
lowed the child, and the child is encouraged in using his lib- 
erty profitably through the study of interesting, absorbing 
things. Learning is done by DOING and DISCOVERING. 
The efficacy of SUGGESTION rather than a series of nagging 
orders has been proved. The ideal of Dr. Montessori is to de- 
velop the WHOLE child — ALL his faculties and proclivities. 
Careful attention is given to bodily strength, knowledge of the 
practical necessities of life, keenness of all the senses, accurate 
muscular control, intellectual education and moral and spirit- 
ual grovrth. It is a remarkable fact that notwithstanding the 
broad field here covered in the instruction of the child, the 
children learn the rudiments of reading, writing and computa- 
tion much earlier than children trained with the old method. 

Prudence Stokes Brown, founder of the Montessori school 
in Llano, and who took special courses under the instruction 
of Dr. Montessori, is one of the most experienced and suc- 
cessful teachers of the new method. She has the following to 
say concerning the Montessori system: 

"Instead of the old idea that children are instinctively bad 
and disorderly. Dr. Montessori has proved that the normal 
child is instinctively good and loves order, beauty and work. 
To that end, she has established the children's houses, labora- 
tories where children are left free in their work. All disorder 

is eliminated, but that activity which is good is left, the most 
complete liberty of manifestation. Adults often stigmatize 
as evil in the small child that which annoys them, when he 
is only seeking self-expression. He rebels, and is called 
'naughty,' but give him the means of self-expression, and re- 
bellion is noticeably absent." 

The Montessori school which Mrs. Brown now teaches is 
a fascinating study in child psychology. Here the infant mind 
is seen to unfold, expand and flower with startling rapidity. 

A mother visiting the school, ^noticing a child carrying a 
tall, pink pyramid of blocks around and around the veranda, 
asked, "Isn't that a waste of time?" "By no means," re- 
turned Mrs. Brown, "Note the poise he has — ^note the sense 
of balance, his steadiness." Mrs. Brown continued, "The poise 
Louis has is due to the training in carrying that pyramid and 
walking on a line to 'slow music, carrying a glass of colored 
water. Children love beauty, and so we appeal to this taste 
by providing attractive surroundings." The visitor noted that 
the whole porch ' where the children studied was indeed 
picturesque vrith the many bits of statuary and ornaments 
artistically placed. 

William, Helen and Majorie were seated blindfolded at a 
table putting various geometrical insets into spaces provided 
for them. The visitor tried to show Marjorie where to place 
one. The child said, "Please don't show me, I want to do it 
myself," and William contributed, "That wouldn't be fair." 

When asked how reading and writing were taught, Mrs. 
Brown led the visitor to a room adjoining the porch in which 
was a low blackboard. Here was Marian Rode, aged four, 
blindfolded, feeling some large sandpaper letters on white 
cardboard. She would raise the blindfold and carefully make 
the letter on the board as nearly like the sandpaper letter as 
possible. Marian was learning and at the same time enjoying 

The visitor asked a mother who came to get her two children 
whether the school helped in the disciplining of the children 
at home. "Indeed it does," replied the mother. "Mary Louise 
is much more adaptable and considerate than she used to be 
and helps in serving and washing the dishes. And Elizabeth, 
who is only 'two years and three months old, dresses and 
undresses herself even to buttoning and unbuttoning her shoes. 
In fact, the home is where this training shows, and I try to 
carry out the Montessori ideas in the children's lives." 

It is hoped that as many teachers as possible will take the 
course offered in San Diego by Dr. Montessori. A large num- 
ber have' already arranged to attend the summer school, letters 
of inquiry having been received'from all over the state of Cali- 
ifornia. It is to be regretted that mothers cannot secure this 
instruction direct from Dr. Montessori at this time, but in the 
near future competent instructors will be available for all those 
desiring to learn the method. 

Your republic will be as fearfully plundered and laid waste 
by the barbarians in the twentieth century as the Roman 
empire was in the fifth, with this difference, that the Huns and 
Vandals who ravaged the Roman empire came from without, 
and that your Huns and Vandals will have been engendered 
within your own country and by your own institutions. — 

He that would be no slave must have no slave. — Lincoln. 

Page fourleen 

The We stern Cc 

What Shall We Do to Be Saved ? ^y ^o^-pe.u. 

T is my humble opinion that this question was origin- 

Ially asked in an economic and not theological sense. 
It was to the early Christian a question of vital, pres- 
ent and not posthumous importance. What shall we 
do to be saved? Surely it was not the fear of hell hereafter 
that inspired the question. No, not the fear, but the realization 
of hell on earth in the form of Roman aggression upon their 
ancient liberties troubled them. It was the burden of militar- 
ism that ate like a canker into their economic substance and 
their social life, that threatened to reduce them to an ever 
lower peonage, that caused the cry: "What shall we do?" Not 
"What shall we talk?" Not "What shall we read?" But 
straight from the shoulder "What shall we do?" "What is to 
be accomplished?" Thus they banded themselves together 
and we are told that there were none amongst them that 
wanted, for they had all things in common. 

Now I am not writing this as a sermon on the virtues of 
the ancient Christians. I am rather writing it in an attempt 
to awaken the slumbering social consciousness to action in a 
physical as well ais an intellectual sense. I am a convert to the 
propaganda of the deed. Not petit larceny deeds of individual 
sabotage but broad, constructive deeds that lead to fuller and 
freer and nobler life. It is deeds, not creeds we need. It is 
social action in our own mill amongst the purple ranges of 
the Sierra Madres. To cut our own trees for our own dwell- 
ings that sleep in the shimmering sunlight at the edge of the 
valley. To awaken a consciousness that will cause earth to 
flower our collective soil with our collectively owned machine, 
to reap the grain with collective hand and collectively enjoy 
the products of mountain, plain and stream, made useful to 
the need of man by the social labor of class-conscious work. 
That is the action that counts in rearing the great temple of 
life from its foundation stone of bread to its turrets and min- 
arets of joy, laughter and song. Things done are things won. 
Generally speaking we are as lost now as were the Romans 
of the first century. Augustus Rockefeller, Caligula Morgan, 
Crassus Carnegie and Caesar Wilson today encroach upon 
our liberties, today are preparing armies for the destruction 
of the Jerusalem of our boast, — Free Democracy. Interest, 
rent and profit, taxes, special assessment, are now driving the 
vndow from her cot ond throwing orphans on the street; are 
causing the small farmer to vanish from his estate into the 
peonage of renting. Concentrated capital is driving the little 
shop-keeper from his bench, the little store-keeper from the 
mart. On goes the merry march of organized power, of organ- 
ized might, strictly legal, — capitalism is long on legality — it 
always makes a law before it commits a crime, to sanctify 
that particular crime. Never do anything unlawful; be sure 
you have the law on your side; that costs money and to gel 
money you must be organized either to retain your product 
or to skin Henry; never be lawless; legalize your acts before 
you commit them. I attended a conference of doctors, mem- 
bers of the Medical Association, organized for the benefit of 
the sick — Rats! They openly boasted of the laws they had 
secured for the safety of the people, — Huh? Oh, no; to keep 
out competing schools; to control the great art of dopeology 
in the hands of the association. They read a paper on public 
health, but if public health were well taken care of how would 
the learned doctor pay office rent? The medical associations 
have thus made laws or had laws made to protect their in- 
terests and their interest is the disease and not the health of 
the community. I visited a convention of undertakers, — ex- 

tremely ignorant men. Mentally almost an equivalent of the 
people they deal with, and all I could hear was bluster and 
brag about the laws they had passed or caused to pass, that 
legalized the fines they put on death. They didn't call it 
vandalage, piracy, robbery — no, no — these are ugly words. 
They offend the taste of the living who will some day be dead. 
They call it business when they work to legalize processes by 
which they make it financially impossible for Us to die decently. 
They do this through force of organization. And so we find it 
everywhere. Those who are organized drive those who are 
unorganized from the field through their collective power. 
Those who are organized, not to talk but to get or keep, are 
happy, well-fed, well-clothed, highly respected, well-washed 
and unjailed. They are saved now. They have their salvation 
here. Because you are unorganized to get, to make and to 
keep, you are underfed, misclothed, unhoused, unwashed, and 
unrespected, frequently jailed. You are so helpless that you 
cannot do anything but work for them who are organized to 
take the product of your toil. Hence, like ancient Christen- 
dom, you cry out, but not "What shall we do?" Your refrain 
is "What shall we believe to be saved?" "What shall we 
read?" "What shall we vote?" And "How moral should we 
be?" But whenever anybody says, "Let us do," then re- 
echoes the refrain from the unorganized "It can't be done." 

Many of our so-called scientific Socialists seem to be still 
looking for a mystical deliverance, hoping to be taken into 
the co-operative commonwealth in white linen bandages, with- 
out work of any member of the body except the jaw. The 
word has become flesh. The man who denies the power of 
co-operation in the face of co-operative success in many parts 
of the world is simply an economic spook-artist who tries to 
make himself believe that he can orate himself out of hell. 
Then he makes fun of the priest who tries to mumble a soul 
out of Purgatory which, according to tradition, is only half 
as far down. Some consistency! We are told that only 
material things count. Economic determinism, materialist con- 
ception of history, material interest are continually talked 
about but when we suggest tha;t we go to the land and do 
material things, "You ain't orthodox." They talk of Direct 
Action, but when you advise action — horrors! it always 
failed! Thus many of our Socialists, including the Executive 
Committees of some large states, give to our materialistic phil- 
osophy a very theological interpretation. It is surely not 
economic, for the science of economics deals with the manage- 
ment of industrial affairs, and in that our theorizers are "heap 
much" deficient. 

The theologian says: "Believe my creed and you shall be 
saved." The mere political propagandist says: "Vote the 
ticket and doughnuts will fall like April showers" and then 
they have the brass to abuse the sound sense of mankind 
when they are laughed at. 

In answer to the question: "What shall we do to be saved?" 
the Co-operator makes this reply: "Organize with your com- 
rades; pool your resources; operate you own industries; eat 
and wear the products of your own toil; cease paying com- 
mission for the privilege of existence; organize for deeds and 
let creeds take care of themselves." 

At Llano we are doing the social deeds; are supplying the 
social needs; are forgetting the soul-sickening creeds; are 
being saved from the worries and annoyances incident to 
working-class life; and above that, we vote the ticket of our 
class; we labor for the greater political democracy. 

The Western Comrade 

Page fifteen 

Fires of Love 

By Ethel Winger 

HAT a riotous profusion of thoughts comes to you 
while watching a fire! In the orange flames, nov/ 
flickering, now leaping, now dying to a red glow, you 
can see faces and friends. Memories of the long ago 
come back in that magic light; visions of the mysterious fut- 
ure shape themselves into the little golden tongues of twisting 
brightness; and into your half-consciousness comes creeping 
all the dim, intangible fears and hopes which slowly form into 
hazy reveries as you sit enchanted. And love — love, too, 
appears before you, and for a while you dream. 


You think of those with you, sitting around the fire-place, 
and a warm gratitude steels over you, remembering the affec- 
tions of mother and father and sister and brother. How con- 
stant is the love among members of your family! — so un- 
changeable that at times you almost forget that it is there, 
ready to come to the foreground when loyalty and help are 
needed. It is just a comfortable, satisfying love that envelopes 
you in its steady warmth — always ready when called upon, 
always unobtrusive when other matters are given precedence. 

How well it is typified by the fire on the household hearth! 
— which furnishes the heat for the living-room, and gives a 
cheerful warmth without advertismg the source. Yet, if you 
wish, it is there for closer communion, always silently inviting 
you to bask in its radiance. What a sense of security and 
peace there is in the fire of the home! How joyfully you 
come back to it again after every absence! Yet it does not 
crowd out the pleasure in some of the other fires you like — ■ 
and recalling this, to these others your thoughts begin to drift. 


What a grateful memory there is of the fires built as you 
spent the evening in the Out-of-Doors! Tired and cold from 
the long day's journey, with what a welcome the crackling 
flames received you! They flavored the meals you cooked 
vidth savory smoke; and after you had refreshed your body 
with food and warmth, they afforded your mind food for 
thought and stimulated sweet recollections of other days. 
After banking the coals with wood for the night, you slept, 
basking in the glow. In the morning you awoke, revived mind 
and body, and broke camp, eager to be off, yet looking regret- 
fully at the dying embers. The fire had fulfilled its mission, 
and, having taken of its cheer, needing it no more, you left 
it forever. 

So with some of the friends you met in the hustle of life's 
activities. You greet them for a time, and appreciate sincerely 
their fnenship. But when new places and new conditions call, 
anxious to find these new experiences, you hasten away. It 
is not without a feeling of sadness that you leave those who 
had brightened your path as you passed. Yet you must bid 
farewell, knowing that the pain of parting will gradually 
change into a happy memory. 

You have seen other great fires out of doors, infinitely 
larger than the camp-fire. On (some glorious day of Indian 
summer, you became aware of an increasing haziness along 
the timbered hills, and later you scented the delicate aroma 
of wood-smoke. The distant atmosphere became grayer and 
bluer, and then, above the hills, you could see the gray almost 
imperceptibly blending with the sky. Thicker and whiter grew 

the smoke, and as you approached, the pines were lost in its 
clouds. Suddenly, the fire leaped out, and instantly before 
you were miles of burning forest. The waves of flames 
mounted to a mighty conflagration. The fire tore through the 
trees. It mowed down everything in its path. It mocked with 
crashing hisses all attempts to quench it. The roar resounded 
and reverberated through the canyons. For days the fire 
raged — until the fuel failed. For a long time the smoke 
lingered, and when the last coals died, nothing was left but 
barrenness and desolation. Those hillsides would always bear 
marks of the conflagration, but some day, in places where the 
decaying logs and impenetrable underbrush had been cleared 
away, more trees will be planted, and once again the green 
pines will lift their tops to the stars. 

Such a fire is the love of lovers. Coming gradually, it is 
scarcely noticed before it gets a permanent stronghold, when it 

Many such spots as this are within easy reach of Llano residents 

carries all in its path. It is irresistible. And then, if it is 
denied the food on which it is fed, it will die out, leaving 
only rum m its place. But if the splendid loyalties and affec- 
tions were destroyed, so were the impenetrable prejudices, the 
decaying monotonies. And some day, on the old ruin, may 
be planted seeds where new ideals, endeavors and new love 
may grow unhindered. 


How differently magnificent are the fires of the sky! 

The gentle evening star that comes with the twilight, so 
steady in its sublimity, so sweet in its beauty, fills us with 
reverence as we gaze. Its quiet radiance, broken by a faint, 
faint twinkle of rosy color, brings us peace, and dispels the 
weariness, the disappointment or the pain of the day. 
(Continued on Page 22) 

Page sixteen 

The Western Comrade 

Was Schmidt Guilty? 

[This is the fourth installment of Comrade Harriman's address in the trial 
of the Los Angeles Times dynamiting cases.] 

ORTIE McMANIGAL met Hockin at Muncie, and there 
they arranged to, and did, purchase and store the first 
bit of dynamite that the Iron Workers' Union ever 

purchased or owned. It was stored in a music box 

in a cottage at Muncie, Indiana, where McManigai went for 
his suppHes. FeeHng that the place was not sufficiently con- 
cealed, he suggested that his supplies should be stored in a 
more isolated quarter. He accordingly moved the dynamite 
from Muncie to an old isolated cooper shop at Rochester, 
Pennsylvania. Feeling now that all was ready, the execution 
of the campaign of destruction began. 

However far away, whether in Boston, New York, Peoria, 
Salt Lake or wheresoever, the dynamite necessary for the work 
was taken from the cooper shop at Rochester. Each time, he 
said, he returned to the cooper shop and went his way with 
his deadly missile. 

Neither he, nor anyone else, ever got any dynamite or nitro- 
glycerine at any place, at or near any point, where a "job" 
was done, nor did they get any nitro-glycerine or dynamite 
except from the cache at Rochester. 

This also is consistent voth the secret methods which Mc- 
Manigai, on cross-examination, said they always and every- 
where employed. ' 

Not only did McManigai get the nitro-glycerine that he used 
from the cooper shop, but he said that J. B. McNamara also 
got all he used from the same cache. 

It will be remembered that J. J. McNamara and McManigai 
found faulth with Hockin for appropriating some of the cash 
that should have been paid to McManigai for the jobs that he 
claims to have done. This altercation resulted in removing 
Hockin from the field. Naturally Hockin became angry and a 
short time thereafter the cache of dynamite at the cooper shop 
was discovered. Suspicion, of course, was cast upon Hockin 
by those familiar with the plot, but at that time no evidence 
was at hand. 

Another quantity of nitro-glycerine was purchased and 
deposited by McManigai in a cinder-pile near Pittsburg. It 
was from this cache, he testified, that he took the missile with 
which he destroyed the building at Peoria, Illinois. 

Some time after the job at Peoria was done, McManigai 
testified that he was riding with J. J. McNamara from Indian- 
apolis to Ohio, when McNamara discovered the mark Peoria 
on McManigal's shoes. "What do you mean by leaving that 
mark on your shoes? Take it off at once. They could trace 
you by that back to Peoria." Again we see with what secrecy 
they governed themselves. 

Shortly after the cache was placed in the cinder-pile, Mc- 
Manigai said he was followed across the bridge and down to 
the place where the cache was placed. He claimed to have 
reported this fact to J. J. McNamara, and that he immediately 
ordered all the nitro-glycerine to be brought from the cinder- 
pile to his vault in Indianapolis, and McManigai claims to have 
done the transportation. The cache was placed there because 
McManigai said they thought it would be the last place where 
any one would think of looking for it. 

Again Hockin was suspected of treachery but no evidence 
was then in hand to support the suspicion. Later, however, 
it appeared that Hockin had, as they suspected, turned traitor 
and delivered them into the hands of the enemy. 

It must be remembered that McManigai testified that he 

never met but two men who were not members of the Execu- 
tive Board !of the Iron Workers. One of these men was Smith 
of Peoria, Illinois. True, he testified that he met Webb of 
New York, but you will remember that Webb is a member of 
the Executive Board. 

McManigal's testimony in regard to Young of Massachusetts 
is not true. It is inconsisitent with the methods employed, in- 
consistent with the secrecy that the success of the enterprise 
demanded, and which was being stricdy observed. McManigai 
said he went to see Young, that Young took him to the opera 
house, then being built by non-union labor, and told him where 
he wanted the [dynamite placed. That Young then departed, 
and that he, McManigai, went for his infernal machine. That 
two watchmen paced to and fro in front of the opera house, 
meeting midway, .then turning their backs each towards the 
other, they walked in opposite directions. That while their 
backs were turned toward each other, he slipped in between 
them, placed a shot under the stairs, and slipped out again and 
went on his way. 

The fact is that J. J. McNamara, by means of correspon- 
dence always learned what buildings were in trouble and 
where they were located. McManigai received from him and 
Hockin all instructions. This was done in order that Mc- 
Manigai should not meet anyone, union or otherwise, in any 
city where he went. As a matter of fact, no one in any city 
knew who was guilty of the job, and not a footprint or trace 
was left behind. If he saw Young at all it was as a mere 
stranger who inquired for a certain opera house. Young 
might have told ithis stranger whiere it was located, and if 
McManigai paid his carfare, possibly he went with him to the 
place, without ever suspecting the man to whom he was ren- 
dering his services. Then they parted and McManigai, still 
under cover and free from suspicion, skulked back to the 
station and got his ten quarts of nitro-glycerine, a fearful 
engine of destruction. This time he testified that he left it in 
the depot with the parcel department. Sometimes he checked 
it with the hotel clerk. This tender-hearted father and 38- 
caliber winged angel, said he was sufficiendy thoughtful to tell 
them not to drop it, that they might break something. It 
was thoughtful of him indeed. I can see him now with h!s 
iron wings ! folded, going afoot through the narrow streets of 
Boston, with his infernal machine in hand, to do his work of 
destruction, while Young lay peacefully slumbering without a 
thought of suspicion in his' heart, only to wake on the following 
morning to be suspected with the rest of the union men of a 
crime of which they knew absolutely nothing. 

This is the only method by which they could have carried 
out their secret schemes for three successive years. The same 
state of facts applies to Smith of Peoria. McManigai did 
not dare tell Young or Smith or anyone else in any place, what 
his mission was. The secret could never have been kept by 
such childish methods. No one knew nor could have known 
what was being done but a part of the Board and McManigai 
and J. B. McNamara. The proof of this is found in the testi- 
mony of the expert accountant (Mr. Cook) who told you who 
received and disbursed a certain fund which amounted to 
about eighteen thousand dollars. The accountant told you 
that the money was paid to Hockin, McNamara, Ryan and 
Webb, all members of the Executive Board; that Clancy re- 
ceived sixty-eight dollars and fifty cents all told, and that 
Butler, also a member, received only fifty dollars. It is al- 
together improbable that Clancy and Butler knew anything 
•whatever of the campaign. 

The Western Comradf 

Page seventeen 

It is true that Clancy called for Hockin to come to the coast. 
Hockin had been in the field organizing, and Clancy thought 
he was the most desirable man. But Hockin did not come. 
He sent Mr. Berry of St. Louis. The man who was acting 
in secret in the field was also sent without the knowledge of 

Ryan, Hockin, J. J. McNamaraand Webb — these four with 
McManigal and J. B. McNamara in the field doing the work, 
knew and kept the secret. If you will only look the facts in 
the face you will see that it could not have been otherwise. 
Place yourselves in the same position, conducting the same 
kind of a fight with the same methods. Would you have per- 
mitted anyone, however near to you, to have known what you 
were doing, excepting those who were absolutely necessary 
in order to successfully carry on the undertaking? I submit 
that you would not, and I submit that they did not. And the 
testimony of McManigal to the contrary, concerning Young 
and Smith was perjured for the purpose of lending color to 
the theory of the prosecution, namely, that the conspiracy was 

We are not justifying the methods employed. In my judg- 
ment it was an insane policy. 

But they were driven into a corner. McManigal suggested 
the plot. It seemed to them that it would work. They kept 
it a secret among themselves. Secrecy was necessary. Had 
such a policy been known to the organization it would have 
created greater consternation than defeat. The men in the 
various cities never knew it and never could have known it. 
The movement would not stand for it, and did not stand for 
it, and neither the organizers of the locals in the various cities 
knew it or would stand for it. When the McNamaras pleaded 
guilty the defense funds that were pouring in from all over 
the country stopped instantly, and the defense, both in In- 
dianapolis and here, has been a poverty defense ever since. 
The forty men who were convicted in the East had practically 
no funds with which to fight. You have heard the worst of all 
the testimony that was offered against them. I submit that 
there is not sufficient evidence to convict so many men. The 
evidence would probably cover those whom I have named but 
it would not go beyond. 

The theory of the prosecution is that the campaign was 
nation-wide, and that practically all the leaders of the labor 
movement are involved. It is upon this theory that they would 
have us believe that the lockout in Los Angeles in 1910 was a 
part of that plot and scheme. In order to confound the 
evidence and to confuse your minds, they first offered evi- 
dence of what happened in the East and then of what 
happened in the West, thus constantly oscillating between the 
East and West like a shuttlecock, as though that would con- 
nect the two struggles. Of course, there was a struggle in the 

East. Everyone admits that. There was also a struggle in 
Los Angeles in 1910, but they were as distinct and separate 
from each other as the business affairs of the city of Los 
Angeles are separate from the business affairs of the city of 

The only threads by which they have endeavored to tie 
these hvo struggles together are the trip of J. B. McNamara 
to the coast and a letter and check of a thousand dollars sent 
to 0. A. Tveitmoe. 

I shall take up first the matter of J. B. Bryce, and second 
the check that was sent to Mr. Tveitmoe. 

McManigal testified that he and J. B. McNamara were as- 
signed to do some work together in Cleveland, Ohio. That 
J. B. McNamara was so secretive that he refused after the 
first trip to go again with anyone. That when he left Ind- 
ianapolis for the coast he had two suit cases. That J. B. 
McNamara told him that one had clocks and batteries, but that 
he would not say what the other contained. That it was 
heavy. That he (McManigal) had two valises full of nitro- 
glycerine, one being for a job at Omaha, Nebraska, and the 
dther for a job in Wisconsin. That they went on the train 
from Indianapolis to Chicago together, but that J. B. Mc- 
Namara would not talk. This is further evidence of the 
secret methods employed. If they would not talk to each 
other regarding their enterprise is it reasonable to believe that 
J. B. McNamara would talk to strangers on the Pacific coast? 
We are told by McManigal that J. B. McNamara came direct 
to Los Angeles from Indianapolis, and the registers of hotels 
have been produced in this court to support that statement. If 
that is true, and if the Los Angeles Times was blown up with 
dynamite, then the stuff that McManigal says J. B. McNamara 
brought in his valise from Indianapolis, is the stuff with which 
the work was done. 

Later J. B. McNamara went to San Francisco. There is 
not one particle of evidence that he met any union men there. 
Everything tends to show that he observed his usual secretive- 
ness. While he was there he stopped with a Mrs. Ingersoll. 
.Somewhere he must stop and there he happened in. This 
woman was a stranger to the union men of San Francisco. 
Certainly if there had been any connection between the East- 
ern struggle and the lockout in Los Angeles this man Bryce 
would not have been housed with a stranger. 

("Was Schmidt Guilty?" began in the May number and will run for 
several months. Back numbers, ten cents a copy.] 

A DAY of disaster for any nation will surely dawn when 
■^^ its society is divided into two classes — the unemployed 
rich and the unemployed poor — the former a handful and the 
latter a host. — Daniel Webster. 

Left, firing boiler at south industrial building; center, stone work for horse barn; right, grading Llano land for irrigating. 

Page eighteen 


The Western Comrade 

Co-operation the World Over 

Notes About the Chief Co-operatives Gleaned from Many Sources 

California Associated Raisin Company 

The California Associated Raisin Company is one of the most important 
and powerful farmers* co-operative organizations in the world. Organized 
in 1912, at which time the unfortmiate farmers were becoming desperate 
because of the wretched marketing conditions prevailing, the company 
now controls eighty-five per cent of the raisin production of the United 
Slates; has a membership of over 3500 stockholders; has a working 
capital and surplus of $1,500,000, and has a total acreage of raisins under 
contract of 140,000 acres. 

Although handicapped early in the history of the organization by the 
blind, selfish desire of the growers to remain "on the outside" of the 
organization in the hope of securing a higher price from private dealers, 
the company prospered until today it is very firmly entrenched. Between 
April K 1913 and April 1, 1917, it handled 318.000 tons of raisins and 
received a gross sum for them of more than $38,000,000. During the 
same period, after defraying expenses of handling, packing and selling, the 
growers were paid more than $29,000,000. The result has been a perm- 
anent and material increase in price to the grower, and a decided improve- 
ment in quality of the product to the consumer. 

The office of the California Associated Raisin Company is in Fresno, 
California. — Wylie M. Giffen, President. 

Starting the Co-operative Store 

No co-operative store should begin business before it has organized its 
market; in other words, its membership. No store should open its doors 
until it knows how many customers it can depend on to buy from its 
stock. Never count on passing trade. This means that the society must 
first be organized and its first members chosen with extreme care. 

Never start a co-operative society through a general public meeting. 
That method brings in elements that will only disrupt when the first dif- 
ficulties are met. But the members of a co-operative group should con- 
stitute a society for the study of social problems, with especial reference 
to co-operation. 

The most effective group for organizing a co-operative society is one m 
which the members have an intimate personal acquaintance with each other 
and are bound by some other ties, such as membership in the same labor 
union, community center, neighborhood guild, workmen's circle or other 
organization which gives a sense of kinship and solidarity. It Is best 
that the members should be neighbors rather than that they should live 
widely separated. — The Co-operative League of America. 

Nokomis Co-operative Society 

(Nokomls, Illinois) 
We are progressing nicely. Our report shows that we made a seven per 
cent patronage dividend during the first quarter, and expect to show 
a better report this second quarter which ends June 30. Our member- 
ship is growing steadily and our sales for this quarter are about fifty 
per cent larger than those of last quarter. Besides getting the profits 
for ourselves, we are assured of best quality merchandise at an honest 
price as far as retailing is concerned. Also our patrons get full weight and 
measure. — From a letter by H. E. Gifford, Manager. 

The Need for Co-operation 

In the conduct of modern business there is much waste; there is also 
great profit. Last year the value of products of this country amounted to 
$8,000,000,000; $2,000,000,000 remained on the farms. When the 
$6,000,000,000 of produce sold reached the consumer, he paid $13,000.- 
000,000, That is, is costs $7 to market every $6 worth of produce. The 
consumer is beginning to ask why some of this waste should not be 
utilized for him and some of these profits be returned to him. Nobod)- 
wants to help him; many in fact would find it to their advantage to hinder 
him; laws seem to be of no avail; government is helpless. He, therefore, 
must help himself, but to do this effectively he must work in unison with 
his fellow consumers. Co-operation offers the only sure means. — New 
England Co-operative Society. 

American Society of Equity 

One of the most useful agencies in America in spreading the gospel of 
co-operation is the American Society of Equity at Wausau, Wisconsin. 
The mission of the society is "to get the farmers together, teach them the 
lessons of co-operation, organize them and show ihem how, by co-operative 
selling and by co-operative large-scale buying, they can eliminate un- 

necessary middlemen, reduce the cost of getting their products into the 
hands of the consumers, and thus receive a much larger per cenlage of 
the price paid for ihem. 

European Co-operation 

The transformation in the rural life of more than one European com- 
munity through co-operation has amounted to little less than a revolution. 
Higher standards of agricultural products and production have been set 
up and maintained, better methods of farming have been inculcated and 
enforced, and the whole social, moral and civic life of the people has 
been raised to a higher level. From the viewpoint of material gain, the 
chief benefits of agricultural co-operation have been the elimination of 
unnecessary middlemen, and the economies of buying in large quantities, 
and selling In the best markets, and employing the most efficient implements. 
— Rev. Father A. Ryan. 

German Co-operatives 

The statistics of the German agricultural co-operative societies show 
that in 1915 there were 97 central co-operative societies, 2,833 co-oper- 
ative societies for collective sale and purchase, 17,781 co-operative savings 
and loan banks, 3,588 co-operative dairy societies, 4,353 co-operative 
societies having other objects ; a total of 28,652 agricultural co-operative 
societies, 164 of them founded in 1915, having a membership of 2,500,000. 
— Montana Equity News. 

The American consumer has no good grounds for complaint against the 
farmer, because of the prices he pays for farm products. The consumer 
can protect himself by buying directly from the farmer as the English 
consumer, through the aid of co-operative associations, is successfully 
doing. — James Wilson, formerly Secretary of Agriculture. 

Wind versus Work 

If trade unionists and labor men generally had spent half the time 
they have expended on resolutions during the past hundred years on 
co-operative business problems, the Co-operative Commonwealth would 
have been much nearer today. It is far better to build factories than 
hold conferences for the mere purpose of protesting against the unfairness 
of exploiters. These protests have been made for centuries. Unless we 
make factories in the future instead of speeches, the protests will con- 
tinue for centuries to come. — The Producer, England. 

The workers of the world must learn to co-operate. If they do not 
hang together, they will hang separately. 

Rochdale System in America 

The Rochdale system of consumers' co-operation so successfully in vogue 
in England, may be used equally as successfully in America, provided an 
effort IS made to adjust the system to peculiar business and financial 
conditions in the United States. Many co-operators have failed in using 
the Rochdale method in this country and have ever after contended that 
its application here is impossible. It is an interesting fact that of all 
the co-operative stores that have succeeded in America, the larger per 
centage of them have adopted a modification of the Rochdale system. 


o p 

eration Unifies 

The most favorable omen for the success of the proposed Conference 
for the settlement of the Irish problem lies in the history and experience 
of the Irish co-operative movement. In the countries which have been 
sharply divided along radical, political and religious lines, the one unify- 
ing force has been the common interest of all groups in the co-operative 
stores, co-operative diaries and co-operative credit societies. — Laurence 
C. Staples, Co-operative League of America- 

Co-operative Egg Marketing 

In Canada approximately 105 egg circles are in active operation at the 
present time. Of these forty are located in Ontario. The most success- 
ful co-operative egg and poultry association in Canada is located in 
Prince Edward Island, where some fifty-two or fifty-three associations 
are amalgamated into one central association with central warehousing, 
grading and selling facilities. 

The National Agricultural Organization Society is an institution that 
is helping farmers to co-operate. For information write to the Secretary, 
340 Washington Building, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Th e Western Cc 



News and Views in Agriculture 

Do These Things Now 

TKin the vegetables that show signs of crowding. To do so requires 
courage, but it will pay. The young beet tops make excellent greens. 

At the first appearance of the striped beetle on melon and squash vines, 
spray with Bordeaux mixture and Paris green, or dust with powdered 
air-slaked lime. 

Watch for curculio on plum and quince trees. This is a grayish beetle 
about a quarter of an inch long. Jar the trees and catch the beetles on 
sheets spread on the ground. 

Do the cultivating and weeding early in the morning of a hot day. The 
uprooted weeds will be scorched by the sun. Never let the soil become 
caked or form a crust. 

To produce extra large bunches of grapes pinch off the young shoots 
so as to leave one or two eyes. 

Plant successive crops of com, beans, peas, beets and lettuce. 

Stop cutting aspargus soon and allow the shoots to grow. Keep weeds 
down and the soil well stirred. An application of quick-acting fertilizer 
on the aspargus bed will do much good. 

As soon as the peas and beans are off pull out the vines and sow 
cabbages, turnips or sweet corn. 

Look out for the green worm on currant and gooseberry bushes. If 
present spray with Paris green and water — an ounce to about six gallons. 

— The Country Gentleman. 

Light and Ventilation in the 
Dairy Stable 

The general rule to be followed in lighting a dairy stable is one square 
foot of glass area for each unit of twenty square feet of floor space. 
Another rule calls for four to six square feet of glass area for each cow. 
For a shed fifteen by sixty feet, or 900 square feet, there would be neces- 
sary forty-five square feet of glass area. By spacing windows containing 
six square feet of glass area from center to center along the sixty-foot 
wall, ample light would be provided. Window ventilation is quite satis- 
factory when the sashes tilt in at the top, as a temporary proposition. 
These same sashes will work into a modified type of the King system of 
ventilation later, if desired. — F. W. Ilcotts. 

Brood Sows 

The practice of having brood sows produce two litters a year, as fol- 
lowed in some of the hog-raising sections of the United States, should be 
encouraged, except where short seasons and severe winer prevent. Sows 
intended to farrow fall litters should be bred not later than the end 
of June. Those that are in breeding condition after weaning their spring 
litter should be breed the first time they come in heat. There are generally 
a few sows in the herd that are thin and run down in condition after wean- 
ing, and these should be fed a little heavier for a few weeks before the 
breeding to insure a larger litter in the fall. The date of breeding should 
be recorded so as to determine the date of farrow. The gestation period 
of a sow is 112 to 113 days. The sows should be watched closely to see 
if they come in heat after they are once bred, so they can be rebred. The 
heat period is every 21 days. — United Stales Department of Agriculture. 

The Windbreak as 

Farm Asset 

Windbreaks are, in more ways than one, a farm asset. They tend to 
prevent the soil from drying out quickly and they protect grain and 
orchards from mechanical injury by the wmd. A belt of trees by the farm 
buildmgs protects them from extreme winter cold and summer heat, and 
makes the farm a pleasanter place in which to live. The windbreak 
may also be a source of wood supply for use on the farm and for sale. 

— ^Farmers" Bulletin. 

Garbage as Fertilizer 

Mix the garbage v^ath about three times the quantity of soil and let 
it remain for several months until it becomes well rotted. This will avoid 
fermentation and souring. — B. C. Mamer, New York. 

The Loss from Grasshoppers 

In California alone grasshoppers have caused an annual destruction of 
at least $ 1 ,000,000 to the cereal and forage crops, which are the main 
crops necessary for the food supply; not mentioning the immense loss from 
this pest to the fruit, vegetable and truck crops of this section of the 
country. In some of the larger alfalfa fields, the annual loss constitutes 
almost one-third of the normal production. In other sections this pest 
is present year after year, causing a great aggregate loss, but hardly 

abundant enough to arouse the individual farmer to an effecKve grass- 
hopper campaign. It is this aggregate loss over hundreds and thousands 
of farms that must be lessened, as well as the loss where the pest appears 
in such great numbers as to destroy the entire crop. — State Commissioner 
of Horticulture. 

Small Fruits 

The soil cannot be too rich for strawberries. Good berries will grow 
on a soil that will raise good white potatoes. A good fertilizer is well- 
rotted manure, with a little commercial potash and rock phosphate applied 
with the manure a year before the plants are set out. llie only fruit that 
rebels against late pruning is the grape, which shows protest in bleeding. 
Raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries and currants can be pruned after 
they are in full leaf, or even in bloom without hurt. — The Co-ooerators' 


We sometimes hear the complaint that by neglecting to use the mush- 
rooms that could be cultivated, Americans are wasting an important food. 
A good mushroom, properly cooked, is a very luscious morsel and as 
such is a welcome addition to the dietary. If you are absolutely sure 

Building the Road up into the Mountains; it now extends for a dozen 
miles and is a remarkably good mountain road. 

that the variety that grows on your lawn or in the neighboring fields is of 
the edible kind, by all means cook it and eat it; it will do you good. 
But if you have the least doubt of its innocuousness, you had better leave 
it alone; the risk is too great and the possible gain in nutriment is too 

How is Your Alfalfa? 

Has your new alfalfa seeding stopped growing? Is it spotted and 
patchy? Is it turning yellow? Have you a thin stand? Let us find out 
what is the matter. 

1. Are you sure your soil is not sour? Does it need lime for alfalfa? 
Did you test it with litmus paper to see if it needed lime before you 

2. Did you inoculate? Are there nodules on the roots? 

3. Is your field reasonably fertile and well drained? Are there any 
low wet spots? Alfalfa will not stand wet feet. 

4. Do you have a hardpan subsoil six or eight inches below the surface? 
Hardpan is impenetrable to young alfalfa roots. 

5. Did you have a poor stand last fall? Too thick seeding of the nurse 
crop and the use of late-ripening grain may cause poor stands. 

6. Was your alfalfa cut or pastured late in the fall? Remember the 
eight-inch rule: If alfalfa does not go into winter with eight inches of 
growth it may suffer from winter kiUing. — The Country Gentleman. 

Horse Rations 

The ration for a horse of a pound of grain and a pound of hay per 
hundredweight a day is a useful standard. The horse doing light work 
may receive more hay and less grain, and the horse at severe labor should 
receive approximately the above amount of hay and enough grain to 
keep him in condition. — ^J. L. Edmunds, Florida. 

Page twenty 

Book Reviews 

The Western Comrad< 

Reviews of Recent Readable Books ^y p- ^''^^^^ 

"The American Year-Book" 

Appleton's "The American Year Book: A Record of Events and Prog- 
ress," is intended for the needs of writers and searchers of every kind. 
It does not aim to be a rival of other annual publications, either foreign 
or domestic. The Year Book "appeals first of all to students in all 
fields who wish a record of progress, not only in their own, but in 
other departments of human endeavor. It is intended, also, as a handbook 
for busy men, editors, writers, and practical and business men who wish 
to verify or confirm points that arise in their minds; and to serve as 
a handy body of reference material settling questions of fact." Having 
been familiar with the annual during most of the seven years of its 
existence, I can say with fervor that this expectation has been more than 
met, and that the 1916 events recorded in the 1917 edition make it the 
best issue of them all. 

The Year Book is edited by Francis G. Wickware with the co-operation 
of a supervisory board representing the national learned societies. There 
are 127 special contributors, specialists in each line. The war occupies 
a large percentage of the discussion, and I have seen no other source of 
information of the year 1916 so complete as this one. The same thing 
for that matter may be said of any field of research or activity. The 
papers are grouped under 32 departments, with thorough table of contents 
and index. Socialism receives a fair treatment from the pen of Carl D. 
TTiompson, dealing with both the American and foreign developments. 

For a present and a permanent reference book, Appleton's has come to 
mean in its field what the World Almanac means in its sphere. (New York: 
D. Appleton & Co.) 

"How to Avoid Indigestion" 

Dr. Robertson Wallace, M.B., CM., is a practical physician with many 
sane ideas, which he is not afraid to give to the "laity". In two little 
books he has recently imparted some facts that are worth reading. One 
is "How to Avoid Indigestion: Its Chief Causes and Curative Treatment." 

This is rather an ambitious title for a brochure of 176 pages, but Dr. 
Wallace wastes no energy in side issues. He tells of the organs at fault 
the process of healthy digestion, everyday causes of indegestion, stomach 
and intestinal indigestion, diet for dyspeptics, and food to combat special 
symptoms. The book is designed for "the plain man, in plain English," 
what is of practical service in the daily routine of life. 

"How to Avoid Nervous Disorders : A Complete Treatise Concerning 
Their Nature, Prevention and Cure," was prepared "expressly for the 
layman in all that pertains to the care of his nervous system in health, 
and its treatment when out of order." The author desires that the readers 
may be prompted to so train their nervous organization that it shall be 
the servant rather than the master of their fate, "and at the same time 
afford sufficient information to enable them to follow intelligently the 
general as well as the special lines of treatment of the more common 
functional nerve troubles of everyday life." — (The Brilton Publishing Co.) 

"Mental Adjustments" 

One recalls Emanuel Julius' "Democratizing the Nice Stuff" in studying 
the pages of "Mental Adjustments," written by Frederick Lyman Wells, 
of McLean Hospital, Waverley, Mass. It is the most significant contri- 
bution to psychology of the past year, and written in a style simple enough 
for the average student, and at the same time erudite enough for the 
profound specialist. It is one of the series of "The Conduct of Mind," 
edited by Professor Joseph Jastrow of the University of Wisconsin. Dr. 
Jastrow is the foremost American psychologist, and his seal on any book 
is evidence that it is something more than ordinarily worth while. I am 
going to quote from his analytical introduction to the book to give you 
an idea of its scope. 

"The science of happiness," writes Dr. Jastrow, "is the most intricate 
of human pursuits. It is to this study that Dr. Wells makes a significant 
contribution. As a pioneer, he blazes the trail; others will be guided by 
his route, though the future highways may diverge from his triangulations. 
Central in the composition stands that complex of forces imposed by nature 
embodied in the function of sex, and from that focus radiating to all the 
expressions of human energy, desire, will, conduct. To consider the mani- 
festations of sex so insistently and unreservedly may seem to many unused 
to this perspective an unseemly intrusion, or an unworthy degradation. 
The libido plays v^nth the human will, mocks at its attempts to escape its 
bonds, and through the exponent of science reveals the true significance 
of the mind's expressions. , , . 

The volume moves toward a definite position in regard to the control 
and expression of vital trends. Such a position has a direct bearing upon 
ethics and education and all the regulative pystems that distinguish be- 

tween good and bad, between more and less desirable. For adjustment 
implies value, indeed sets the standard of value. Dr. Wells attempts an 
analysis of the source of such standards and an appraisal of their worth 
and fitness for the life that we today must attain. Beginning with the 
biological relations, he promptly introduces the mental factor, and presents 
the mind and its products as an instrument of adjustment. The use and 
waste of the mental trends is his theme. The substitution of thoughts for 
realities takes us back to primitive man and the unschooled habits of his 
mind, to magic and superstition; it takes us collaterally to the breakdown 
of mind in the forms of insanity, in which the distinction of fact and fancy 

"Difficulties and failures of adjustment furnish the basis for the more 
elaborate analyses . . . The nature of intelligence and the modes of test- 
ing it; the scope and significance of individual differences; the newer meth- 
ods of attacking the higher judging processes in terms of which adjusttnent 
proceeds ; these are included in the survey. 

"Dr. Wells reflects his professional interests in the disqualifications and 
liabilities of the abnormal mind; his training is equally adequate in the 
study of experimental problems among the normal. The work should find 
its place as an aid to the general reader, as a guide to the psychological 
student, whatever his practical interests or professional purpose may be. 
Ideas irregularly scattered through the technical literature are here brought 
together, with much original interpretation, into a consistent whole." — 
(D. Appleon & Co,) 

"White Nights, and Other Russian Impressions" 

"White Nights, and Other Russian Impressions" is a good picture of 
Russia just prior to the Revolution, as pictured by Arthur Ruhl, one of 
the best known American journalists. An example of the impressions that 
is of especial interest is the following: 

"Rodzikanko, the Duma president, like most of the deputies, is a 
landowner — he has enormous estates down in the southern steppe country — 
and on the hot summer afternoon when I was talking with him he was 
thinking, as many of his colleagues were, of the crops and getting home. 

" 'The land won't wait,' he boomed. Tf the crops aren't good, Russia 
suffers. And the army suffers. We must go home soon.' And the political 
earthquake was then only a few months away." 

Nearly thirty full-page pictures from photographs accompany the vivid 
descriptions of scenes and events in Russia. "The Road to Russia" is 
an interesting introductory chapter that gives some sidelights on Norway 
and Sweden. He describes the homecoming of a group of German soldiers 
who had been exchanged from the allies' prison camps. They were spirit- 
less wrecks, most of whom were nearly dead from tuberculosis, besides 
having legs, arms and eyes missing. Among the features of Russian 
war time life described are the events at the front, the Moscow Art theater, 
a look at the Duma, Russia's war prisoners, a Russian cotton king, down 
the Volga to Astrakhan, Volga refugees and Roumania's lesson on the 
meaning of war. 

The narrative is told in the easy style of the well-informed newspaper 
correspondent, with pertinent observations on the meanings of what Mr. 
Ruhl was seeing. Previously to this book, Mr. Ruhl has written 
"Antwerp to Gallipoli," "Second Nights," and "The Other Americans." The 
photographs are partucularly interesting and illuminating. — (Charles 
Scribners' Sons). 

"The Royal Outlaw" 

I am sure humanity has made a big advance, and H. G. Wells' idea of 
a finite God which had nothing to do with "creation" and all that bunk, 
since reading Charles B. Hudson's "The Royal Outlaw," a novel of King 
David during the period when he fled from the insane wrath of Saul and 
lived as an outlaw and exile. It is written on the style of the American 
historical novels so popular a few years ago, and still written by Emerson 
Hough, There is nothing of the mystic awe and reverence in talking of 
this fascinating poet-butcher amorous king of the Jews. His lawless 
gathering of associates, their trips among the enemy countries, their hidings 
in the caves and hills, the love affairs and the battles bring out all of 
their qualities as human beings without Jehovah's whiskers getting mixed 
into the frays. 

The book is historically accurate, and a well-told novel. Romance and 
adventure blend in a stirring tale, coming from the lips of Old Alian o* the 
Wood, David's veteran man-at-arms. Alian was a robber, who abandoned 
his profession to cast his lot with the exiled king and became one of his 
chief counselors. Alian furnishes a good part of the humor, which relieves 
the strain of many fights. (E. P. Dutton & Co.) 

The Western Comrade 


Page twenty-one 

To the Ideal ByPr. John Dequer 

I love you in pain and in sorrow, 

I love you in v^eakness and might, 
I love you in evening and morrow, 

I love you through darkness and light ; 
For my love from the heart, like a fountain. 

Flows in perpetual streams; 
My love is as vast as the mountains. 

For you, the source of my dreams. 

For me, your eyes gleam with a fire 
That fills all the heavens with song; 

For your voice doth ambition inspire. 

To build beauty from a strife-sick throng — 

For those who are weary and laden. 
For those who are seeking the rest. 

Fulfillment of promise of Aiden 
I find, when asleep on your breast. 

And I build, and teach and grow stronger. 

When I think of the soul I adore; 
And I wish that the sun would shine longer. 

And the darkness of night I deplore. 
For my spirit soars high like a lark — 

A lark whose heart-throbs are song; 
When I see you smile from your pillow, 

I feel that in weakness I'm strong. 

As the clover the bee calls to labor. 

As the spring calls the bird to its nest. 
As atoms call to their neighbors. 

As play calls the child to its rest: 
Your life calls my spirit to motion. 

Like a mighty, redeeming machine; 
You're my prayer, my song, my devotion. 

My Saint, my God and my dream. 

The keystone to all of my arches. 
As in either your heart or your face; 
In the music of soul-stirring marches. 

In the swirl and jam of life's race, 
I hold you, the crown of my power. 

The hope and the joy of the strife; 
You're my shield, my sword and my tower- 

The pulse and strength of my life. 

I may win or lose in the striving, 

I may fail and rise up again; 
I may sink, and the billows, fast driving. 

May strand me with heartache and pain : 
But no matter what fate may befall me. 

As long as your hand, from the shore, 
Will beckon sweetly, and call me, 

I will live for the soul I adore. 

A Workingman's Soliloquy Byciinton Bancroft 

I am the blind giant. 

I am a part of the incomprehensible mind of the universe. 

I am the man who first conceived the plow. 

My hands fashioned its rude shear of wood and with it 

turned the soil. 
I raise the grain that feeds the armies of the world. 

And I walk to and fro throughout the land seeking 
a master. 

The Master rubs the Lamp. 

I build factories and mills and palaces for him. 

My children toil and sweat in his service; we live in a hut. 

I delve deep in the earth and mine the coal and iron that 

give mankind dominion over brutes. 
I build roads of stone and steel, and bridge the torrents and 

chasms that divide the mountains. 
I build great ships and sail them o'er the seas, then bring 

them safely into port laden with treasure and meekly 

lay it at the master's feet. 
Without my loyalty to mastership, ignorance and poverty 

would vanish from the earth. 
And still I feel the goad 
Of human needs and bend beneath my load. 

The master rubs the Ring. 

I fight the battles of the king. 

At his command, I wound and slay my fellow worker with- 
out cause. 

I dive beneath the waters of the sea to sink and destroy 

that which I have built. 
From the clouds above, I hurl thunderbolts of fire and 

death upon the children of the land for hire. 
Sated with scenes of cfirnage and suffering the torments 

of the damned, 
I envy the felon his prison life and easy death. 
I am a creature who feels 
Upon his neck the crush of iron heels. 

The zephyr is my pathway to the skies; 

I ride among the clouds and mount above the storm. 

The fabled powers of Jove are mine; in my hands — Death, 

to dispense, to withhold. 
The lightning is my messenger. 
I speak across continents and seas with tongue of fire and 

herald the Pentecost of war. 
Listen! a message to you, Fellow Workingman: 
"Thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground." 
Listen! a message to you, King: 
"Thou Shalt not kill!" 
And above the awful raging of the storm of war and battle, 

I hear a voice saying: 
"Peace, be still." — -'Tis my soul, crying peace! 

And when I speak the word, war shall forever cease. 

The scales are falling from my eyes; 
I think I see a light arise. 

Page twenty-two 

Fives of Love (Continued from page 15) 

How fitting a symbol it is of the love of the God of die 
Universe! For it lifts our hearts above the mundanity of 
earth to a plane where we sense a kinship with the Infinite. 
This star typifies aU the greatness of Nature for us, and in 
loving this one star, we also love the intangible, elusive, yet 
all-pervading God of Life. 


You remember how in ages past the Romans kept burning 
in the temple of Vesta a fire diat was never allowed to die. 
It was fed by maidens, and if they violated their vows of vir- 
ginity, never again might they tend the sacred flame. Every 
true Roman worshipped at the altar of Vesta, who typified in 
a larger sense the union of the nation. And every Roman knew 
that the sacred flame was ever burning, although he did not 
constandy make the oifering before the temple. 

I like to think of such a fire as representing the love of 
friendship — the REAL friendship that lasts, that never wavers 
in constancy. Only he whose life is pure can hope to receive 
from service at friendship's shrine the helpful mental stimulus, 
the understanding sympathy, the warm love and exaltation of 
spirit; and only he who will sacrifice can reach the heights to 
which these experiences can take him. 

How dear to friends is the thought that though they may not 
always bring offerings to the altar and be worshipping with a 
heart as humble as the bended knee, the sacred flame of 
friendship is burning still the same, fed by the purity, the 
loyalty, and the sincerity of the lives of those who minister 
unto it. 


When the Infinite breathed into us the fire of life, we were 
given a spark of the fires of loves, as well as the beginnings 
of hatred and strife. Our whole being, then, wkh its activities, 
is a blend of the various fires of life. If we develop our 
bodies, our minds, our spirits with conscientious care, and 
keep them so unified as to evolve for us the highest efficiency 
for the use of ourselves and humanity, our lives wW be living 
fires of love. 

And so, can not we who see and feel the beauty of these 
fires of loves, try to make our lives as bright, as beautiful, 
as pure as the fiery flames and the love they symbolize? 

Unfair District Representation 

(Continued from page 9) 

Democrats, polling 54,242 votes, however, elected twice as 
many, i. e., four when they were entitled to only three. A 
little combination of Democrats, Progressives and a few Social- 
ists, numbering only 7,944 elected one Senator; but neither 
19,053 Democrats and Progressives nor 19,250 straight Social- 
ists could get any Senatorial representation whatever. 

In the Assembly the unjust district system fairly outdid 
itself in disfranchizing Democrats. 224,476 Democratic voters 
succeeded in electing only nine Assemblymen when proportion- 
ally they should have had twenty-two. A combination of 
39,694 Republicans and Democrats, less than one-fifth the 
number of straight Democrats, elected only one less Assembly- 
man, eight as against nine. Another combination of Republi- 
cans Democrats and Progressives, comprising 69,956, elected 
1 Assemblymen. That is, a group less than one-third as strong 
numerically as the straight Democrats, elected one more 

The Western Comrade 

member of the Assembly than those seime Democrats. Again. 
7,097 voters of various faiths combined to elect one Assembly- 
man, but 56,751 Socialists got no representation. 

When we turn to Congressmen we find that the Progressives 
get a rough deal, for 31,181 of them are denied a voice and 
vote at Washington, while only 30,042 Democrats with a 
sprinkling of Socialists elect one member. Republicans, Dem- 
ocrats and Progressives to the number of 58,826 elect a 
Representative, but 60,797 Socialists remain unrepresented. 
Comparatively speaking both Republicans and Democrats suf- 
fer from an utterly illogical combination in National politics 
of Republicans and Democrats, for 109,992 Republican Demo- 
crats elect two Congressmen, while nearly twice as many 
straight Democrats elect only three, and nearly three times as 
many straight Republicans elect only four Representatives. 

The figures which I have cited show conclusively that under 
the district system there is no certain relation between votes 
and representation. The fact as to whether the majority rules 
or not is left to the utterly hap-hazard grouping of the num- 
erous districts. As a matter of fact in many instances the 
minority controls the legislature and the majority is left im- 
potent. The actual weight of any vote is a matter of purest 
chance. Unjust, inequitable, misrepresentative, the district 
system of election must go. 

Llano Getting on the Map 

(Continued from page 7) 

once, and as a result, one of the most artistic affairs in the 
history of Llano was consummated. 

The Assembly Hall was arranged to represent a church. An 
aisle was arranged from the double doors down to the plat- 
form where the ceremony was performed, and prettily enclosed 
by white ribbons running on white ptosis ornamented with pink 
roses and greenery. The aisle was outlined overhead with 
wedding bells, decorated with roses and pink ribbons and 
ending with a large bell of the same description. The electric 
lights were veiled in pink and white. Carnations and sweet 
peas abounded on the walls and ceiling. 

The wedding ceremony was perfomed by Rev. Louis A. Pier 
and was an impressive ring service, the charm and loveliness 
of which is difficult to describe. 

The orchestra played the celebrated Lohengrin 
march as the wedding procession marched slowly up the aisle. 

When the ceremony was over a reception was held at which 
refreshments were served. 

My object in repeating the description of the waddmg is 
to point out some of the advantages of a co-operative com- 
munity. Had this event with its dehghtful arrangements, its 
beautiful decorations, and its impressive music by a twelve- 
piece orchestra, been held in any other city or village, it would 
not have cost less than $500. The cost here was insignificant. 
The services of those engaged in making the ceremony the 
success it was, was enltirely gratuitous and gladly given. 

Llano is three years old. It has a record of achievement. 
Many will come and some will go, but always many more 
will come than those that will go. Those who stay, overlook- 
ing for the time the few ofttimes annoying inconveniences, 
will be the inheritors of the labors of those who have con- 
tributed to make Llano what it is today and is going to be in 
the future. 

Llano, with its industrial and psychological problems, is a 
mecca to which thousands will come and from which vfiW be 
marked the program ithat pointed the way out of the 

The Western Comrade 

Page twenty-three 

This Man Won a Membership 

in the Llano Colony 

by Securing Subscriptions to the 


Here are some Winners in the Fir^ $2000 
Grand Membership Circulation Conte^ 

EWALD SANDNER, Illinois, won the Membership in the Llano del Rio Colony. 

Others who won Llano stock in the contest 

GEORGE TRUST, Washington. 

The SECOND Grand Membership Circu- 
lation Contest is now on. Most of those who 
won premiums in the first contest won them 
with absurdly low numbers of subscnptions 
turned in. Enter at once and win in the new 

EWALD SMDNER lives in Illinois. He 
worked industriously in the First Grand 
Membership Circulation Contest cind soon 
obtained the lead, which he retained 
throughout the entire contest. 

Join Our New Conte^ Now 

Llano Publications 

Conte^ Department - - - Llano, Calif. 

Reduced Freight Rates 

on Shipments of 

Household Goods 

from all Easlem pointi 

to California 

Members of the Llano del Rio Colony will find it especially 
advantageous to make their shipments through the 

JUDSON Freight Forwarding Co. 

443 Marquette bldg, Chicago; 324 Whitehall bidg. New York; 
640 Old South bldg, Boston: 435 Oliver bldg. Pittsburg; 1537 
Boatmen's Bank bldg, St. Louis; 518 Central bldg, Los Angeles; 
855 Monadnock bldg, San Francisco. WRITE NEAREST OFFICE. 

at the People's Library, 2079 Sutter street, and at 1350 Fillmore street. 

What Are You Good For? 

Did you ever try to find out? 

Are you employed at work for which you are best fitted? 

Do you KNOW or are you GUESSING? 

Your children — what will you advise them to do? 

The science of Character Analysis will answer the questions you have 
asked yourself. It is not fortune telling. It is not guess work. It tells you 
what you are fitted for and gives you the reasons. It tells you why 
you have not succeded in what you have attempted and will show you in 
which lines you can hope to succeed. 

An analysis of yourself will cost you something and it is worth many 
times what it costs; but information about it — that is free. Just write: 
"Send me free information about Character Analysis and Vocational Fit- 
ness." Write your name and address very plainly. Send it to: 
P. 0. Box 153, Uano, California 


Rates: 25c a line for one insertion; 15c a line thereafter, 
to the line. Advertising payable in advance. 

Twelve words 

"Tf4E NEW EARTH." Ocean beds become vast fertile plains. 
Earth watered from within; even deserts bloom. Deductions solidly based 
upon divine laws. Fifty cents, no stamps. Cross Publishing House, 
Nuevitas. Cuba. JJA 


Renush Giants. We can supply all ages up to eight months. For farther 
iaformation address Rabbit Deparknent, Llano del Ri« Colony, Ii«n«, Cal. 

Llano Job Printing 

The Llano del Rio Printing and Publishing Department is now 
equipped to handle job printing. 

Cards, leaflets, booklets, stationery, etc., will be handled in a 
satisfactory manner, and at prices which will compare more than 
favorably with those found elsewhere. 

All work will be given the union label unless otherwise re- 
quested. Every employee is a Socialist and a union man. 
The Llano Publications, Llano, California. 


Walter Thomas Mills 

Is Now Associated with the Llano del Rio Colony 

Comrade Mills is known to every Socialist and radical in the United States, and 
is also widely known in Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Australia. He has 
been an active worker for many years as a speaker and writer. He has been identified 
with co-operative efforts of various kinds. After watching the Llano del Rio Co-operative 
Colony for three years, studying it closely, and realizing the certainty of its success he 
has identified himself with it as BEING THE LIVEST AND MOST CONSTRUCTIVE 
is what he says: 

"For Every Job in The United States 

Someone Has Invested, in Something, $10,000 

This is the average cost of a job in this counitry. But if you buy your own job even 
at this price you would escape exploitation only at one point. You would still be rob- 
bed everywhere else just the same. 

"You can own your job at Llano, Los Angeles county, California, in the most 
productive county in America, have you own house with the best of schools, free med- 
ical aid and hospital care, with the best social life, and so become your own employer, 
have for yourself your total products with a million dollar working plant co-operative- 
ly manned and managed, covering twenty lines of industry, and so escape exploita- 
tion at twenty points instead of one and that where no boss or trust can rob you of the 
means of life." 

Comrade Mills is going to lecture on "Co-operation in Action" with particular ref- 
erence to the Llano Colony. 

The Western Comrade 

Will carry a Leading Article Each Month from the pen of Comrade Mills. 
Watch also for the 




And Many Other Instructive Features 

The Second Grand Membership Circulation Contest 
Is Now On-— Earn a Membership 

Write at Once for further Information: Contest Department — 

The Llano Publications, Llano, California 


'Zor ED TO Tf7r~EKUi^ '^^^~ p7P 


:^ K\ 

^^ Wester^ ^2^^^ 

September, 1917 

Price Ten Cents 


Page Page 

Editorials by Job Harriman 3 Co-operation in Russia 14 

Llano's Assets 8 Co-operative Banking by Clinton Bancroft 16 

The Wreck (Story) by Ethel Winger . . 10 Evening Thoughts by Dr. John Dequer , 17 

Was Schmidt Guilty? 12 Terms of Peace by Ida Crouch-Hazlett . 20 

The Gateway To Freedom 

Through Co-operative Action 

the beautiful Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of 
Los Angeles County, Southern California. This plain lies 
between the San Gabriel spur of the Sierra Madres on the south 
and the Tehachapi range on the north. The Colony is on the north 
slope of the San Gabriel range. It is almost midway between 
Palmdale, on the Southern Pacific, and Victorville, on the Santa 
Fe railroad. 

The Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony is made up of persons 
who believe in the application of the principles ' of co-operation 
to the widest possible extent. Virtually all of the residents are 
Socialists. It is a practical and convincing answer to those who 
have scoffed at Socialist principles, who have said that "it won't 
work," who have urged many fallacious arguments. In the three 
years since it was established, the Colony has demonstrated thor- 
oughly the soundness of its plan of operation and its theory. To- 
day it is stronger than ever before in its history. 


The Llano del Rio Colony is the greatest Community enterprise 
ever attempted. It was founded by Job Harriman, May 1st. 1914, 
and is solving the problem of disemployment and business failure. 
It offers a way to provide for the future welfare of the workers 
and their families. 

The Llano del Rio Colony is a horticultural, agricultural, and 
stock-raising enterprise, with such manufacturing as will supply the 
needs of the colonists, with perhaps something to sell when the 
Colony has grown. 

It is a perfect example of Co-operation in Action. No community 
organized as it is, was ever established before. 

The purpose is to solve the problem of unemployment by provid- 
ing steady employment for the workers; to assure safety and com- 
fort for the future and for old age; to guarantee education for the 
children in the best schools; and to provide a social life amid sur- 
roundings better than can be found in the competitive world. 

It has more than 800 residents, making it the largest town in the 
Antelope Valley. More than 200 children attend the schools. The 
Montessori school is in operation, taking the children from IY2 to 
6 years of age. A new school building is soon to be built. 

The Colony owns a fine herd of splendid dairy cattle, 100 head 
of young stock are on the range, being heifers and calves up 
to 2 years of age. Over 100 head of horses and mules, in- 
cluding colts, are owned by the Colony. These, with two tractors 
and caterpillar engine, four trucks, and numerous autos, do the 
hauling and the work on the land. 

A recent purchase of Duroc-Jersey sows gives the Colony thirty- 
eight registered high-class breeding sows and 2 splendid boars, the 
nucleus of a great development along this line. Many new pens 
have been built. Registration will be kept up and the raising of 
fine hogs made one of the leading industries. There are also some 
fine Berkshires, and a large number of grade sows. 

The Colony has more than 400 acres of orchards. 

Community gardening is carried on, and an increased acreage 
will be put in each year. 

The ideal is to farm on an extensive scale, using all manner of 
efficient labor saving machinery and methods, with expert and ex- 
perienced men in charge of the different departments. 

Llano possesses more than 668 stands of bees. They are cared 
for by expert bee men of long experience. This department ex- 
pects to have several thousand stands in a few years. 

The Colony has secured timber from the San Gabriel Reserve, 
and has a well equipped sawmill. Lumber worth $35 to $40 a thou- 
sand will cost the Colony only a few dollars a thousand. 

Social life is delightful. A band, several orchestras, a dramatic 
club, and other organizations assist in making the social occasions 

Alfalfa does extraordinarily well at Llano. Much has been plant- 
ed and the acreage will be increased as rapidly as possible. Six 
good cuttings a season can be depended on. Ditches lined with 

cobblestone set in Llano lime, making them permanent, conserve 
water and insure economy. 


Among the industries of Llano, to which new ones are con- 
stantly being added, are: Printshop, shoe shop, laundry, cannery, 
warehouse, machine shop, blacksmith shop, planing mill, lime kiln, 
saw mill, dairy, cabinet shop, alfalfa, orchards, rabbitry, gardens, 
hog raising, stage, lumbering, magazine, newspaper, doctor's offices, 
woodyard, vinegar works, bakery, fish hatchery, barber shop, 
baths, swimming pool, studios, hotel, drafting room, post office, 
commissary, camping ground, granunar school, Montessori school, 
library, two weekly dances, brass band, orchestra, socialist local, 
and others. 


Many persons who want to know how the affairs of the 
Llano del Rio Community are conducted think, in order to get 
this information, they must secure a copy of a constitution 
and by-laws. There is no constitution. The Llano del Rio Com- 
munity contents itself with a "declaration of principles" which is 
printed below. The business and fincuicial affairs of the enter- 
prise are conducted by the board of directors who are elected by 
the stockholders. The corporation by-laws are the stereotyped cor- 
poration by-laws of almost every state. The only innovation is in 
the restricting of anyone from voting more than 2000 shares of 
stock, regardless of how many shares are held. As this is to be 
the ultimate holding of every member, this is considered a strong 
protective clause. The incorporation charter is also the usual type 
and gives the corporation the right to transact almost all manner 
of business. The Nevada corporation laws are liberal, safe, and 
well construed. There is no disposition on the pari of state 
officials to interfere. 


In conducting the affairs of the Llano del F^o Community it 
has been found that the fewer inflexible rules and regulations 
the greater the harmony. Instead of an elaborate constitution 
and a set of laws the colonists have a Declaration of Principles 
and they live up to the spirit of them. The declaration follows : 

Things which are used productively must be owned collectively. 

The rights of the Community shall be paramount over those of 
any individual. 

Liberty of action is only permissible when it does not restrict 
the liberty of another. 

Law is a restriction of liberty and is only just when operating 
for the benefit of the Community at large. 

Values created by the Community shall be vested In the Com- 
munity alone. 

The individual is not justly entitled to more land than is suffi- 
cient to satisfy a reasonable desire for peace and rest. Productive 
land held for profit shall not be held by private ownership. 

Talent and intelligence are glfls which should rightly be used 
In the service of others. The development of these by education 
is the gift of the Community to the individual, and the exercise of 
greater ability entitles none to the false rewards of greater pos- 
sessions, but only to the joy of greater service to others. 

Only by identifying his interests and pleasures with those of 
others can man find real happiness. 

The duty of the individual to the Community is to develop ability 
to the greatest degree possible by availing himself of all educational 
faciUties and to devote the whole extent of that ability to the 
service of all. 

The duty of the Community to the individual is to administer 
justice, to eliminate greed and selfishness, to educate all and to aid 
any in time of age or misfortune. 


Llano Publications, Llano, California 

P o 1 i t 



Direct Action 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Caase of tke Workeri 

Entered as second-class matter November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, tmder Act of March 3, 1879. 

JOB HARRIMAN Managing Editor. •■^^ ^ ERNEST S. WOOSTER Business Manager 

Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies 10c; clubs of 4 or mora (in U. S.) 50c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so slated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

VOL. V. 


No. 5 

Editorials By job Harrlman 

THE International News Service is authority for the state- 
ment that Germany now has 6,000,000 trained soldiers 
in uniform. 

The American Review of Reviews is authority for the 
statement that it will require one year for the United States 
to place only 600,000 men in Europe; a period of ten years 
for the United States to become militarized as Germany now 
is; that the German military machine can stand upon the de- 
fensive and grind up human fodder for the next 25 years. 

If this is true, Germany cannot be conquered by force 
of arms. 

ANY force that will overthrow the German crown is largely 
within Germany. That power centers in the Reichstag. 
The Socialists and Liberals have combined. Hindenburg and 
Scheidemann have locked horns. Bethman-Hollweg listened 
to Scheidemann and went dovm. Chancellor Michaelis is 
now listening to Scheidemann and will likewise go down. 
Hindenburg will not listen and Hindenburg will go down, 
dragging the Kaiser and his crown with him. 

The Hindenburg-Scheidemann controversy arose over the 
plan of campaign in the East. 

Hindenburg proposed to cross the Hills of Fodelia, pass 
through the grain fields of Befssarabia to Odessa, and thus 
reach the heart of Russia. 

All the military authorities are agreed upon this policy. 
If carried out, Russia would probably fall victim to German 
arms. The military chieftains must insist that when Germany 
failed to strike at this point last spring she overlooked the 
best bet that history ever offered to an army or nation. 

On the eve of the Russian Revolution Hindenburg said, 

Scheidemann said, NEITHER NOW NOR NEVER! 

Such a course means to Scheidemann the betrayal of 
the new Russia and the destrution of all the fruits, past and 
prospective, of the Russian Revolution. 

If the crown adopts the policy of Hindenburg, a social 

revolution in Germany Is imminent. If his policy is turned 
down, Hindenburg with his military machine will resign and 
the crown will be vnthout a staff. 

The German people will then join hands with the Russian 
people and state their terms of peace. 

But the British GOVERNMENT will not yet be ready to 
state HER terms of peace. 

SHE is fighting for DEMOCRACY. 

THE Literary Digest is now self-appointed censor of the 
editorial columns of the American press. She has 
reviewed the editorials so long that her critical faculties have 
developed into such an over-weening egoism that she feels 
competent not only to criticise, but also to determine the 
editorial policy of the press. 

She is calling upon all her readers to forward to her Solon 
all editorials that do not measure up to the high standard of 
popular passion, ignorance, and superstition. She promises 
upon receipt of the same to forward all such to the govern- 
menit with full direction so as to what steps the government 
would take in dealing out the proper punishments. 

Even a suggestion of press censorship breeds hybrids of 
Strange and unnatural form. 

How devilish a self-appointed, uncalled-for sleuth must 

The very spirit of it is enough to curdle the blood. 

Made mad vrith much learning she is sinking her poisoned 
fangs, rattler-like, into her own flesh. 

The field of brilliant and original editorials, hers for years, 
furnished a rich pasture to the "Digest," which it now seeks 
to destroy in the name of Democracy. 

The "Digest" has been living a dual and deceitful life. It 
professes Democracy but lives Autocracy. The blood of 
Autocracy that courses its veins makes putrid upon its lips 
the word Democracy. 

word in diabolical treason to our FREE and democratic in- 

Page four 


The Western Comrade 

THE American Review of Reviews says: "England has 
probably 3,000,000 fairly well trained men in her re- 
serve camps at home." 

We are shipping scores of thousands of our young, un- 
trained men direct to the trenches to be slaughtered while 
the trained English soldier stands by and looks on. 

What fools we mortals be! 

American Soldiers, if sent abroad at all, should be sent 
to the English camps to be trained and not one of them 
should be permitted to go to the trenches until every trained 
English soldier shall have gone before. 

This is England's and Germany's fight for commercial su- 
premacy and they should bear the brunt of the battle. If 
we exhaust ourselves to win the war while England holds 
back her 3,000,000 trained soldiers, she will have sufficient 
power to force her terms of peace. 

She tried that game upon us during the revolutionary 
war, and also during the civil war. Can it be said that her 
conscience will stand in her way today? 

Is she not demanding 1 ,000,000 square miles of German 
Colonial Territory? Will she change her mind if she con- 
serves her forces while we exhaust ours by winning her victory 
for her? 

Not one American to the trenches until England's 3,000,000 
reserves first have gone; this should be the battle cry. 

THE difficulty of coping with the capitalist, backed by 
the political power of the state, brought many laboring 
men to a realization of the fact that there was a fundamental 
weakness in their position. This consciousness of their weak- 
ness has caused some to adopt the political theory in addition 
to the economic, while others have lost hope and with many 
of the former socialists are abandoning both the old economic 
organization and political views, and are drifting into the 
belief that individual direct action, sabotage, and syndicalism 
offer the solution to the labor problem. 

Out of the separation of the economic and political organ- 
izations and the failure of organized labor to function politic- 
ally has sprung a weakness that begets an abandoned hope, 
that always leads to open warfare. 

Whenever a nation abandons all hope of peaceably solving 
any great and pressing social problem, then all the elements 
of civil war are present. 

So, also, whenever any class or any portion of a class 
abandons hope of a peaceful solution of the problems that 
beset them, they, too, are ready for open war. 

As long as organized labor fails to use its political power 
as a class, it will possess little social power and will be unable 
to direct the legislatures, and hence the courts, and the military 

The weakness arising from this failure is laying the founda- 
tion for a new labor movement which is taking the form of 
Syndicalism in America. 

These syndicalists stand between the economic and political 

organization, the A. F. of L. and the Socialist party, and draw 
alike from each. 

There is but one means by which this tendency can be 
checked and that is by establishing complete political unity 
between the economic and the political organizations. Out 
of this unity will spring great power — power on both the 
economic and the political fields. By this unity legislatures 
and judges can be elected, laws enacted and construed, 
and the military force directed. The power springing from 
such united action of the working class will give rise to and 
sustain an abiding hope, for hope always abides in the bosom 
of the man or class that has power to act. 

Out of such union and such hope a constructive program 
would spring and be rapidly enforced. This is growth. 

If, however, the syndicalist movement should survive we 
would be brought face to face with the necessity of another 
adjustment. Whether we believe in individual direct action 
or sabotage or syndicalism in its highest form, yet the workers 
will meet with the army and navy, and be compelled to turn 
to parliament for a minimum wage or work day, or some 
other law, as has been done in England. This fact will give 
rise to the theory of political action among the syndicalists 
themselves, which they will either adopt or upon which they 
will divide. 

Ultimately the power of working class will mobilize politic- 
ally and economically, if not intelligently — then blindly — be- 
cause the greatest efficiency lies in such mobilization. The 
process is rapidly proceeding, as the small property owners 
are constantly losing their property and dropping from their 
comfortable positions down into the ranks of the struggling, 
teeming millions. 

There they find an abiding place among the swarms of 
workers dependent upon each other. For the first time they 
realize their utter helplessness. Once they thought their su- 
perior advantage was due to their superior intelligence, but 
now they see that it was due to the power stored in the proper- 
ty to which they held title. Having lost their property they now 
perceive that superior intelligence and skill only measure 
the additional wealth or power the possessor must part with 
to his employer. How different the view point: Now their 
hearts sink under the ravages of despair. How futile and 
helpless their sordid egotism in this hour of need! How 
insignificant they now appear, seeing themselves as others 
see them! Realizing their weakness they turn to labor for 
help, fully realizing that they will receive far more than is 
in their power to give, but also as they give so will they 

Thus the social passion is born in the heart and brain of 
these new arrivals as they adopt the view point of the worker 
and feel and perceive the suffering that follows in the trail 
of the oppressor. 

What a remarkable altruism that gives more to each than 
each can return and yet that withholds from him who will 
not give his best! What a natural and wonderful process 
of welding together a great movement! From all to each 

The Western Comrade 



Page fiv 

and each to all. Human life first, property second. In their 
eyes property possesses virtues only in proportion as it min- 
isters to the welfare of humanity. It becomes a vice when 
it becomes a burden. To the workers it is now a burden. 
Their lives are being drained to the dregs, into property for 
others. Abolish the vice by abolishing the burden. To con- 
serve the energy of each to himself is the common necessity. 
To part with his energy for the benefit of others is the common 
protest. Common ownership of all the reservoirs into which 
our lives are being drained is the world cry of the workers. 
To these reservoirs each shall contribute, from them each 
shall draw, to the end that the energy of each shall be con- 
served to him, and his comfort, well-being and unfoldment 
made safe and secure. What an object for conquest! What 
elements for a new civilization! What a sea of living, surg- 
ing, organizing human power, ever swelling with its billows, 
ever becoming more and more tempestuous, until the tyran- 
nical, heartless ship of state, now triumphantly sailing thereon, 
will finally reel, its hulk will break, and it will be swallowed 
in the social deep, leaving behind it, at least for a while, 
untroubled hearts, bound together by a common interest, 
happy in their peace and good will. And thus will a working 
class socialist state arise and thrive on the elements produced 
by capitalism. 

THE days of conscription are only beginning. Tlie young 
men first, the middle aged next. Then, later, the older 
men will be conscripted into industrial service. Still later, 
property will be conscripted. 

One would have thought that after centuries of Christian 
teaching, human life would have been considered more sacred 
than property. But alas! property has been conserved by 
the strong arm of Senate and the lobbying force who are 
working in behalf of the money powers and "democracy!" 
That democracy which sacrifices human life to save property 
is a strange critter. 

The Democratizing of Property and the Aristocracy of the 
Mob! Not yet — but soon! 

o ■ 

ONE man in America has an income of $10,000,000. He 
probably is a married man. The Lord saves such men 
on earth, for the rich shall not enter into the Kingdom of 
Heaven. And would it not be a crying shame to send them 
to hell, especially by way of the trenches? 

THE card house of profits is tumbling. This is the apex 
of the capitalist system. 

This is holy ground upon which governments and popes 
fear to tread. 

Peace is the reverberating echo returning from the con- 
scription of profits. 

What a cry of peace will go up from the lips of plutocracy 
as the law proceeds toward the conscription of profits! 


THE parliament of England has been informed by the 
lawyers of the Crown of England that it is unlawful 
for the subjects of the Crown to confer on terms of peace 
with the subjects of belligerent nations. 
How thoughtful! 

England will not state her terms of peace. No crowned 
head will state its terms of peace. No capitalist government 
can state its terms of peace before the issues of the war are 

Capitalism survives by conquest. Terms of peace can only 
be dictated by the capitalist conquerer after the victory. 

SOCIALISTS are proud, others are ashamed, of their con- 
victions in these war times. 

OF the 12,000,000 men called to the colors in Germany, 
9,000,000 are still in uniform. Germany's navy is as 
strong as it was in 1914. In addition, she has her U-boats. 

We cannot conquer Germany by sending men to France. 
The trenches are a bottomless pit into which we may pour 
all the youth of America, and yet the chasm will yawn for 
more men. 

It is proposed to conquer Germany by way of the air. The 
call is made for 10,000 aeroplanes. 

Let us not underestimate the power of the opposing force. 
The cost of ten thousand machines is not a drop in the bucket. 
Germany will meet them with ten thousand more. Untold 
numbers should be made and the number should be kept secret. 

If this plan of campaign is adopted it should be backed 
up with an endless stream of death-dealing machines as used 
by Germany, and which aroused to the highest pitch of moral 
indignation, England and America. 

COMRADE W. A. Robinson objects to my statements that 
"brute force is suicidal;" that "force is the law of 
death;" and that "love is the law of life." 

He says: "Force is universal and eternal;" that "force 
is both constructive and destructive." All of which is true. 
"Brute force builds our bodies" and "brute force tears them 
down." The latter half of this assertion is correct. Again, 
Comrade Robinson says, "Love, itself, is a force." Most 

Love is the force that spells the harmonies of the universe. 
It is that state of attraction and equilibrium during which 
the chemical processes proceed constructively and cohesively. 

Love is the antithesis of brute force. 

Love is gentle, kindly, upright, truthful, frank, enduring, 
reasonable, patient, forbearing, constructive, sympathetic, re- 
fined and beautiful. 

Brute force is ambitious, tyrannical, hateful, unconscion- 
able, ruthless and destructive. 

These are the meanings as applied to the social terms, 
love and brute force. They are the very antithesis of each 
other. Surely the one is constructive and the other de- 

Page six 

About LI 

The Western Comrade 

Conscription— What It Means to Llano !i^ 

e Manana 

ONSCRIPTION! A new word in the vocabulary of 
American democracy! An innovation in our national 
life that promises to revolutionize social adjustments. 

For the flrslt time we are brought face to face with 

the actual value of men in industry. How the average com- 
munity computes the value of its men and how Llano computes 
their value is quite different. This difference is based on 
their relation to the entire group. 

The seriousness of conscription does not strike home so 
forcibly in the average American comttiunity as it does in 
Llano. As a rule, the average community is completely en- 
veloped in the activities of capitalist industry and the 
manifold manifestations of the capitalist system of industry 
and government that accompany it. Its ideals are the ideals 
of the present order. Its brand of Americanism is the brand 
approved by groups of influential men of approved char- 
acter. Its interpretation of events is the interpretation placed 
upon them by those who are trusted to interpret correctly 
but who oftimes unfortunately fall short of their task. In 
short, the average American community has more or less 
abandoned itself to an apathetic acceptance of things as 
they are. For such a community to give up sons, fathers, 
husbands and sweethearts to the horrors of war is a depriva- 
tion, but does not constitute a calamity. 

The loss of a conscript in the average community is not 
felt poignantly as a community loss; it is felt most often 
as an individual loss. His loss is mourned at best by relatives 
or a few close friends. Then again, the ineyitable daily life 
of the average community is such that in many instances 
persons receive a direct pecuniary benefit from the conscrip- 
tion of others. For instance, in a certain bank the drafting 
of one man may mean that a dozen or several employees in 
that bank will be advanced to higher positions— and will re- 
ceive higher salaries. Here is a prolific source of selfishness 
and mean disregard for the life of another. An employee 
in this bank may have envious eyes on a higher position for 
months, even years. His desire foi advancement may have 
been fanned into a white heat by the knowledge that the 
conscription of his superior is imminent. And on the day of 
the departure of the conscript for war, he may shake hands 
with him sympathetically, express his deepest sorrow at the 
other's misfortune, and yet experience a secret satisfaction 
that the last bar to the goal of financial advancement has been 

let down. 

What a commentary on our civilization! How is it possible 
for the doctrines of the Nazarene to flower in a society wherf- 
the fame of individuals is contingent on the misfortunes of 

In Llano we have the spectacle of several hundred people 
held together not by blood ties, but 'by the inseverable bonds 
of co-operative endeavor. Herd each inhabitant receives the 
same remuneration, the same advantages, the privileges and 
benefits. Here all are straining every effort to contribute 
to the progress of the Colony. Here an injury to one is an 
injury to all. 

The members of the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony 
are members of a big [family. It could not be otherwise. 
Every phase of Llano community life radiates from the com- 
mon interest of all (the people. What affects one must of 
necessity affect them all. No individual can possibly benefit 
from the conscription of another. The loss of a comrade, 
on the contrary, is a direct and quickly-felt loss to him. No 

matter what position one may occupy, no matter what oppor- 
tunities are created for personal aggrandizement by the con- 
scription of a fellow-worker, i no financial benefit can accrue 
to one. The destiny of the Colonists is a common destiny. 
Failure or success in the enterprise is the common concern. 
No matter how ! high in the management of the ranch or in 
any other position of responsibility an individual may get as 
a result of the total loss of a superior, his advancement can- 
not be other than one with hollow and empty meaning. 

Llano is yet a pioneer enterprise. It is but three years 
old. Although its growth is phenomenal for the short time 
in which it has had to develop, still its small army of pro- 
ducers has been built up with much care and difficulty, and 
with a great expenditure of time and money. Experiments 
with referemce to the management of the affairs of the ranch 
have gone on since the very inception of the Colony, and at 
the present time many of the men — young and old^ — who 
hold positions of trust and great importance, are absolutely 
indispensable to the welfare of the enterprise. There are 
men in charge of various industries of the ranch, who alone 
understand that particular work, and who could not be re- 
placed by other Colonists without considerable apprenticeship. 
The loss of these men would entail a serious handicap. 

Recently, word was received from the United States Gov- 
ernment that ten young men, between the ages of 21 and 31, 
had been selected from Llano to appear before the military 
authorities subject to physical I examinaition, and, later, if not 
exempted from military service, to be sent to the battlefields 
of Europe. 

This news came as a Istartling blow to every member of 
the Colony. Although all had realized that Llano could not 
be so foi'tunate? as to be entirely exempt from the visit of 
conscription, still little thought was given to the matter. When 
apprehension became an actuallity, gloom spread like a pall. 

All of the ten young men who were selected to assist the 
Allies in making the world safe 'for democracy are assets to 
the Colony — are young men whose absence, eVen for a short 
time, would seriously impair industrial operations. Their com- 
plete loss would, of course, be' even a greater injury. 

It seems unfair that the community of Llano has never 
been consulted about the matter; has never been asked 
whether she wishes to sacrifice her sons to a cause which 
has not the remotest connection with her prosperity or suc- 
cess. It seems unjust that these young men themselves have 
no voice as to what purpose their lives shall be dedicated. 
But it is useless to protest; it is a waste of breath to denounce; 
it is suicide to revolt or disobey. The huge 'war machine 
which now dominates our country controls everything and 
everybody. We can only deplore the disrespect for the 
sacredness lof human conscience that permeates the patriot- 
ism of our time. 

One of the young men who has been drafted is a mechan- 
ic of exceptional ability. He is an inventive genius. He 
has invented several devices that, when patented and sold, 
promise to bring great returns. His originality and adeptness 
in anything he undertakes has been of incalculable value 
to the Colony. Although, but a very young man, he recently 
took charge of one of the most important departments on the 
ranch, and although confronted with meagre equipment and 
lack of ordqr, has in a short time, brought it to a high state 
of efficiency. At present he is evolving a brilliant plan for the 
• keeping of time for the entire ranch. This scheme, if com- 

The Western Comrade 

About Llano 

Page seven 

plated, will enable one to see on a board in graphic arrange- 
ment precisely the number of workers on the ranch, the de- 
partments in which the/ Jvarious workers are employed, the 
number working in each department, those absent, and so 

Another of (these young men is in charge of the water 
development of the Colony — at this moment, perhaps, the 
most important task with which the Colonists are confronted. 
He is a miner of practical experience, and has been able to 
keep an able crew busy at the tunnel and at the sumps in a 
constant endeavor to increase the flow of water for irrigation 

Fred Allen making a batch of Laundry Soap m the Llano Soap Works. 

Another is in charge of the accounting for the Colony. 
This is another extremely important department, and one 
which requires adaptability and experience, which this young 
man possesses in abundance. As the ranch grows older, the 
work of accounting grows apace, and it is highly nelessary 
to have a man in charge of such work who has been familiar 
with the Colony throughout the previous years of its develop- 

One is in charge of the indispensable work of civil en- 
gineering. The surveying of the lands, jthe laying out of 
the ditches, the laying out of building locations; this is a work 
that must be in competent hands. Llano will need this young 

man to help in building the new city when the time comes 
to start it. 

Another has developed a minor industry to a state of 
efficiency and self-support. Beginning with practically no 
equipment, he is now in position to furnish Llano homes with 
a useful household article on a large scale and obtaining 
additional funds for the Colony by selling his product to 
the outside world. He is also popular for his interest and 
valuable service in stimulating various forms of recreation 
and social amusements. 

The remainder of these; young conscripts are extremely 
useful workers and citizens and would be a credit to any 
community anywhere. They are greatly needed in the 
departments in which they are working and will some day 
be equipped with the knowledge and experience to manage 
different undertakings. 

Llano cannot spare one of these young men. They are 
worth, if their worth can be computed in money, thousands 
of dollars. It is on them and such as they that the success 
of this inspiring co-operative enterprise depends. They are 
enthusiastic pioneers in a work where there are few enough 
who have the vision and nobility of character to take it up. 
Perhaps every community believes that it has young men 
who arejas valuable as ours, but it is hard to convince us of 
Llano that ten young men chosen at random elsewhere would 
measure anywhere near those selected here. 

However, we will not argue the point i about the relative 
worth and character of the young men of Llano and those 
of any other community. But a situation obtains in Llano 
that is far different than that obtaining in any other com- 

There is no doubt but what all of the young men of Llano 
are opposed to the entrance of the United States into the 
European War. Their opposition to war did not originate 
in a fear to enlist in the present one. It originated in the 
philosophy which thoy embrace which is opposed to war on 
principle. They agitated against war and militarism and the 
causes that make for conflict long before the European War 
started. They contributed their hard-earned funds toward 
making successful the war on war. They are all brave and 
have the courage of their convictions. They are neither 
pro-Teuton nor pro-.Ally; they are pro-Humanify and pro- 

Yet Llano is on the verge) of losing these young men. They 
may be taken from her, never to return. A few may return, 
maimed and incapacitated, unfit for productive labor, a curse 
to themselves and objects of pity. 

At this hour more ithan at any other, is Llano impressed 
with the value of men. Never before have her human assets 
been appraised as they are being appraised now. Never 
before has it been brought home with such force that Llano's 
wealth lies not in her material things, not in her orchards, 
livestock, houses, and farming implements, but in her men 
and women. 

As before stated, in the face of the power of the govern- 
ment, we of Llano are helpless. We can only hope that the 
inhumanity of sending men to the front who conscientiously 
object to war will become apparent to the people of the 
nation, and will result in a popular demand for the repeal of 
the draft law. We can only trust that the supreme injustice 
of sending to war those whose convictions against war are as 
strong as those of the exempted Quakers, will show the error 
of conscription. Their consciences are their armor. Violence 
fails in the face of the super-violence of war. But the quiet 
conviction of an honest conscience may save them. 

Page eight 

All out Llano 

The Weitern Comrad' 

What Are Assets ? 


S a range where thousands of head of cattle can be 
pastured most of the year an asset? 

If so, then Llano has an asset worth whatever sum 
-' the cattle which can be marketed each year pay in- 
terest on. The range lying in the floor of the Antelope Valley 
has thousands of acres of grass, rich, nutritious grass. It 
is estimated by conservative men that not less than 3000 cattle 
can be kept there. It is a matter of water for the cattle and 
development of this resource, largely. The price of beef 
is probably never going to be very low again; the range 
should return good results year after year. 

Is a mountain side covered with timber an asset? 
If so, then the lumber possibilities here are worth many 
thousands of dollars. The lumber road built into the moun- 
tains can be used to bring hundreds of thousands of feet 
of lumber into the Colony to be used for building purposes. 
The road is built, the mill installed, the logs cut, the men on 
the job. Lumber was never higher in price. It should be 
possible to sell lumber to neighbors at prices attractive to them 












View from Machine Shop looking toward Llano Hotel. Llano del Rio 
Company offices in foreground. 

and thus bring in cash income, besides having all we need 
for our own purposes. 

Is land that can grow fruit trees which should produce 
from $250 to $1000 an acre an asset? 

A neighboring district, similarly situated and not more than 
10 miles away, specializes in pears. Virtually nothing else 
is produced. The residents are specialists in Barlett Pear 
production. They know market conditions. A kindly climate 
has made it possible to grow pears along the north slope of 
the Sierra Madras that are of unsurpassed quality. 

Pears are not difficult to grow to perfection in this partic- 
ular region. The high prices are due to their keeping pro- 
perties. They are perhaps not to be surpassed for commercial 
purposes anywhere in the United States. Land owned by 
the Llano Colony can grow such pears. The trees do not 
require a great quantity of water when cultivation goes hand 
in hand with irrigation. 

It is quite probable that many thousands of acres of land 
could be put into pears. The lowest estimate made by a most 
conservative person is 5000 acres. Many make their estimate 
much larger. But letting it stand at that, the pear industry 
oifers good prospects. Pear orchards which have begun to 

produce well are valued at $500 to $1000 an acre, sometimes 
more. A nearby orchard is reported to have returned $1000 
an acre this season. Perhaps this is figuring too much. But 
at any rate, the returns are high. Suppose they are only 
half of this amount. Suppose the investment is paying 10 
per cent. Then the value of the land is $5000 an acre. 
However, cutting this down again, it can be seen that with 
all due respect to conservatism, the value of pear lands are 
extraordinarily high. Put your own valuation on them. Put 
it as low as you want, making every allowance you can think 
of. Then take the minimum of 5000 acres which can be 
set to pears, which is again the lowest estimate. The value 
is quite impressive, isn't it. 

Is a town an asset? 

The collective method of conducting industry and farming 
operations naturally makes a common housing center, a town, 
necessary. Instead of scattered homes the tendency is natur- 
ally toward centralization. No matter what sort of town it 
may be, whether it be laid out along old fashioned conserv- 
ative lines, or whether the more highly organized circular 
plan is used, a town is usually considered an asset. It re- 
presents labor. It has value. The houses have cost money. 
The public buildings are worth money. The streets, sewer 
and water systems, lighting — all have a recognized value. 
Contiguous land is enhanced in worth. 

The city of Llano, whenever built, however built, or where- 
ever built, must be an asset. It is an asset on which cash 
can be raised. It can be bonded if necessary. And if it can 
be bonded, then it muit have a value in the eyes of business 

Figure out the prospective value of the Llano Colony to 
suit yourself. Add its ranges with its cattle industry, the 
timber with the lumber industry, the land with the pear in- 
dustry. Then put in the value of the city of Llano. Use 
the most conservative figures. Those given here are very 
conservative. But cut them down again if you like. 

You v«ll be impressed with the value that can be given the 
Llano Colony. This value can be given by labor and capital, 
labor owning the capital. This is not a boost article. It can- 
not be, because the figures are mostly your own and the 
results what you yourself make of them. It is just an outline 
of what can be achieved, with the suggestion implied that 
these results will be secured, and the further suggestion that 
time is an essential element and that quick results are not 
to be thought of. 

No mention has been made of industries, of other farm and 
dairy products, of the many other avenues of profit. Use 
them or not, just as you like. But think of the Llano Colony 
as a place of great resource, at present almost wholly un- 

Think of its assets of men and women who have the de- 
termination to succeed. Think of them applying their labor 
power to develop the resources outlined above. But don't 
expect them to achieve the impossible and to accomplish 
remarkable results at once. Llano has a magnificent future. 
It has a setting that is marvelous. It is a project that is 
economically correct. That it will meet hardships is to be 
expected. But that it will succeed in realizing its high ideals 
is inevitable. Llano is a spot of destiny. 

* * * 

"Of all the agencies which are at work to eleyate those who labor 
with their hands, there is none so promising as the present Co-operative 
niovement." — ^John Stuart Mill. 

The Western Comrade 

Page nine 

Dawn of Humanism With Fire and Sword 

By D. Bobspa 


Dawn first lights the skies. 

Glad sight to prophet-visioned seers. 

Civilization's curse 
Ends tomorrow. 

Ten thousand years of civilization; 

Ten times ten thousand years of human struggle. 

And still a race of slaves! 

Came speech 

In that far primeval dawn, the birth of Democracy on earth 

Giving the hairy tree-dwellers a common knowledge. 

King Privilege 

Throttled the infant Democracy, and began his reign 
with Prometheus* gift of fire. 

Bow and arrow, pottery, the taming of animals, smelting of 

iron — - 
All claimed by Privilege — 
But strengthened the rule of the few over the masses. 

Came written language 
To further bolster special privilege. 
And the voice of dead masters 
Struck terror to hearts of living slaves. 

Through all the ages ran 

The red thread of Revolution 

And the dream of Democracy, 

Whose voice King Privilege could not stifle completely. 

Came Commercialism and Trade, 

Richest fruitage of Civilization, 

Culmination of a thousand milleniums of oppression, 

bearing its inevitable wars and strivings for stolen privileges. 

Comes Humanism, 

When the new world 

Shall forget 

The ten-thousand-year nightmare of Civilization. 

Dark grows the night of Civilization's crazy day 

And darker still shall be this night of horror 

Ere breaks the davm 

(Now visioned by the prophet-few) 

That shall usher in the glad, bright day of 


With fire and sword the men of old 
Laid waste the world; for fame, for gold. 
For pride of power or lust of land. 
The diamond clay, the golden sand. 
The proud flag in new fields unrolled. 

Today another hope we hold. 

The World Flag struggles to unfold. 
Beneath it, nations hand in hand 
Shall lose the hate that once was fanned 
With fire and sword. 

That people, proud and overbold. 

Which outgrown horror has unrolled 
Upon our world to-day, must stand 
Worse punished by the murderer's brand. 

Than all their outrage uncontrolled. 
With fire and sword. 

— Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 

Two Ways To Govern 

By the process of commanding 
Many people act as one. 

Some ruling will 

May hold them still 
Or lift them to the sun. 

If he be wise and great, 

He makes a better state. 
But if he fail, of no avail 
Is all that he has done . . . 

By the power of understanding 
Many people act as one; 
Their common will 
May hold them still 
Or lift them toward the sun. 
As they grow viise and great. 
They make a better state; 
Solid and sure, it shall endure 
Where all that work have done. 

— Charlotte Perkins Gilman. 

Page ten 


The Western Comrade 

The Wreck ^^ ^'^ 

el Winger 

BRIGHT-EYED, bright-cheeked, bright-haired girl 
oaded with unwieldly bundles, stepped from a 
dingy grocery store onto the icy pavement, and 
carefully guided her way through the crowd toward 
the city's nearby tenement districts. Her face was smilingly 
happy, and an anticipating light gleamed in her eyes. In 
living over again the unique manner of making friends with 
the newsboy who sold her the evening paper, and subsequently 
with his dear sister who operated a machine that rolled the 
bandage she used in the hospital, she gave no heed to the 
throng of weary laborers and the wearier men who were 
giving up the day's search for employment. She was only 
conscious of happiness because she had been able to work 
herself into their hearts to the point where she could, without 
offense, get up a little birthday dinner as a surprise for Scrag 
when he came home for supper. She was glad because it 
meant a touch of humanity — because through them she had 
gotten her first inkling of economic conditions, and, in her 
growing interest, had discarded the fashionable "slumming" 
of society days for the real life among the peoples of the ten- 
ements. Her first step, taking training in one of the charity 
hospitals, had also opened a wonderful new outlook on life, 
giving a grateful sense of usefulness in the world's activity. 

She had been surprised at first to find that the people she 
met in her new work was more interesting than her highly- 
educated, polished friends of unquestionable social standing; 
they had lived more closely to life, gaining knowledge in sor- 
row and suffering without losing by cultivation a certain 
human touch. She had been taught to scorn the city's 

"scum" as her mother called it, but the 

moment she met Scrag's sister Minnie 
who looked steadily and clearly from 
quiet gray eyes that somehow made one 
forget the cheap dress, the anemic form 
and the pinched face, she had realized 
that pride can be greater than poverty; 
and finally, when she had penetrat- 
ed the girl's reserve, she was prouder 
of her friendship than of all her successes 
of her last year's debutante season. And 
this evening it was not charity in any 
disguise but solely Nan's own inclination 
that had prompted her to plan a birthday 
supper, complete to cake and candles, 
that would be the most wonderful feast 
Scrag had ever known, outshining the 
Newsboy's Chistmas dinner. 

Obtaining a few hours' leave of ab- 
sence from her hospital duties, she had 
made an excursion to some nearby mark- 
ets, carrying away all she could. Celery 
leaves protuding from a long bundle, 
bags stuffed suggestively, proclaimed the 
nature of her errands. Not even the 
heavy, careworn faces of the laborers 
could repress her enthusiasm. 

Reaching her destination, she carried 
the bundles up two flights of stairs, paus- 
ing a moment at the third. Then she felt 
her way through several turnings of the 
corridor, and stopping to fumble for the 

Orma Johnston, one 
at Llano. She is 
"Llano Colonists." 

key Minnie had given her for the occasion, she opened the 
door and entered. The small room was dark, crowded, but 
neatly clean. There were carefully cut magazine poster cov- 
ers on the walls of which the only other ornaments were 
faded chintz curtains that hid in irregular bulges the family 
wardrobes. A cloth covered box of drawers holding a few 
dilapidated combs, bru.shes and toilet articles, with a dingy 
mirror above, an uneven bed, a small stand and some rickety 
chairs completed the furniture. After removing her wraps. 
Nan took the groceries to the kitchen and began rapid pre- 
parations. She wanted to have everything ready by the 
time Minnie came back from the factory and Scrag returned 
for supper. 

She started the coffee boiling while she opened warm pack- 
ages from the delicatessen shop, and placed celery, bread and 
butter on the table, covering the holes in the white oil-cloth 
with the dishes. 

Her absorption was interrupted by the entrance of Scrag's 
father, who, shuffling wearily out into the kitchen, stopped 
suddenly when he saw her. 

"Good evening, Mr. Williams," Nan began quickly, noting 
his expression of surprise. "Minnie said I might come in and 
get up a little surprise supper for Scrag this evening — for his 
birthday, you know," she added, as his manner had not 

Williams' jaw dropped. It had been a long time since 
he had seen a happy girl preparing a wholesome meal, or 
speaking enthusiastically of surprises. '"Er — I guess it is the 
tenth of January! I had forgotten — one day seems like an- 

other." His voice ended huskily. 

"Sit down and have some coffee while 
we wait," suggested Nan. Eagerly he 
took the steaming cup she offered him, 
and gulped down the contents. He 
watched her closely as she peeled an 
orange, and talked commonplaces. But 
Nan's sympathetic attitude always inspir- 
ed confidence, and he was soon telling 
her of his long search for work since 
the strike. He had always managed to 
find a few odd jobs until lately. Since 
the riot, when Mrs. Williams had been 
killed by a "strike-buster's" bullet, the 
family had owed its support to the scant 
earnings of Minnie, and the nickels Scrag 
made with his papers. The doctor bill 
and the funeral expenses were yet to be 

As she sliced the last orange. Nan felt 
a terrible nausea growing in her. Here 
was John Williams — like many other 
John Williams' in that city — strong 
healthy, kind, goodnatured, with all his 
spirit and initiative long since starved 
out, unable to find even enough work 
to support himself; living in the poor 
wages of a frail daughter and a twelve 
year old son. She thought of a "civiliz- 
ation" that produced such wrecks. What 
would eventually happen to Minnie? 
Would she marry Jim Sullivan, and re- 

of the Entertainers 
attired in shredded 

The Western Comrade 

F i c t 

Page eleven 

ptat her mother's experience as a sickly, ill-nourished wif: 
of a day laborer? Jim was employed in a garage — he might 
work up to a higher place. And Scrag? What would happen 
to Scrag? Scrag whose cheerful optimism and sparkling 
personality twelve years of overwork had not yet been able 
to crush; Would he grow into the dull, spiritless man his 
father was? She called up a picture of Scrag, with his 
irregular face, sad but for the twinkling blue eyes that were 
shadowed by shocks of stiff red scraggly hair that had given 
him his name. She saw him runnuig in and out the throng, 
calling in a penetrating nasal tone — "Evening Gazette, Times, 

Chronicle, — all about the big murder ." Suddenly she 

looked covertly at the father, sitting dejectedly in his chair, 
his face in his hands, his elbows on his knees. Her throat 
choked, and her eyes grew hot. She felt stifled — felt that 
she must get some air. Quickly she arose. 

"Oh, there's something I forgot — I must run back and get it. 
I think I'll be here before Minnie or Scrag return." She 
hastily donned her wraps, and ran through the front door, 
bumping into Minnie who was standing outside. "It ain't 
no use" she heard her say, "it's Jim I like best." In the semi- 
darkness Nan could only discern a man's figure. 

"Oh, hello, Minnie," she said, pretending not to have heard, 
"I was just going back for Scrag's book that I forgot to bring. 
I'll be back before he comes, I think." She ran hurriedly 
down the steps — anywhere to get away fro.m that atmosphere! 

Gaining control of herself in the cold, bracing air, she walk- 
ed rapidly till she came to the corner where Scrag was often 
to be found. Before she saw the familiar ragged brown coat, 
she heard his voice coming: "Evenin' Times, Gazette — all 

about the big wreck "! She waited a moment on the 

corner. Then she caught sight of him as he crossed the street. 
She again marveled at the agility of small boys in general, 
and of Scrag in particular, in passing through crowds and 
traffic. He saw her from the distance and waved. He 
dodged a street-car and gauged the speed of an approaching 
motor accurately. But just as he darted past the huge fender, 
the big car skidded on the slippery pavement. Nan caught a 
glimpse of falling brown corduroy, and flying papers. Her 
heart stopped, her knees weakened, but she managed to push 
through the group that was speedily collecting, and reached 
the inner circle. A chauffeur was lifting a limp brown bundle 
that was becoming red in spots. She clutched the man's arm: 
"Take him to the Hall Street Hospital-I know him-" she said. 
Then she saw that the man was Jim Sullivan. 

"My God! It's Scrag!" he cried. 

Nan pushed him toward the tonneau : "You take care of 
him, I'll drive" and jumping into the chauffeur's seat, she 
grasped the wheel. 

With every muscle she strained, seemingly trying to push 
the car forward. Never had a motor seemed to creep so 
slowly. Never had the streets been so crowded. 

At last they reached the hospital. The resident specialist 
was summoned at once, and she waited breathlessly in her 
wraps while the surgeon, assisted by a clean, capable looking 
interne, made a preliminary examination. 

"A serious case. Both legs lacerated and crushed above 
the knees. Amputation will be necessary. Have his- parents 
been told?" 

"I will send for his father; will you please call a messenger 
while I write a note?" As she went out, the young interne's 
eyes followed her, but she did not notice. 

The emergency nurse was given the care of Scrag, and 
Nan could not see him again that day. She learned later that 
Williams had refused to permit the amputation, and that the 

surgeon was going to wait a day, in the hope that it might not 
be absolutely necessary. 

Several times the following day she stole into Scrag's room. 
His head was turned from the door, and she did not disturb 
him. In the evening, when her work was finished, she tiptoed 
into the spotless blue room. Scrag opened his eyes as she 
ran her fingers through the thick, crisp hair. "Scrag! don't 
you know me?" A smile crossed his face. 

"Miss Nan " was all he could murmur, and his eyes 

closed again. 

She was aroused from her reverie by a nurse, who came 
to call her to the office. There she found the specialist, calm, 
scientific, persuasive; Minnie, crying in a chair .behind which 
awkwardly stood Jim Sullivan; and Scrag's father, shifting 
uneasily in his seat. 

The surgeon acknowledged her entrance. "Mr. Williams 
\vishes to see you," he said. 

"Miss Nan, the doctor says they'll have to cut off his legs 
or he'll die. Will they, now?" he asked piteously, searching 
her face for hope. 

Touched by the confidence in his appeal. Nan could only 
answer: "Dr. Newton knows best; he would not say so unless 
it were necessary, Mr. Williams." 

"But I can't have him a cripple — a cripple" said the father, 
scarcely aloud. 

"But don't you see" began the specialist gently, "that it is 
a question of amputation or death? We want to save him if 
we can." 

"I know" said Williams, choking, "So do I. But that's why — 
why I can't — have it done. Scrag — a cripple!" 

"Mr. Williams, your son's injuries are such that he will die 
unless we amputate tonight. There is no possibility of saving 
his legs ; surely you are not so heartless that you do not want 
your son to live " 

"Stop! for God's sake!" cried the tortured man. "Damn 
you. don't you think I have any feelings? What is Scragg's 
life now? What would it be if he lost both legs? He can't 
make a livin' now, and if you make a cripple of him " 

"But if he dies" — began Newton. 

Williams fumbled at the door knob. "Let him die!" cried 
the old man. "If he dies, he dies once. If he lives, he dies 

a thousand " his voice failed him, and he shut the door; 

he was gone. 

A tense silence held them. All were staring fixedly at the 
door where Williams had disappeared. Suddenly a sob filled 
the room. Nan remembered Minnie. "Come to my room, 
dear." and she drew her away, as the interne followed Mr. 

When Nan returned, she found that the father had been 
persuaded to allow the operation, which would take place that 
evening. She was present, for Scrag asked for Nan to nurse 
him, and the authorities had consented. 

The days following were the hardest she had ever known. 
The emaciated face, the pathetic, pleading eyes of the once 
merry boy haunted her. He became much weaker, and she 
knew his ill-nourished system could not stand the test. One 
evening she sent for the surgeon. "I think we had better 
call his family" she suggested, tremblingly. 

After a while Jim Sullivan, Minnie and her father had come. 
Scrag had grown delirious. Minnie knelt at one side of the 

Dr. Newton felt the boy's pulse. "He's dying," he said. 

Minnie took her brother's hand. "Scrag — Scrag — " she 

(Continued on Page fourteen) 

Page twelv* 

The Western Comrade 

Was Schmidt Guilty? 

[This is (he fifth installment of Comrade Harriman's address in the 
trial of the Los Angeles dynamiting cases.] 

R. SCHMIDT told you that he met a man by the name 
of J. B. Brice at Mrs. Lavin's. That he thought that 
was his real name. That he did not know until 
months later that J. B. Brice was J. B. McNamara. 
That he, Schmidt, was then under his own name. This fact 
is supported by all the witnesses of the state. That he had 
used his own name e^-er since he arrived in the state in 1909. 
That he was under his own name in Corta Madera where he 
worked for seven months receiving five dollars a day for his 
services. That he then went to San Francisco where he re- 
mained for a short time, after which he came to Los Angeles. 
That at all times while he was in Los Angeles he was known 
by the name of Schmidt and by no other name. The State 
produced only one witness to contradict this statement, who 
said she met him in Venice under the name of Perry. She 
was contradicted by three witnesses besides Schmidt him- 
self, who swears that he was never known by and never 
used or traveled under the name of Perry. 

Schmidt then returned to San Francisco and took up his 
abode again at Mrs. Lavins. It was there that Schmidt met 
J. B. Brice. He told you under what circumstances they met. 
He took the stand like a man; he answereid every question 
frankly and without equivocation. We threw the doors wide 
open. We asked him general questions. We made it possible 
for the prosecuting attorney to ask him every conceivable 
question that might, directly or indirectly, throw light upon 
the issue at bar. But you men sat in amazement as you 
watched the maneuverings of the clever attorneys, while they 
were deciding that not one question should be propounded 
to this defendant. They did not dare ask him a question. 
They knew that every question that they could ask would only 
further illuminate the innocence of the defendant. When they 
said "No questions" every one of you was sorely disappointed. 

I say he met J. B. Brice in San Francisco. He did not 
know who he was. Hei thought he was J. B. Brice. There 
is a conflict of testimony as to how these men met. The 
District Attorney told you 'that they did not know to what 
the witness Doctor Ashworth would testify when he took the 
stand. They are accustomeid, as are all attorneys, to calling 
witnesses without first knowing 'what they will say. Mr. 
Keys, with his boasted thirteen years experience as a pro- 
secutor especially, is in the habit of calling witnesses to test- 
ify on matters of importance without knowing what they will 
say. You will remember how often he has so blundered in 
this case. Do j'ou remember whe|n Mr. Keys requested the 
court to take a recess in order that they might talk to one 
of their witnesses who had just arrived; saying they had not 
had an opportunity to confer with him? And do you re- 
member that' the court granted the request? Yet they brought 
the witness Ashworth down from San Francisco, according to 
Mr. Keys, and put him on the stand, and examined him, 
without first confering with him. Mr. Keys told you that 
they did not know what Dr. Ashworth's testimony would be 
when he took the stand. I regret to say that that 'statement 
is not true. 

Mr. Woolwine — "I was fined for saying that to you." 

Mr. Harriman — "No, you were fined for calling me a liar. 
I know how to say it without being fined. I told you the 


Keyes — "We did not know." 

Harriman — "Was he not seen by your men last spring 

in April? Deny it on oath and I will prove you a per- 

Keyes — "Oh, yes, I do noit know, but he was seen." 
Harriman — "He was seen! They did not know! Do 
you remember that Mr. Keyes told you that when a man is 
found to be false in one thing that you should question his 
veracity in all things? Look at him! This is the man who 
professes to be prosecuting, not because he enjoys it, but 
because of his "divine duty." 

Mrs. IngersoU as Burns detective, told them of the Doctor. 
He was a friend of hers. She knew how he could be induced 
to shape his story. He was seen. His story was known. Ah, 
his story was part prepared for him. The District Attorney 
forgot his divine duty when he endeavored to lead you to 
believe he did not know. He 'would deceive you to induce 
you to give more weight than you otherwase would give to 
the Doctor's testimony. Now what are the facts? J. B. Brice 
came with Mrs. IngersoU and Dr. Ashworth to the house of 
Mrs. Lavin when Brice met this defendant for the first time. 
This was the testimony of Mr. Schmidt. We threw the doors 
wide open. We removed every obstacle, and gave to the pro- 
secution an opportunity to ask the defendant any question, 
directly or indirectly bearing upon this case. We said, now 
Mr. Prosecutor here is your chance, see if he can explain 
his whcireabouts, make him contradict himself if you can, 
show him up, tangle him, try if you dare to question an in- 
nocent man. With all their boasted thirteen years of ex- 
perience, and with their imported genious from Indiana, coupl- 
ed with the skill and'accmnen of Woolwine himself, they 
sat dumb as a mule, and silent as the tomb, in fear and tremb- 
ling. "No questions," was their response. 

Let us now turn our attetntion to the description given by 
the various vsatnesses of the man who bought the dynamite 
and his resemblance to this defendant. Summing them up, 
their various statements were about as follows. '"They re- 
semble," or "He resembles him but his hair was sandy," or 
"He was light complected" or "His face was red," or "He was 
shorter," or "He was fleshier," or "His shoulders were broad- 
er," or "His cheekbone was crushed," or "His eye was all 
right," or "He resembles him," yes, he resembles him, so also 
does witness Bryson resemble the man. Indeed he resembles 
the description in height, resembles it in weight, resembles 
in breadth of shoulders, resembles in redness of face, and in 
the drooping eye. Had he been arrested it would have re- 
quired a far more careful and energetic defense on his part 
than it has on the part of this defendant. 

Even though he answers the description given by the various 
witnesses far better than does this defendant yet we do not 
even suggest that he is the guilty party. His cheekbone was 
not crushed in and his hair was not sandy. 

Let us revert to these descriptions more in detail. Upon 
examination you will be forced to the conclusion, by the 
testimony of McCall himself, that this defendant was never 
in the office of the Giant Powder Works in San Francisco or 

It was McCall who said positively that this "defendant is 
the man" who bought the dynamite. It has been five years 
since McCall saw him. He has talked to the prosecuting at- 
torneys and their representatives many times since he saw 
the guilty party five years ago. Doubtless he has been de- 

TKe Western Comrade 

("age thirteen 

scribed many times by the officers of the State in these conver- 
sations and shown to him more than once since his arrest. But 
a mere statement that "this is the man" should be set aside, 
when statements made on oath before the Grand Jury five 
years ago, if they be true, make the present statement false 
and impossible. 

What were the statements? Remember they were made 
five years ago, while the incident was fresh in his mind, while 
the picture was still vivid and before it had been blurred by 
a procession of men involved in similar transactions and be- 
fore he had been talked to by the emissaries of the District 
Attorney's office whose conversations were fraught vsath sug- 
gestions and assurances so misleading, cunning and clever 
in their design. What was the testimony before the Grand 
Jury to which we refer? Here it is. 

Question — "What impressed you most?" 

Answer — "As I remember the man, he had something the 
matter with his left eye. I thought that the bone was broken, 
but I could not see any scar; not that I was suspicious, but 
I just wondered to myself what kind of a smash he could 
have gotten without getting a scar, BUT THE EYE ITSELF 

WTiy did you not have McCall tell that while he was on 
the stand? Was it your divine duty that caused you to con- 
ceal it? 

The fact is, the bone is all right but the eye is not all right. 
It is out and sunken. 

Listen! "I wondered how he could have got such a smash, 
and broken the bone. But the eye was all right." 

Shall this fact be set aside and forgotten? 

The man with an eye that was all right and a broken cheek 
bone, was not this deffendant. 

In the face of this stubborn fact can you believe the mere 
statement of McCall that "this is the man"? 

Mr. Gilmore was also one of the clerks at the office in San 
Francisco where the powder was purchased. He saw the 
same man whom Mr. McCall saw and described. Mr. Keyes 
the divinely inspired prosecutor questioned him while on the 
stand. Yet this "fair" attorney did not ask this witness if 
he could identify his defendant. The defendant was compel- 
led to put him on the stand. What did he say? Listen, and 
let his testimony sink deep into your hearts and minds, for the 
statement he makes confirming the statement of McCall be- 
fore the Grand Jury should be the determining fact in this 
case. These stateiments alone show absolutely and beyond 
the question of a doubt that this defendant is not the man 
that purchased the powder. 

Listen. The fair Mr. Keyes refused to let us cross-examine 
this witness. He denied us the privilege of asking this witness 
if the defendant was the man who purchased the powder. 
He objected on the technical point that it was not cross-ex- 
amination. He did not want the man to state the truth. He 
knew what the truth was and that this man would state it. This 
fair prosecutor whose duty is as profound toward this de- 
fendant as toward the state, would rather hang a man on a 
technicality and gain for himself a reputation, than to let 
him go free upon the truth. 

Upon the objection of Mr. Keyes the witness was excused, 
and as he walked do\vn the. court room toward the exit 
Mr. Kenzie asked the court "is it possible that we will be com- 
pelled to hold this man here two weeks merely for the pur- 
pose of asking him one question?" "No," said the court, 
"bring him back." 

He was then asked if the defendant was the man he saw 
in the office with Mr. McCall. He said, "I saw a man that 
resembled him. That man at the time met with some kind of 

an accident like he had been hit with some instrument that 
fractured the bone, not the eye." Two men saw the same 
man Ave years ago. They described the' same defect in the 
same way, a crushed cheek bone but an eye that was all right. 
The man to whom that eye and that cheek bone belonged was 
not M. A. Schmidt, this defendant. There can be no ques- 
tion of that." 

Question — "He resembled the defendant very much?" 

Answer — "I do not say 'very much'; he resembled him." 

This witness would not even say that the -man resembled 
this defendant very much. 

This defendant's eye is out and sunken, and his cheek 
bone is as sound as a dollar and is as free from blemish as 
is his heart from guilt. Come, Mr. Schmidt, stand before 
them. Let them see for themselves. 

Now let us turn our attention to the Argonaut Hotel con- 
cerning which there has been so much said. 

Who is Mr. Hill? He is the man who had talked to the 
man J. B. Brice. This man Brice occupied a room in the 
Hotel. Mr. Hill was the Hotel clerk. He had talked to Brice. 
He knew him. He had changed him from a single room to 
a double room so that two men could occupy it together. 
They registered at the same time. But the defendant was not 
the man. Hill never saw the defendant before. He is an 
experienced Hotel man. His attention had been called es- 
pecially to Perry. He remembered the conversation. He re- 
membered the details about changing the room. But 
Schmidt's face was a strange one to him. Yet he was trained 
and had an unusually accurate ' memoi-y for faces. Surely 
Schmidt is not the man. 

Now comes a man by the name of Cook. He is a book- 
keeper. He had kept the accounts of the Iron Workers at 
Indianapolis for years. He knew the hand-writing of J. J. 
McNamara and Hockin as well as he knew his own. He saw 
their letters and signatures every day for years. He ident- 
ified their signatures in the registers of various Hotels through- 
out the country. In no case had his identification been ques- 
tioned either by the state or by the government. The Arg- 
onaut Hotel register was placed before him and he swore 
that J. J. McNamara wrote the name J. B. Brice and that 
Hockin wrote the name Perry on the register. 

If his testimony is correct then it proves that Schmidt was 
not there. If it was not correct it proves that experts on 
hand-writing cannot be relied upon. 

It reminds me of the expert who testified in a Pennsylvania 
case, that a certain document was written by a certain person 
with a forward movement of the right arm, when as a matter 
of fact, it was written with a pe!n held with the toes of a man 
who had no arms. 

How easy this question could have been settled once for 
all. The prosecuting attorney could have been demanded 
that Schmidt write the name of F. A. Perry. But they did not 
dare. They knew that he did not write it. We made it pos- 
sible for them to question him concerning every detail con- 
nected with their theory about the Hotel, but they were silent. 
They preferred to rest their case upon the testimony of so 
called expeirts, than to unfold the truth with this defendant. 

The general manager of the hotel who was practically 
always in the lobby never saw the defendant there. Only 
a bell boy claims to have seen him on the day of his de- 
parture. What evidence on which to convict a man! It is 
too preposterous for serious consideration. 

["Was Schmidt Guilty?" began in the IVlay number and will run 
for several months. Back numbers, ten cents a copy.] 

Page fourteen 


The Western Comrade 

Co-operation in Russia 

(From "The Russian Co-operator.") 

HE co-operative movement in Russia penetrates every 
corner of the vast territory of Europe and Asiatic 
Russia. It embraces 40,000 separate co-operative 
units, and 12,000,000 of the empire's' male citizens. 
The strength of the co-operative organization is increasing, 
and the difficulties attendant upon military necessities have 
only served to stir this organization and afford increasing 
mutual confidence and sympathy, broadening the oudook of 
old organizations, giving enlightened purpose to the new, as 
they realize the ever more important part they are assuming 
in the economic life of the nation. 

The Russian co-operative movement is already fifty years 
old but it has now acpuired the strength and vigor of manhood 
under our very eyes. Witiiout exaggeration, it may be asser- 
ted that no other country possesses a co-operative movement 
so broad in scope or affedting so many classes in the economic 

world. 1 1 r- £ 

Conceived and carried out by the people for the benefit of 
the masses, Russian co-operation possesses all the force of 
new and original democratic ideas, the breadth of organiza- 
tion, characteristic business ability and caution in action. At 
present the co-operative movement in Russia is fighting a stern 
battle on behalf of the people against unprecedented high 
prices, and it is making heroic efforts to relieve distress in the 
rural districts. It undertakes the purchase of consumers' re- 
quirements and sells their agricultural produce, both in Russia 
and abroad. It has performed excellent work in providing for 
the needs of the army. Huge supplies have been organized 
by the co-operative movement under the direct auspices of the 
state departments. Its financial position is sound, the turnover 
of all the co-operative organizations approaching 2,000,000,- 
000 rbls. The co-operative organization is a power which has 
to be considered very seriously by the authorities. All this 
has taken place during a period of political oppression and 
in the absence of co-operative legislation. 

In pre-Revolutionary Russia, the co-operative societies were 
the only form of organizations, widely spread among the 
masses. At the same time their membership was chiefly con- 
fined to the peasants, while co-operative societies among the 
working classes were weak and few. The food crisis provoked 
by the war has increased the number of the latter form of 
societies, and there is no doubt that their future growth will 
receive now a powerful stimulus in the free conditions that 
have been set up. This will also be the case with co-operative 
societies in the villages, and the co-operative movement will 
have to play a most important part in the social problems 
which face the New Russia. It becomes thus a matter of the 
greatest urgency to trace the relation between co-operation 
and Socialism, as the political atmosphere is saturated v^fith 
the ideas of the latter. 

Whatever the origin of co-operation may be, it does not 
by itself constitute Socialism, but on the contrary, it is rooted 
in the present capitalist state. Co-operation is an economic 
organization, based on private ownership and aiming at the 
private-economic ad-vantages of its members. In a Socialistic 
state there would be no room and no need for co-operation, 
because the former presupposes the abolition of capitalist 
economy based on exchange. 

Thus co-operation pre-supposes the existence of an econ- 
omic order based on private ownership. However, that does 
not mean that co-operation is but one form of the capitalistic 

state. Differing widely from Socialism, co-operation, at the 
same time, is not the same as capitalism, and its whole object 
is to fight the latter. But it fights it with its own weapons, 
and the end of one must necessarily lead to the extinction of 
the other. 

But, being thus fundamentally different from Socialism, 
co-operation can under certain conditions become a transition 
form towards the latter. This is a view taken by many co- 
operators, and, in this connection, it must not be forgotten 
that co-operation originated from the socialistic ideas of Owen 
and Fourier. These "ideas fell on a capitalist soil and gave 
a peculiar fruit — co-operation." 

Of greater importance than its origin are the tendencies 
shown by co-operation: Does it tend to transform the present 
order into a Socialistic one, or not? 

The tendencies shown by the lines of the development of 
the movement are different in the case of societies recruiting 
their membership amongst peasants or amongst the working 

Co-operation among workmen gravitates towards Socialism 
in the form of collectivism, although by itself it cannot trans- 
form the capitalistic order into a Socialisiic one. On the 
other hand, co-operation among peasants, although radically 
affecting the position of the latter toward the market, does 
not destroy the existing system, but on the contrary, 
strengthens their position in it. 

Such are the limitations, inherent in the very nature of co- 
operation. That, however, will not preclude it from occupy- 
ing a prominent place in the social movement which is now 
spreading in Russia. 

"Therefore, fellow co-operators, go forward towards a 
better future! Forward towards the Kingdom of Labor on 
the basis of fraternity, equality, and liberty!" 

1 ll6 ^VrGCK (Continued from Fage elcvcnj 

He opened his eyes , seeming to recognize her, and smiled. 
Then his lids slowly closed. A frown passed over his face. 
He was speaking under his breath. All strained forward to 

"Extra! Extra! all about the big wreck" — his voice trailed 
off into nothingness. Then his face cleared, and he smiled 
faintly. Minnie's head fell into her arms. 

"Scrag !" she cried. 

For a while nobody stirred. Then, oblivious to all the 
others, Jim raised her gently. "Minnie" he said, "iMinnie, let 
me take care of you now. Let me — " 

For a moment she hung limp in his arms. Then she pushed 
herself back, bracing her hand against his shoulder, and gazed 
into his eyes. 

"Jim," she whispered softly. And then "Jim!" she burst 
out passionately "Jim, would you do all this over again?" 
She motioned toward the bed, including in the gesture the 
bowed, broken figure of her father. 

Nan's eyes followed Minnie's to the face of Scrag. As she 
looked, all the tragedy of his kind seemed to overpower her. 
She staggered to the door. The young interne followed her 
anxiously. In the hall he caught her arm. She lifted piteous- 
tearfilled eyes to his, and saw understanding there, with some- 
thing that made her accept the comfort of his shoulder. "The 
big wreck — the big wreck — " was all she could say. 

The Western Comrade 


Page fifteen 

Co-operation the World Over 

Notes About the Chief Co-operatives Gleaned from Many Sources 

The Goodhue Co-operative Co. 

Our company, the Goocfliue County Co-operative Company, Red Wing. 
Minnesota, was organized in November, 1907, succeeding the Workers' 
Co-operative Mercantile Company. The Workers' Co-operative Company 
was organized in 1904. Its object was to improve conditions for the 
working man. Prices of all commodities were advancing. The merchants 
were well organized and arbitrary, and it was to counteract the effect 
of the merchants association that the first co-operative venture was 
launched. The effort was not a pronounced success from the start. No 
sooner was the co-operative store opened for business, than the "other 
merchants" began a campaign of price-cutting, belittling, and about every 
known method to wreck the new concern, but the men who had organized 
the co-operative were workers and fighters. The "other merchants'* said 
the co-operative would not last three months. They managed to pull 
through a year. By the end of the first year they had got over their 
"stage fright," as it were, and could see a new vision. They got more 
of their fellow workers to jom them. Shares which were at first sold 
for $15.00 \vere now raised to $25.00, and trade picked up. 

Pne first store was located in the west end of the city near the tile 
works for which our city is noted. By 
1907 farmers were becoming interested 
in our store and after much discussion 
and many meetings, it was decided to re- 
organize the company on broader lines, 
increase the capital, and open a store in 
the business district. The services of Mr. 
W. F. Vedder, now of the American Co- 
operative Organization Bureau of Chicago, 
were secured, and when one hundred and 
seventeen subscribers for stock had been 
secured, our present company was or- 
ganized. Shares were sold at $100.00 
each, and each subscriber paid $5.00 for 
membership fee. 

The volume of business for the first year 
amounted to $57,000.00. We have grown 
each year both in membership and volume 
until last year we did a business of over 
$268,000.00. and have about 450 mem- 
bers. We have divided back in interest 
and dividends over $35,000.00 and have 
about $12,000.00 m our reserve fund. 
During the year of 1916 in conjunction 
with the Red Wing Realty Company, a 
subsidiary of our company, we erected a 
beautiful ne\v store building 1 12x1 16. right 
in the heart of the best business district, 
at a cost of approximately $100,000.00 

Up to January 1st. 1917, we handled 
only groceries, shoes and meats. In our new building we are handling 
besides the above, dry goods, ladies' ready-to-wear, men's and boys' 
clothing, hardware and farm machinery, and have space arranged for 
furniture, carpels, rugs, linoleums, etc., as soon as we can gel capital 
to add them, 

Durmg all our efforts, we have had the most bitter opposition of almost 
every interest of our city, especially the retail and financial, until some- 
times those of us who are at the head of the institution wonder if it is 
really worth while. Then again we look at our beautiful home, take 
a big look into the future, gauge it by the record of the past, and try 
to make ourselves believe that even the Lord of Hosts could have little 

GEORGE F. GROSS, Manager. 




a c i f i c 


operative League 

In 1913, in the city of San Francisco, a few far-seeing persons decided 
to combat the high cost of Hving by organizing their buying power. The 
result was the Pacific Co-operative League, in which sure and immediate 
benefits were obtained in co-operative and centralized buying. 

The steady and rapid growth of the Pacific Co-operative League shows 
it to be a permanent concern. Over 1000 members have joined and at 
different points throughout the West and the state of California, strong 
auxiliary clubs, and in some points stores, have been formed. 

The benefits secured through the League are remarkable. A saving of 
10 to 25 per cent in the grocery bill is common, and the saving on goods 
other than groceries is considerable. One club in 1916 saved its members 
$3000.00 on coal alone. Another club reports conservatively that the 
saving was 25 per cent on purchases since affiliation with the Pacific Co- 
operative League. 

The League has the enthusiastic endorsement of many prominent pub- 
licists and is an active member of the International Co-operative Alliance, 
which numbers over 40,000,000 people. — From a letter from E. Ames, 
President, Pacific Co-operative League. 

Goodhue County Co-operative Co. Department Store, Red Wing, Minn. 


effect on the co-operative 



a "q 












a 1 u 




Co-operation supplements economy by organizing the 
wealth. It touches no man's fortune, it seeks no plunder, it causes no 
disturbance in society, it gives no trouble to statesmen, it enters into 
no secret associations; it contemplates no violence; it subverts no order; 
it envies no dignity; it' asks no favor; it keeps no terms with the idle, 
and it will break no faith with the industrious ; it means self-help, self- 
dependence, and such share of the common competence as labor shall 
earn or thought can win, and this it intends to have. — G, J. Holyoake. 

Co-operation in 

The European War has had an invigorating 
movement in Russia. 

The co-operative societies, which now have a membership of more than 
1 1 .000,000 have taken part in organizing public effort for supplying the 
army with food, in careing for refugees and the families of soldiers. 

The co-operative movement in Russia was 50 years old in 1915, the 
first co-operative society having been sanctioned in 1865. In the first 
40 years the progress was slow. In the last 10 years the movement has 
been especially marked, so that today the movement, with a membership 
of 11,299,404 has reached a position which is said to be far ahead of 
that in all the countries of Europe. — The Australian Worker. 

Co-operate ! 

When the prehistoric caveman lived and struggled long ago, 
He was strong for independence as he wondered to and fro. 
If he had a neighbor handy he would tear him Umb from limb. 
And the thought of social meetings never much appealed to him; 
Till one day a wiser caveman — sort of prophet, priest and scribe — 
Pointed out the simple merits of assembling in a tribe. 

"Let us work and fight as brothers, with our strength combined, ' he said, 
"For we've got to get together if we want to get ahead." 

— BERTON BRALEY in Organized Farmer. 

Page sixteen 


The Western Comrade 

Co-operative Banking 

By Clinton Bancroft 

N view of the hostility existing between organized 
labor and organized capital, it is strange that the 
mimbers of labor unions continue to patronize the 
banking institutions which are the very bulwarks of 
that capitalism. Private banks (and by private banks I mean 
all non-co-operative banks) furnish the "sinews of war" to 
the very capitalism engaged in the war upon organized labor; 
and the banks get those sinews of war largely from the de- 
posits of their patrons. So that it may be truthfully said, 
that the laboring people themselves furnish to capitalism the 
means by which their own oppression is wrought by depositing 
their money in exploiting banks which, in turn, loan it to ex- 
ploiting capitalists. 

It is strange that laboring people seem never to have 
thought of that, and stranger still that their leaders have 
never tried to organize these deposits in a way that would have 
helped the people themselves or at least established depos- 
itories where the funds of their people would be safe and at 
the same time free from capitalistic 
manipulation. The working capital of 
banks is not furnished by the large 
depositors. These keep their money 
moving too fast to do the banks much 
good. It is upon the aggregation of 
small deposits that the banks depend 
for their effective capital, and these 
are furnished in the main by produc- 
tive labor, by the working people. If 
the working people should withdraw 
their deposits it would seriously cripple 
the exploiting banks; and if they 
should go further and bank their earn- 
ings with a co-operative institution it 
would be a long stride toward solving 
the labor problem, both by bringing 
capitalism to a sense of its dependence 
upon and subservience to labor, and 
by helping to establish an industrial 
system which, in itself, would largely 

be a solution of that problem. The great mass of laboring 
people do not realize the vast power that lies in the great 
aggregation of their deposits in exploiting banks. Census 
statistics show that deposits in savings banks alone amount in 
round numbers to about five billions of dollars, and as the 
average is only about four hundred and fifty dollars per capita, 
these deposits may be said to belong to the laboring classes or 
to those naturally in close sympathy with them. What amount 
of deposits in other banks belongs to these same classes it 
would be difficult to estimate, but it would undoubtedly reach 
a large sum. The total deposits belonging to producing labor 
must run well up to the seven billion figure. By depositing 
this money in private exploiting banks, the vast industrial 
power which that sum represents is voluntarily placed by 
labor at the disposal of the capitalism of the day which uses 
it to strengthen its own power and destroy the industrial hope 
of the people. 

It is voluntarily placed by labor in the hands of those whose 
sympathies are against it, and whose active opposition will 
always be felt against any labor movement that appears to 
have a chance to succeed. If instead of depositing their sav- 
ings in the banks of their industrial enemies they had organ- 
ized co-operative banks and retained control of this vast 

WHAT do the working 
people do with their 
money? Who gets the use of it 
when they deposit it? Is there 
no way in which they can reap 
the advantage, collectively, of 
the huge sums that are deposited 
by them ? The great mass of the 
laboring people do not realize 
the vast power that lies in tn?. 
great aggregation of their prod- 
ucts in exploiting banks. 

capital to develop industries operated on a plan that recognizes 
the manhood of labor, the history of the last fifty years would 
have been differently written, and the co-operative common- 
wealth would have been fifty years nearer realization. If the 
vast sums of money which labor deposits in capitalistic banks 
should, in a reasonable measure, be turned to the development 
of a new industrial system, the result would be a marvelous 
transformation of the conditions of labor in this country. It 
is strange that organized labor has never attempted to control 
the savings of its own members, and turn the immense advan- 
tages resulting from such collective control back to themselves. 
One reason why organized labor has neglected so p>owerful 
a means of helping along its cause as banking, has been that 
the banking fraternity has for the most part succeeded in 
keeping an outward appearance of neutrality in the contests 
between labor and capital. The attention of the people has 
never been forcibly called to the subtle part which these 
neutrals actually play in the campaigns of capital. Another 
reason, doubtless, was the common- 
ly accepted belief that banking is a 
very complicated and hazardous busi- 
ness; that it requires a very high or- 
der of talent to run it successfully, 
when the fact is that it really requires 
less business ability to conduct a bank 
successfully than almost any other 
business. Integrity, prudence and a 
common-sense judgment of security 
values is absolutely all that is required. 
Any honest man with common-sense 
prudence can with practical certainty 
make a successful banker. Dishon- 
esty and speculation are at the bottom 
of the majority of bank failures that 
result in loss to depositors. Failure 
from legitimate causes are rare. But 
the commonly accepted idea has pre- 
vailed, and the idea never seems to 
have occurred to the people that 
banking could be conducted on the co-operative plan (that is, 
so seriously as to assume the proportions of a general move- 
ment) and on any other plan they were too wary of corpora- 
tion methods to invest in shares even had it been suggested. 

Another and very potent reason has been that organized 
labor and labor leaders in the main have devoted themselves 
solely to securing better wages and shorter days. They have 
tried to fight it out on that line alone. Very little effort has 
been made among them to help themselves by organizing any 
sort of industrial plan whereby labor might be freed from ex- 
ploiting capital. Labor leaders carefully refrained from such 
efforts ; indeed, their policy has been to discourage the unions 
as such from turning their attention to industrial reforms of 
any kind. That they had some fair reason for such policy 
can not be denied. They found labor unorganized and the 
main thing was to organize, and they had to proceed along 
lines of least resistance. But in later years the organizing 
spirit and power of labor has been so well developed that 
it is no doubt a great mistake, not to say blunder, to try and 
hold the laboring people to the single questions of wages and 
hours. It has been demonstrated that they are well able to 
handle industrial and business enterprises most successfully; 
(&)ntinued on Page twenty-three) 

The Western Comrade 

Page seventeen 

"Evening Thoughts 


By Dr. John Dequer 

PLAYLET composed while musing alone in my room 
at sunset. 

The Antelope Valley as seen from the new-born 
town of Llano might well be called the Valley of 
Dreams. It is an almost mystic place. Its wide unbroken 
reaches of semi-desert, swathed in a delicately soft purple 
hase, above which the distant mountain peaks arise in sil- 
houette against a turquoise sky have a tendency to place one 
in an almost reverential mood. 

The evening on which I first wrote these lines was one 
of these; sublime in its tranquil majesty. It suggested the 
thoughts of infinity. 

The Infinite— What is it? 

I had been reading an account of a particularly ferocious 
battle. It seemed as if I could hear the wail of the dying. 
In the conflagration of passion, life was being extinguished. 

Life— What is it? 

Here was the desert in almost infinite solitude and peace, 
yonder were men whose every thought was blood and death, 
and woe. 

With these thoughts in mind I wrote, "Evening Thoughts." 

The Infinite in the character of a Greek god is seen upstage 

The Infinite: I am all that is. I encompass the boundless 
seas of two Eternities. Past and Futurity are my servants. 
The center of the sun and of the remotest star are part of me. 
I am time, space, and substance; boundless, endless, and un- 

Life enters as a mlatronly woman, in the best years of life. 
She Stands at the door and listens in silence while The In- 
finite speaks. As he ceases she walks forward, addressing 

Life: Ah! What you say is true, my father, and yet 
without me you are nothing, your elements are dead and pur- 
poseless, a wilderness of forces, a chaos of ions, sere and 
unlovely as the dead and barren moon. Unless I quicken. 
Infinite as you are, you are not conscious of your existence. 

The Infinite: Yet you, my daughter, are part of me; born 
from the womb of my sweetheart. Substance, nurtured by the 
blood of her elements; I am your father and keeper. 

Life: It is true that I was born of Substance. It is also 
true that I had Death for a nurse who fed me on the blood 
drawn from my own veins. 

The Infinite: Life indeed subsists on Life, that she may 
rear her children. Love, Joy, Happiness, and Trust are her 
favorites. She also rears Suspicion, Hate, Sadness, and Pain, 
and these groups drain each other's blood that Life herself 
may endure. 

Love and Joy enter as young man and woman, wreathed 
in garlands of flowers. Love to Life. 

Love: mother! how good it is to play with Joy in 
the rose embowered gardens of Hope and Trust. The stars 
shine with a most wonderful luster; the night is filled with 
glory; the hills are clothed in loveliness, when seen from these 
enchanted spots. 

Enter Suspicion and Hate from the right, they glare at 
Love and nudge one another. 

Suspicion to Hate: There is work for us in that garden. 

Hate: Yes indeed, those two may play for awhile in these 
gardens but we must see to it that they do not learn to work 

Suspicion: For if Love and Joy make a partnership to 
Labor, what becomes of you and I? 

Life looks around, sees Suspicion and Hate at the door 
but appears not to recognize them. 

The Infinite (to Life) : Daughter, are these not your 
children. Suspicion and Hate, in the presence of your more 
favored children. Love and Joy? 

Life (to The Infinite) : They are not my children, but 
born to your eldest son, Necessity. 

The Infinite: He is your husband. 

Life: I know he is my husband, but he never was my 
love. My love was and is Ideal; him I am denied, because 
of Necessity. Necessity has a concubine, her name is Lust, 
and out of that unholy union these two were born together 
with Sadness and Pain. They dwell in my house only to 
torment my children. These two are friends of Death the 
Destroyer. (Death passes a door upstage.) 

Suspicion to Hate: I will persuade Love to go with me 
to the house of our mother Lust; that will leave Joy in the 
hands of Death. 

Hate: Agreed, that wall be perfect. 0! my brother you 
are a genius. 

Suspicion approaches Love, who has strayed a little space 
from Joy. 

Suspicion (to Love) : How handsome you are when adorned 
with blossoms. 

Love: Leave me. I know you not. 

Suspicion: yes you do, I am your half brother. My 
mother is our father's Sweetheart. 

Love: Go away, my mother hates her. 

Lust: Naturally. Your mother envies mine. 

Love: Why should she envy her? 

Lust: Because my mother knows many wonderful secrets 
that Life would hide from you. My mother has the golden 
key to the enchanted gardens of Rapture and Passion. 

Love: And pray why should my mother want to hide 
ought from me? 

Suspicion: Because she is envious; she knows that if ever 
you get acquainted with my mother, she will teach you to eat 
the fruit of Power; to use the things that make you master 
of men. You will learn the great mysteries of life, the perfume 
of Passion, by the use of which you shall become a queen in 
your own domain, equal to your mother. Life. You will see 
Joy as he really is, a servant and nbt a sweetheart. 

Love : I understand you not. I love my mother. 

Suspicion: Your mother and mine love our common father. 
We are to that extent brother and sister. Can you not see 
why your mother is jealous? 

Love: I suspect that what you say is true. 

Suspicion: Let me prove it. 

Love: Lead the way. 

Suspicion: Follow me. (They exit to the left.) 

Joy (to Life, excitedly) : Who is that fellow who went away 
with Love? 

Life: He is Suspicion, the friend of Death. 

Hate laughs, as Death enters from behind The Infinite. 
Lights go out for an instant, and Life and The Infinite are 
seen alone. 

Life: 0, why must I endure! 

The Infinite: To bring forth Love and lose her; to bring 
her forth again and again, until all the brood of Fear, Envy, 
Hate, Suspicion and Death shall learn that though Love dies 
a thousand deaths, yet she is immortal. 

Page eighteen 

Book Reviews 

The Western Co 

Reviews of Recent Books ^y "• ^"'"^^ 

"Day and Night Stories" by Algernon Blackwood. 

Journeyings into the world of mysticism under the guidance of such 
a master as Algernon Blackwood brings back the fairyland of childhood; 
leads us ayain into the youth of the race. His latest volume of short 
stories, "Day and Night Stories" maintains the high Blackwood standard 
set by such classics as "The Centaur," "Julius Le Vallon." "The Extra 
Day," "The Human Chord," "John Silence" and "The Wave." 

Mr. Blackwood has the power to make real the "imreal." The "un- 
real" is to most of something we don't understand. Radium was "unreal" 
to Sir Isaac Newton. Wireless telegraphy and airplanes were "unreal* 
half a century ago to the best scientific minds. The "real" is what we 
understand (or think we comprehend). Algernon Blackwood is no mere 
weaver of w^ild fantasies. If as a child you want the sheer flight of 
imagination; if you want to explore the impossible: if you want to 
renew the thrill of Kipling's masterly "Brushwood Boy" over and over 
again; if you want to look into forbidden territory of the invisible 
world — then read Blackwood, But there is far more than this in his 

"Day and Night Stories" covers a wide range. As in the score of 
previous books from the pen of Mr. Blackwood, there runs through these 
tales a definite philosophy. The author is a deep student. His word 
painting is that of a master artist; his philosophy fine and clear; his 
understanding almost uncanny. The fifteen tales take us into England, 
America, Egypt, the Alps — but always into the heart of nature and into 
the hearts of men. Mr. Blackwood is the skilled surgeon in both fields. 
He has achieved the dream of Manfred and here we sense "the viewless 
spisit of a lovely sound." 

Return to the primitive harmony of man with his environment, un- 
spoiled by the artificiality of cvilization, this is a part of the lesson we 
learn. Place ourselves in harmony with the elemental forces of wind, 
fire and water. The oneness of life is shown — the oneness of man and 
the trees and flowers of the forest. The oneness of the present life 
through the ages. Man's belief that he knows has kept him from learning. 
The church betrayed its trust; the priest killed the conception of God 
and substituted a garbled counterfit. Science rebelled against this counter- 
fit and declared no God exeist; that there is no spiritual life possible. 
Blackwood doesn't preach, but his stories do. He is one of the rare 
prophets leading the race back into spirituality, peeping into the face of 
God, forecasting the life in the fourth dimension and showing the pos- 
sibilities just around the corner when man emerges from the fear that 
has characterized religion for countless centuries, into the faith that 
is to be the keynote of the future religions. We hear of faith and be- 
lief in some of the older religions, but in practice it has been 
a feeble note, while the clamor of fear has dominated. "Perfect love 
castelh out all fear." Mr. Blackwood is showing the way into that 
path of love. "The Initiation" depicts the finding of Beauty in the heart 
of the primitive pines; the taking away of all fear of death in the wor- 
ship of life, nature and beauty as revealed in their underlying unity. 
"The Touch of Pan" is a beautiful idyllic excursion, and at the same lime 
a scathing denunciation of the lives of the titled parasites and upon the 
social standard which relegates real hving to a place of scorn. "The 
Wings of Horus" forecasts the possibilities when man shall understand 
his relation to the universe — and by faith take his place in harmony 
with the elemental forces. "An Egyptian Hornet" is a fine portrait of 
a moral coward, the product of the religion of yesterday. And so, all 
of the stories — each individual and searching. 

No one writer has done more for me in the way of combined enter- 
tainment, intellectual orientation, understandmg and spiritual growth than 
Algernon Blackwood. (E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.) 

"Those Times and These" by Irvin S. Cobb. 

Irvin S. Cobb is a master humorist — nothing of the depth of philos- 
ophy of Mark Twain — but a close reader of human nature. I like 
him because of his telling the truth about California. I like him because 
of the abounding pathos and overflow of humor in most of his works; 
for the high standard that prevails even in so much copy he turns out 
at so many cents a word for the big magazines. I disagree with his 
viewpoint on practically all public questions, national and international — 
which doesn't bother him at ail (nor me). 

Cobb is never better than in the tales of his old Kentucky home 
where he was born and learned the newspaper game before going to 
New York City to grow fat and famous. "Those Times and These" is 
a collection of stories I can cheerfully recommend as the best ever, 
for it introduces once more old Judge Priest, 

Now, the Judge is an American character who will live. He belongs 
to the Kentucky soil. We have learned to love the upright old fighter 

and his companion, Sergeemt Jimmy Bagby. From lime to time during 
the past few years Cobb has been opening the secret chambers of his 
heart in love tales of the old home country. Judge priest has fussed 
and hurried through many of them until like Cappy Ricks and Matt 
Peasley, Letitia Carberry and her two spinster friends, and Billy Fortune, 
he sells a magazine on sight if he is suspected of being in a story. 

There are ten of "Cob's best" — how does that sound for a new brand 
of Kentucky stogies? — in the collection. Ex -Fighting Billy; And There 
Was Light; Mr. Fleshburg Gets Even; The Garb of Men; The Cure for 
Lonesomeness ; The Family Tree ; Hark ! From the Tombs ; Cinnamon 
Seed and Sandy Bottom; A Kiss for Kindness; Life Among the Abandoned 

Cobb impresses me as belonging to the courtly days of the past 
generation than to the generation merging into the future (humanism. 
Be that as it may, no other writer can equal his telling of the survivors 
of the period of the Civil War. (George H. Doran Co., New York.) 

"Gone to Earth" by Mary Webb. 

Mary Webb has a close understanding of the lives of people of the 
countryside. She has a sympathy for these people whose lives are 
centered in the soil, whose eventful periods reach a climax in crops; 
whose fears, hopes and joys center in the clouds and sunshine as re- 
lated to those crops ; whose chickens, flocks, and herds make up a great 
part of the universe. 

In "Gone to Earth" she lets flow her imagination, in much the same 
vein shown in her previous novel, "The Golden Arrow." She shows a 
developing power in her new book. Not all productions can be of the 
mountain peak variety. We must live the greater part of our lives in 
varying levels, across plains and through valleys and on sunny slopes 
of the foothills. So, in literature, we cannot dwell ever among the 
superb masters — a dwelling perpetually with the gods would not be good 
for us — at least not just yet. 

And so, while "Gone to Earth" is not one of the immortals, it has the 
qualities that makes the good book — sympathy and understanding. 
Human nature, with Its relief of quaint and spontanous humor are the 
background for the passions of human living woven into the tale. (E. 
P. Dutton & Co., New York.) 

"The Definite Object" by Jeffrey Farnol. 

Jeffrey Farnol is known to the readers of current fiction through 
his previous novels, "Beltane the Smith," "The Broad Highway," "The 
Amateur Gentleman," and "The Honorable Mr. 'Tawnish." He comes 
before the public this summer with "The Definite Object; A Romance 
of New York." A gratifying merit of Fr. Farnol's novels is that they 
are stories for their ov^ti sake, not romances about which to hang 
some moral or social question. The present story has not been published 
serially, and comes fresh to the readers. The scene is laid principally 
in that portion of New York known as Hell's Kitchen. 

In the novel, Mr. Ravenlee, a young man just a little past the first 
draft age, ennuied, bored and distracted because there is nothing in life 
of further interest, because of the millions of dollars, automobiles, servants 
and country and city homes. The champion heavyweight of the world 
piloted his automobile and his butler was a work of art, the envy of 

With these accomplices, he accompanied a young burgler whom he 
had apprehended in his New York residence, to Hell's Kitchen, where 
a room was engaged of a good hearted woman of angular build. He 
ventured poverty and went into the street as a peanut vender. Then 
the "definite object" appeared in the person of the sister of the burglar. 
The robber reformed after proper moral vicissitudes. The sister was a 
beautiful girl, the idol of the heart of the leader of a desperate gang of 
gunmen. What this prince of good fortune does under the circumstances 
allows Mr. Farnol to introduce some entertaining and exciting chapters. 
(Little, Brown & Co., Boston.) 

"The Adventure of Death" by Dr. R. W. MacKenna. 

"The Adventure of Death" is a valuable message, another envidence 
of the passing of materialism, as a philosophy. When a Scotch M. D. 
defends immortality it is time for the followers of materialism to do a 
bit of thinking and scrap some of those ten-cent pamphlets from which 
they learned their philosophy of life. 

Dr. Robert W. MacKenna writes like a poet. Bill Hyatt says he 
ought to write novels, so more people would be led into the joyland 
of his beauteous expression. Of his earlier chapters, "The Great Adven- 
ture," "The Fear of Death," "The Painlessness of Death," and "Euthan- 

The West 


a d 

Book Reviews 

Page mueteen 

a?ia" I shall make no comment, pertinent as are his suggestions. It 
is in the closing part of the book I find most interest. 

Here are treated the questions of what life gains from death, whether 
death ends all, is man more than matter and survival of personality. 
Death, says Dr. MacKenna, is the force that gives force and meaning 
to hfe. Is man more than matter 1* Let us listen to a beautiful com- 
parison : 

"But let us imagine that our materialist is a musician, and let us set 
him before a piano out of tune, with stiff keys and a half-a-dozen broken 
wires, and without telling him of the crippled condition of the instru- 
ment, let us ask him to play Beethoven's Moonlight 'Sonata. On such 
an instrument that exquisite harmony would become a discord. The 
player has all the necessary skill ; the score is before his eyes, and his 
fiagers touch the keys at the right time. But the instrument is damaged; 

a hammer falls where there is no wire to catch its blow and tremble 
into music, and instead of a concord of sweet sound we have a chaotic 
dissonance. The analogy is a permissable one, and when the disgusted 
materialist rises from the instrument, we may point out to him that 
just as he has been unable to extract harmony from the damaged piano, 
so the mind cannot, or at least does not, play the harmony of life on 
the keyboard of a diseased brain." 

The brain Is placed on the defensive as a limitation of mind. It is 
compared to the window which lets into the room of our being the 
play of mind. The survival of individuality is also advocated. "Reason 
can make but one answer, which is, that mind is also imperishable and 
must persist." And "it persists as personality, with this essential dif- 
ference, that it is freed from the trammels and limitations of the phytical 
body . . ." (G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York.) 

With The Editors By b. Bobspa 

Dr. G. Henri Bogart, of Shelbyville, Illinois, veteran writer, poet, 
lecturer and editor, woke up the medical profession last month with a 
widely published article on venereals in the United States army. Dr. 
Bogart is a graduate of two medical schools, but didn't like the com- 
mercialized guesswork and graft of the profession and so has devoted 
himself to free lance lecture work and writing. His essay, "War, Morals, 
Health — the Future," appeared in many of the leading medical journals 
last month. Dr. George L. Servess, editor of the "Denver Medical Times," 
wrote: "Although I had completed the arrangement for the contents of 
the August issue, I am sending the manuscript to the publishing house, 
telling them to drop everything else out of the issue and run this article." 

Dr. Bogart has given to the conservative world the knowledge that the 
radical press has realized for a long time. He brings his personal in- 
vestigations and long prefessional studies to bear in an authoritative con- 
demnation that not even the "nice" respectables can overlook. Dr. Bogart 
is on the staff of a score of medical journals and is doing much to humanize 
the profession, being, like Dr. William J. Robinson, one of those "sane 
radicals" who fail to see the "ethical" distinction that would make a 
mystic priesthood of the medical profession. 

* * * 

Orientation is the crying need of today. We must face the future, 
wherein lies new worlds in the throes of travail. But those new worlds 
will spring from the seeds of the past. Let us turn occasionally in the 
midst of the stream of new books to a consideration of those which 
have already become classics. 

What can be better for your spare hours than a thorough study of 
C. Osborne Ward's "The Ancient Lowly?" ^^y not make these two 
pregnant volumes more than a name? Here is "A History of the Ancient 
Working People from the Earliest Known Period to the Adoption of 
Christianity by Constantine." If you have read Simonds and Oneal on 
American history, you have learned that this study involves the working 
class and is something more than merely wars and battles. Ward will take 
you back into the misty past and show you the history of your class 
in the days when there were no beings on earth but priests and kings 
of importance — to judge from the distorted "facts" we learned in college. 
No capitalist house dared publish the original edition of this revolutionary 
work, which in eight editions has carried the gospel of proletarian history. 

There are a few minor details — noted by the publishers — in which later 
investigations have developed a different conception of some social 
phenomena. These in no wise disparage the general value of the author's 
deductions, and the two volumes still stand one of the greatest monuments 
of research into the true development of mankind. 

You will find that Tom and Rena Mooney were not the first strike 
leaders to get into trouble with the ruling classes for trying to help the 
people; and your 'Spartacus to the Gladiators " will ring with a clarified 
tone after a study of the "Ancient Lowly." What do you know about the 
ten-year war in which Ennus marshalled an army of 200,000 soldiers 
against the economic slavery of Rome? Historians have been silent on 
such matters of the uprisings of the proletarian masses. 

¥ ¥ V 

Closely allied with "The Ancient Lowly" as a class document of virile 
force is Dr. Lewis H. Morgan's "Ancient Society: or Researches in the 
Line of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization." 
Dr. Morgan is the author of a number of authoritative books and was 
one of the prominent scientists of the nation. 

Just as savagery and barbarism gave way to civilization, the last named 
is now yielding to the dawn of humanism, socialism, or whatever name 
future generations will term it. Standing on the verge of this new world, 
it is Important to take a survey of the three preceding periods of man's 
tens of thousands of years on earth. 

Four main divisions are treated in this book: "Growth of Intelligence 

Through the Inventions and Discoveries" ; "Growth of the Idea of Gov- 
ernment"; "Growth of the Idea of the Family"; and "Growth of the 
Idea of Property." The first division tells of the ethnical periods, arts 
of subsistence, and the ratio of human progress. Then, following a 
treatment of the organization of society upon the basis of sex. Dr. Mor- 
gan tells of the development of the gens in the Indian tribes of America, 
among the Aztecs, those of Rome and Greece, together with the gentes of 
other tribes of the human family. Among the interesting discussions are 
the growth of various confederacies in eastern and western hemisphere, 
the Grecian Phratry, the institution of political society, and the change of 
descent from the female to the male line. 

This brings us to the consideration of the ancient family, the consan- 
guine family, the punaluan family, the Syndyasmlan and the patriarchal 
families, the monogomanian family, sequence of institutions connected 
with the family. The books conclude with the subject of the three rules 
of property Inheritance. 

* * * 

As the Jewish bible is simply the collection by a wrangling committee at 
the dictate of Constantine, so there has grown up a radical "bible," though 
it has not been crystallzed into a single set and made a fetish of. So, 
to my list of classics I would add a note concerning a more recent pro- 
duction than the above. 

The elected "representatives" of the people have ceased to function. 
The courts and the dictators rule today. So it is interesting to know the 
Inside history of our ruling tribunals. Charles Beard in "The Economic 
Interpretation of the Constitution" told of the origin of the sacred bull of 
the supposed basic law of the land. The tale of the setting aside even 
of this supposed bulwark of liberty by the courts is told by Gustavus 
Myers in his "History of the Supreme Court of the United States." He 
is the author of "History of Great American Fortunes," "History of Tam- 
many Hall." and "History of Public Franchises in New York City." 

"Palpably a dominant class," w'riles the author, "must have some su- 
preme institution through which it can express its consecutive demands 
and enforces its will, whether that institution be a king, a parliament, a 
congress, a court, or an army. In the United States, the one all-potent 
institution automatically responding to these demands and enforcing them 
has been the Supreme Court of the United States. Vested with absolute 
and unappealable power, it has been able, with a marvellously adaptable 
flexibility, to transmute that will not merely into law but into action. 
Hence, the narrative of that court inevitably becomes a history of the 
origin and progress of capitalism and correspondingly of the forces in 
society antagonistic to the capitalistic order." 

The book is no attack on persons connected with the supreme bench. 
It deals with fundamental causes, the working out of forces of which the 
jurists were often unconscious tools, the product of their blighting en- 
vironment. Neither is any space given to theories or to hypothetical cases 
and arguments. It is based entirely on historic facts, the verification of 
which can be made by investigation of public records. No denials have 
been successfully launched against the book. The facts are brought down 
to the year 1912. While some important developments have transpired 
since then, they are only an extension of the powers and activities out- 
lined by Dr. Myers. 

In the name of comrades, I extend to Comrade Ethel Lynn the love of 
fellowship in (his sad summer which marks the death of her devoted 
husband. "Dan" was described in Dr. Lynn's late book, "The Adventures 
of a Woman Hobo." Each reader felt a personal acquaintance with this 
fine comrade in the discrlptions of his devotion to his wife as written by 
her. It IS sad that just when the book is winning a wide national 
popularity the companion of the hardships and joys it describes should 
be removed from us through death. 

Page twenty 


The Western Comrade 

Terms of Peace 

By Ida Crouch-Hazlett 

HEN shall we be ready for peace? Will it be next 

Wweek or next year? Will it be when the angel of 
death is seated at every fireside and the earth is 
desolated of the priceless achievements of civiliza- 
tion ? 

Now is the accepted time. The evidence is apparent that 
the German aggression is not likely to succeed. The results 
obtained by Great Britain are meager. France has not many 
men left. New Zealand is exhausted. The British working 
class is on the point of rebellion. Canada is mutinous; and 
the German defensive is practically untouched. Russia can- 
not be depended on even Vkith the pistols of the allies at 
her heart. She has the sweet wine of Brotherhood in her 
veins, and even her Battalion of Death cannot produce a 
will for slaughter when there is none. The United States 
has the entire experience of war to learn before she can be 
counted on. 

"No indemnities and no annexations." No indemnities 
could repair the colossal devastation; no indemnities could 
be squeezed out of the weaker antagonists, and, if the war 
continue much longer, the protagonists will be "bled white." 
Indemnities would be a fruitful irritant for future wars, and 
the question of their division would be extremely difficult 
to solve without friction. 

Each nation should have the freedom to expand without 
intervention from any other nation. The State should not 
be a collection and insurance agency for foreign investors, 
but its sovereignty should end with its boundaries. Investors 
should take risks on their own initiative, and should be strip- 
ped of the support of the home government, with no army 
and navy to back them. 

Disputed territories should be allowed to vote on their 
boundaries and allegiance. This would give a United Poland, 
heretofore ravished by Austria, Germany and Russia. Italy's 
desire for predominance in the Adriatic brings it into conflict 
with the Slav seeking the sea, and the Italian ports have 
become more Slavish than Italian. Alsace-Lorraine is more 
German than French. 

The open door, free trade and freedom of the seas would 
now largely settle the problems of ports like Trieste, Fiume, 
Constantinople, Casablanca, Agadiz, Koweit and Antwerp, 

and would give Russia, Germany, Servia and Austria a chance 
to get to the sea. 

The longer the war is continued the more disastrously 
the infection spreads with no possible outcome but exhaus- 
tion to the status quo. The Socialist sees in this inevitable 
exhaustion the final collapse of the capitalist form of pro- 
duction from inherent defects of its financial mechanism, 
international bankruptcy and confiscatory taxes, and, tremend- 
ously stimulated by the war, exportation of products, both 
as capital and merchandise. 

An international syndicate for the development of the back- 
ward ports of the globe, and a common tribunal to which ai! 
concession seekers and investors will submit their claims means 
an escape from armament. This means the establishment of 
democracies of all people in all advanced powers as the only 
real method with which to encourage and assist backward 

The conflict of classes must be stopped so as not to em- 
broil whole peoples for the advantage of any class. 

All factories of war supplies and munitions should be owned 
by the governments, and not operated for private profit. The 
privileged classes would lose their enormous profits by peace. 
Armaments should be abandoned to rebuild industries. 

New democratic standards for the world must take the 
place of the clash of classes. The disarmament of all nations 
except for the purpose of actual defense would strike at 
privileges, profits, and immunities. No permanent peace is 
possible until we have democracy. Junkerism and democracy 
cannot unite on a peace program. 

All strategic places should be internationalized; all routes 
over which international traffic flows by sea or land; all ports, 
straights, seas, canals, and international railroad lines, as 
Gibraltar, Bosporus, Suez, and the Bagdad railway. 

All the agencies of foreign relations should be democrat- 
ized and an end put to secret diplomacy. 

The making of war should be lodged with the people. 
Armies and navies should be democratized and military caste 
destroyed; and so long as defense must be provided for, a 
democratic, citizen army should be the type, an industrial 
army that would be employed in public undertakings. 

The cause of labor and peace and democracy are one. 

Prohibition and Discontent 

From "The Public'^ 

HE New York Tribune's staff correspondent at Spokane 

T reports a new argument against prohibition by the 
lumber men and other large employers of the North- 

west, recently gone. Labor unrest, they complain, 

is due to the lack of drinking places where men can forget 
their troubles, to wake up the next morning with no money 
in their clothes and the necessity of going back to the boss 
to beg for a job. The correspondent puts it thus: 

"The men from the camps come to town with so much 
money and it lasts so long. . . They have the new spirit, 
a new independence. The I. W. W. leaders say frankly that 
these sober, well-to-do men are far better material for them 
to work on than the blear-eyed, wiskey-soaked gangs that used 
to loaf around the I. W. W. halls for shelter. They have an 
interest in economic questions, and they like to hear serious, 
even if revolutionary, speeches. They begin to think. Well 
dressed, well groomed, grasping in their soberness of life, they 
begin to consider that the orator argues well when he tells 
them that they have as good brains and more brawn than their 

employers, and that it is merely because they permit the 
traditional masters to 'stack the cards' on them that they 
do not own the industries they work." 

If the I. W. W. is doing this for the lumber workers and the 
construction workers of the Northwest, it is entitled to our 
gratitude. Any fallacy in the I. W. W. doctrine will be found 
sooner or later by men thus awakened to serious thought, 
and they will either leave that organization for one that offers 
soberer promise or they will change it from within. The 
testimony of these employers, paraphrased by the correspond- 
ent, confirms that of the regular trade union leaders of 
Colorado and Washington that prohibition has been a blessing 
to the labor movement. The best of our labor leaders are 
rapidly coming to a realization that the old political alliance 
between booze and labor has been an unmitigated obstacle, 
that labor has been jobbed again and again by the liquor 
interests to whom it turned in its times of desperate need. 
Mr. Gompers' steadfast opposition to prohibition will not much 
longer represent the prevailing attitude in labor circles. 

Th e W 

e s t e r n 


g r 1 c a 

1 t 

Page twenty-one 

News and Views in Agriculture 

Hoover says: 

"The savings of the American consumer should be made by the exclusion 
of speculative profits from the handling of foodstuffs, and not by a 
sacrifice on the part of the producer." 

"This is no time for the illegitimate food manipulator. Hoarding and 
speculation are rife." 

"Those producers who fail to sell their crops at a reasonable price 
should use them at home." 

"There is no occasion for food panic in this country. There is no 
justification for outrageous prices." 

"What we hope to do under the food survey and administration legis- 
lation is to stabilize prices by various devices, and to regulate the pro- 
fits and speculation out of handling commodities." 

Weeds are Water Wasters 

Few people appreciate how thoroughly weeds rob the soil of its 
surplus moisture. An experiment recently conducted at the Nebraska 
Experiment Station shows that whereas a certain area of com abstracts 
300 pounds of water from the soil, a similar area of sunflowers robs the 
soil of 1200 pounds of water. It can be seen from this what a waste 
of soil water occurs when rank-growing weeds are allowed to survive. 

Illustrative of what a lack of soil moisture will accomplish in the way 
of plant growth, another Nebraska field trial is of interest. One acre 
plot of com that was never cultivated or worked yielded twenty-two 
bushels of corn, as compared with a like area that was thoroughly cul- 
tivated and produced seventy-eight bushels of com. — Country Gentleman. 

Manure and Fertilizers 

A ton of stable manure usually contains 10 pounds nitrogen, 10 pounds 
potash, and 5 pounds phosphoric acid, making a total of 25 pounds of 
plant food. 

The excess of nitrogen in hog and sheep manure, is greater than 
in horse manure. In cow manure the excess is a little less than it is 
in horse manure. In the four manures, horse, cow, hog, and sheep, the 
average excess of nitrogen is about the same that it is in horse manure, 
or about three times as much as it should be for com. — Co-operator's 

Cows and Calves 

Foul in the foot in cattle is caused by standing in mud, and may be- 
come serious. To cure, cleanse the space between the toes by drawing 
a small rop through, then apply sulphate of zinc, one drachm in half 
pint of water. 

Regularity in feeding and milking the cows is very important. Both 
should be done at regular set hours each day, as cows quickly form 
habits, and any delay is apt to cause worriment, which will mean a 
lessening of the product in the pail. 

It is a mistake to cut out the morning milking during the time of 
scant production, as some farmers are often known to do. 

Do not fail to have your herd examined at least once a year by a 
skillful vetenarian to see if tuberculosis has gained an entrance. Promptly 
remove any that respond to the test. Never under any circumstances 
add an animal until it has passed a rigid examination. 

It is impossible to say just how soon in her life a heifer should be 
bred. The distinctive, specialized dairy breeds may be bred earher than 
the large strains. Some heifers at sixteen months are as fully developed 
as others at twenty-four. Therefore the experienced breeder will breed 
according to development. 

A good liniment for all kinds of swelling on dairy cows, as well as 
on all other farm animals, is made by mixing equal parts of turpentine, 
sweet oil and camphor. Apply liberally and frequently to the swollen 

Good milch cows do not generally carry a large amount of flesh. It 
it impossible to produce milk and flesh at the same time. But they 
need good feed just the same. 

To get the best flow of milk during the winter, cows should be bred 
so as to come in the fall. They begin to fall off in milk in spring, but 
the grass will stimulate a larger flow, and they will keep it np until 
time to be dried off for the next calf. In this way the non-milking period 
will be at a time of the year when butter and milk are the lowest. — United 
States Dept. Agriculture. 

Drying Vegetables 

Vegetables can be preserved for future use by drying. One point to 
keep in mind is that the drying should be fairly rapid so that there will 
be no chance for the vegetables to spoil before sufficiently dry. Another 
point is that the vegetables, if fle.=hy, should be cut into slices J/g to '/^ 
inch thick. There are several ways of drying: sun heat, artificial heat 
and air blast. There are several makes of driers on the market. The 
trays on which the drying is done, should have unpainted screen or wooden 
slat bottoms. The open bottom allows better circulation of air than can be 
secured in a pan. Several of these trays can be placed, one above another 
and when set over a stove the heat will pass through the trays and bring 
about quite rapid drying. The electric fan, when available, can be used 
to force a current of air through the vegetables. In drying the vegetables 
they should not be dried until crisp but to a leathery consistency. It 
takes experience to tell just what degree of dryness is best. — Farmers' 
Bulletin No. 841. 

World's Greatest Food Crisis 

Sixty million men have been withdrawn from the fields of labor in 
Europe. Reserve stocks of meal, grain, butter, eggs, canned food, have 
been and are today falling below the danger level. 

The Allies have bought for FUTURE delivery 300,000,000 bushels of 
1917 wheat. Unless our government intervenes, wheat may sell at over 
four dollars a bushel. 

Any\vay, ninety-nine million out of our population of about one-hun- 
dred million positively refuse to admit any emergency. 

So it is the duty of the American farmer to prevent a possible world- 
starvation. Think it over, and begin to act. — The Western Empire. 

Spineless Cactus as Feed 

A trial with spineless cactus as a feed for milch cows conducted in the 
University dairy herd showed it to have no more merit than suggested 
by its chemical composition (92.8 per cent moisture, 0.3 per cent diges- 
tible protein, 3.9 per cent digestible carbohydrates and fat). It proved 
unpalatable to our cows, but undoubtedly in some cases it has been eaten 
by cows and hogs with a relish and in considerable amounts. As 100 
pounds contain less than eight pounds of dry matter, and but slightly over 
four pounds digestible nutrients, it can only be looked upon as an ap- 
petizer to slock that have become accustomed to it, and cannot be con- 
sidered a substitute for either roots or silage, as is sometimes claimed. — 
Berkeley College of Agriculture. 

The A 1 f a 1 f 



Alfalfa is California's most valuable forage crop. It is the backbone of 
the hvestock industry of the state, and its protection from destructive 
pests is therefore of prime importance. 

The alfalfa weevil (Phytonomus posticus Gyll.) is the most destructive 
pest of alfalfa occurring in the United States, and against it California 
maintains a strict quarantine. This insect occurs at the present time in 
Utah, the southeastern corner of Idaho and the southwestern corner of 
Wyoming. It w^s introduced in some unknown way from the old world, 
where it is found throughout the Mediterranean region. It was first dis- 
covered in this country near Salt Lake City, Utcih, about thirteen years 
ago, where it covered only a few acres of territory. Since then it has 
spread with considerable rapidity, although it has not made any extended 
jumps in its distribution. — State Commissioner of Horticulture. 


Young pigs should not run in heavy pastures when the dew is on the 
grass. The best cross to produce pigs for bacon is one between pure-bred 
boars and sows of the same breed. To speak plainly, crossing of breeds 
is rather risky except in the hands of one who thoroughly understands 
breeding, and such men do not practise it to any extent. 

Many newly-bom pigs die immediately after delivery just for lack of 
a helping hand. If a sow farrows nine pigs and loses three, a loss of 
one-third is experienced; but few look at the matter in that light. They 
generally consider themselves fortunate that the other two-thirds of the 
litter pulled through. About three weeks before farrowing, pregnant sows 
may be given a ration consisting of mne parts of rolled barley and one 
part of tankage, or three pounds of skim-milk to one pound of the barley. 
This method will insure strong, lusty, active new-bom pigs. — Farm 

Page twenty-two 

The Western Comrad 


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BENEDICT LUST, N. D., D. 0., D. C. M. D., writes: "The 
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The Western Co 

d e 

Page twenty-three 

Co-operative Banking connnued w pa^e .6 ^^^^j^^ Promised For Early Issues 

and co-op)erative banking is one of them. 

The failure of the government monetary system to provide 
the people with a volume of money equal to the needs of 
exchange has forced them at times to resort to various 
devices to supply the unprovided need. The banks themselves 
in the past as well as at the present time have been forced to 
provide temporary relief by issuing clearing-house certificates, 
certified checks, bills of exchange, federal reserve notes, and 
other forms of commercial paper during the frequent recurring 
financial crises that are a necessary evil of the prevailing 
monetary system. 

To the private capitalistic banks the necessity for such 
action arises only when they suddenly need to mediumize their 
securities, that is, reduce them to an exchangeable medium 
form. To the people such necessity is chronic. On account 
of the miserably inadequate volume of government money 
they are continually forced to capitalize their" securities, to 
mediumize their wealth or sacrifice it by buying with it a 
scarce and hoarded legal tender for which there is an enor- 
mous over - demand and a corresponding under - supply. 
Through the federal reserve scheme therefore, the banks are 
only doing what the government ought to do. But by that 
plan the associated bankers of the country have successfully 
.siezed the money-issuing function of government and control it 
absolutely for themselves. Notwithstanding the scheme may 
be auithorized by the Congress, although it may be called a 
"federal reserve bank" and however large its capitalization 
may be, yet the establishment of such an institution is usurpa- 
tion of a government function by private individuals which can 
have but one result — the progressive enslavement of labor to 
private capital-ownership. The issuing of a mediiftn of ex- 
change is a government function. To demand that the 
government go out of the bank business by ceasing to be the 
issuer of money and turn the function of mediumizing values 
over to the private banker, is like demanding time to roll 
backwards. But an essential social function that is under- 
taken by the government and inadequately performed, must 
in self-defense be supplemented by the people themselves or 
they must suffer until the government sees proper to do its 
work well. 

The beneficiaries of the government monetary system, the 
bankers, are too highly pleased with the inadequate perform- 
ance of this function to allow it to be done any differently. 
The people have suffered long enough patiently waiting for 
capitalistic experts to give them relief. The time is near at 
hand when they will be forced to supplement this government 
by establishing a system of banking and exchange that vnW 
promote industrial production instead of throttling it, one 
which will develop the country's resources for all the people 
instead of artificially centralizing them into the private for- 
tunes of a few. 

"Scraps of Paper." 

'Scraps of Paper" is one of the most realistic bits of source material 
that has been given to the public. It consists of nearly a score of repro- 
ductions of the German proclamations in Belgium and France. These 
bulletins, of which we have read so much, are reproduced photographically 
in all the original colors of blues, greens, yellows, while, orange and red. 
We seem to be traveling through the very war zone itself as we look upon 
these martial posters. A full page is given to each poster, with the trans- 
lation and a historical note given on the opposite page. (English version 
brought out in America at 25c. New York. George H. Doran Company.) 

ARTICLES of general interest which v«ll appear in early 
issues of the WESTERN COMRADE are now being 


Mr. H. G. Teigan, connected w^ith the national headquarters 
of the National Nonpartican League of St. Paul, Minnesota, 
has promised a series of three articles on this remarkable 
farmer's organization. Each will consist of between 2500 
and 3000 words, or about two pages of the WESTERN COM- 

Perhaps only a minority of the readers of this magazine 
have any knowledge of what his virile, vital, growing, thriv- 
ing organization is achieving. It has spread througout the 
wheat belt of the northwest and' is traveling southward. It 
controls governors and legislatures and has a representative 
in Congress. It is economic and political in its functions. 
Controlling the governing forces is but a means to an end 
with these farmers. Their platform calls for government own- 
ership of elevators, etc. It has gained for its members a more 
stable market for products and higher prices. It has organ- 
ized purchasing facilities that secure necessities at lowered 

In his series of articles Mr. Teigan will give a brief his- 
tory of the achievements of this extraordinary organization. 
With no claim of being Socialistic, it is securing the very 
things that Socialists have talked, worked, and voted for. 
Therefore it is of interest to every person who believes in 
co-operation, and it should convert those who do not. We 
believe Mr. Teigan's articles vriil be eagerly read. 

Universal Brotherhood 

' I 'rilS is the name a group of Socialists chose for an organ- 

■■• ization which would be of interest to Socialists. It was 

started in Fresno, California, in 1915. It, too, is a vital 

organization which interests all who believe in co-operation. 

Just now certain details are being perfected, but shortly 
the WESTERN COMRADE expects to begin a series of four 
or more articles which vvqil tell of the ideals, grovrth, plans, 
and achievements of this auxiliary to the movement for 
emancipation from capitalism. 

The prime purpose of the Universal Brotherhood is to 
secure the benefits of co-operation vrithout requiring the pur- 
chaser to finance a store. How it has been achieved sug- 
gests an easy solution to the problems that have hindred, 
ofttimes, the grovrth of co-operatives in this country. 

But there are ideals connected with the Universal Brother- 
hood; it is more than a mere purchasing society. The 
Universal Brotherhood now has headquarters at 3058 Iowa 
Avenue, Fresno, California. It is attracting the close atten- 
tion of radical and progressive people of Central California. 

No definite date has been set for the beginning of this 
series, but it will probably commence within the next two 
or three issues. 


About Manuscripts 

Only typewritten material or that written with ink ^viIl be given 

Please put your name and address and date on manuscripts. 

The WESTERN COMRADE does not pay cash at present. 

Please state if you desire return of manuscript. 

The COMRADE is always glad to consider contributions, but nothing 
of a controversial nature will be printed. 


Three Correspondence Courses of Study 

Organized in 1 900. Students in All English Speaking Countries 


Walter Thomas Mills 

;Any of these Courses can be taken by a single individual or in classes. Work can begin at any time 
and can be completed as quickly as anyone is able, or the time may be extended as may be necessary. 

FINELY ENGRAVED CERTIFICATES are given to those who satisfactorily complete the work in any of these courses. 

Here are I i-— ten lessons in the study of socialism. 


the Lourses ( m.— ten lessons in the correct and effective use of the English language. 

THE ten lessons IN SOCIALISM 

Lesson I. — ^The Evolalion of Capitalism. 

Lesson IL — The Evolntion of Socialism. 

Lesson III. — Scientific Socialism. 

Lesson IV. — The Failure of Capitalism — The Coming of Socialism. 

Lesson V. — Trades Unions and Socialism. 

Lesson VI. — The Farmers and Socialism. 

Lesson VII. — The Middle Class Workers and Socialism. 

Lesson VIII. — Religion, Education and Socialism. 

Lesson IX. — Political Parties and Socialism. 

Lesson X. — How to Work for Socialism. 

Each of ihe ten lessons which have been especially prepared by Mr. 
Mills, the author of "The Struggle for Existence," gives special direc- 
tions for the study of some one topic as given in the above schedule. 
Each lesson gives a summary of the subject matter to be studied with 
special references to all the paragraphs in the text book bearing upon 
that topic and designating those to be read only, as well as those to be 
carefully studied. Each lesson in the course is followed by a list of 
test questions, the answers to which are written up as studied and for- 
warded to Mr. Mills for correction, approval or recommendations for 
further study, together with answers to any special questions asked. 


Lesson I. — The Building and the Mastery of Words. 
Lesson IL — The Classes of Words. 

REMEMBER: — If you wish lo understand the labor question, to deal with the high cost of living, to understand the rise of militarism and the 
way of escape, to fight effectively for the young, the disabled and the aged, in short, if you wish to be a good and an effective Socialist, begin at 
once the study of these lessons in Socialism. If you wish to have a voice as clear and musical as a bell, so that people will listen to you just for the 
music of your voice, to be heard distinctly by the largest crowds, to have a throat of steel that will never fail you, to have a great fund of fresh 
and interesting information, to be able to think at your best on your feet and before a crowd, to be an effective salesman in offering goods or in 
presenting ideas, to speak without notes and never forget, to address a throng as though you were speaking to a single friend and to become your- 
self the incarnation of the message you take to others, then take these ten lessons in the Art of Public Speaking. 

If you want to write for the press, not for the waste basket, to be understood, not to be laughed at, to write letters that bring replies, to serve 
on committees, write resolutions or party platforms, to gather the greatest fund of information, to write a story that will read when printed as it 
sounds when told, to recover from the brogue or the broken forms of foreign speech or of untrained utterance, then take these lessons in ihe study 
of the English language. 

q THESE LESSONS WILL BE WORTH YOUR WHILE. The following well-known speakers, writers and organizers were once students of Mr. Mills: 
George R. Kirkpatrick, Anna Maley, Fred. D. Warren, Kate O'Hare, Frank O'Hare, Guy Lockwood, Mrs. Lockwood, Oscar Ameringer, Phil Gallery, 
J. W. Slayton, Gertrude Breslau Fuller. 0. S. Wilson, Judge Groesbeck, Geo. W. Downing, Agnes Downing, John M. Work, Mrs. A. M. Salyer, Geo. 
H. Turner, George D. Brewer, J. E. Snyder, George Scott, Mrs. Bradford, Walter and Rose Walker, Anna Strunsky Walling, T. E. Latimer, Caroline 
Lowe, James O'Neal, W. C. Benton, J. L. Filts, J. L. Engdahl, Dr. Nina E. Wood. 

Lesson III. — The Relation of Words lo Each Other. 

Lesson IV. — The Building of an English Sentence. 

Lesson V. — The Finishing Work on an English Sentence. 

Lesson VI. — The Forms of Speaking and Writing. 

Lesson VII. — The Telling of a Story and the Explaining of a Situation 

Lesson VIII. — The Building of an Argument. 

Lesson IX. — Effective Correspondence. 

Lesson X. — Writing for Publication. 

These lessons consist of ten pamphlets, each complete in itself and 
containing all the material necessary for a student's work. Each lesson 
is followed with test questions and the manner of procedure in doing 
the work, the same as above. 


Lesson I.^ — The Training of the Voice. 
Lesson II. — Gathering the Speaker's Materials. 

III. — Constructing the Argument. 

IV. — The Delivery of a Speech. 

V. — Adornment and Power in Public Address. 

VI. — The Speech and the Occasion. 

VII. — Errors in Speech. 

VIII. — Controversial Speech. 

IX. — How to Manage a Crowd. 

X. — The Personal Qualities of an Orator. 
lessons, as in the course of English, each lesson is complete 

In these 

in itself and no text book will be required, and the manner of proceed- 
ure will be the same. 

TERMS: The Course of Lessons in Socialism, including a paper- 
bound copy of "The Struggle for Existence" by Walter Thomas Mills, 
free, $5.00 for a single student; in classes of five or more, $3.00 each; 
in classes of ten or more with text book free to each student in any 
case, $2.50 each; or the course free lo anyone ordering ten copies of 
the cloth-bound edition of "The Struggle for Existence" at $1.50 each 
(regular price $2.50) ; or ten copies of "Democracy or Despotism" by 
Walter Thomas Mills, regular price $1.25 each, to one address. 

The Courses in the study of English and in the Art of Public Speak- 
ing are $10.00 each for single students; in classes of five $7.50 each; 

in classes of ten or more $6.00 each; or either Course for a single 
student free to anyone ordering fifteen cloth-bound copies of "The 
Struggle for Existence" at $1.50 (regular price $2.50) ; or fifteen copies 
of "Democracy or Despotism" at $1.00 each (regular price $1.25) to 
one address, purchasers paying the freight. 

^ Now is the time to get ready for the \vinter's work. You can in- 
vest in nothing that will pay so large a return as when you invest in 
yourself. You can earn these courses getting up clubs for the books. 
You can greatly reduce the expense and add to the pleasure and profit 
of the work by getting up classes in any of these Courses. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS, always mentioning that you saw this ad in THE WESTERN COMRADE, to . 

The International School of Social Economy 



Beginning In 
This Number 


The Revolution in North 
Dakota By h. g. Teig^ 

Current Problems 

By Walter Thomas Mills 


EDITORIALS by Job Harriman 3 


THE NEW SOCIALISM by Alec Watkins 12 

SOCIALISM IN JAPAN by S. Katayama 19 

A NICE GIRL (Story) by Mary Alien 20 

Llano's Louisiana 

Manana 22 

Clinton Bancroft 24 

Other Features Are: 

"Was Schmidt Guilty?"; Successful Cal- 
ifornia Co-operatives; Co-operation the World 
Over; News and Views in Agriculture; Book 
Reviews, etc. 

Price Ten Cents 


Three Correspondence Courses of Study 

Organized in 1 900. Students in All English Speaking Countries 


Walter Thomas Mills 

;Any of these Courses can be taken by a single individual or in classes. Work can begin at any time 
^^^ and can be completed as quickly as anyone is able, or the time may be extended as may be necessary. 

FINELY ENGRAVED CERTIFICATES are given to those who satisfactorily complete the work in any of these courses. 

Here are 
the Courses 




Lesson III. — The Relation of Words to Each Other. 

Lesson IV. — The Building of an English Sentence. 

Lesson V. — The Finishing Work on an English Sentence. 

Lesson VI. — The Forms of Speaking and Writing. 

Lesson VII. — The Telling of a Story and the Explaining of a Situation 

Lesson VIII. — The Building of an Argument. 

Lesson IX. — Effective Correspondence. 

Lesson X. — Writing for Publication. 

These lessons consist of ten pamphlets, each complete in itself and 
containing all the material necessary for a student's work. Each lesson 
is followed with test questions and the manner of procedure in doing 
the work, the same as above. 



Lesson I. — The Evolution of Capitalism. 

Lesson II. — The Evolution of Socialism. 

Lesson III. — Scientific Socialism. 

Lesson IV. — The Failure of Capitalism — The Commg of Socialism. 

Lesson V. — Trades Unions and Socialism. 

Lesson VI. — The Farmers and Socialism. 

Lesson VII. — The Middle Class Workers and Socialism. 

Lesson VIII. — Religion, Education and Socialism. 

Lesson IX. — Political Parties and Socialism. 

Lesson X. — How to Work for Socialism. 

Each of the ten lessons which have been especially prepared by Mi. 
Mills, the author of "The Struggle for Existence," gives special direc- 
tions for the study of some one topic as given in the above schedule. 
Each lesson gives a summary of the subject matter to be studied with 
special references to all the paragraphs in the text book bearing upon 
that topic and designating those to be read only, as well as those to be 
carefully studied. Each lesson in the course is followed by a list of 
test questions, the answers to which are written up as studied and for- 
warded to Mr. Mills for correction, approval or recommendations for 
further study, together vvnth answers to any special questions asked. 


Lesson I. — The Building and the Mastery of Words. 
Lesson IL — The Classes of Words. 

REMEMBER: — If you wish to understand the labor question, to deal with the high cost of living, to understand the rise of militarism and the 
way of escape, to fight effectively for the young, the disabled and the aged, in short, if you wish to be a good and an effective Socialist, begin at 
once the study of these lessons in Socialism. If you wish to have a voice as clear and musical as a bell, so that people will listen to you just for the 
music of your voice, to be heard distinctly by the largest crowds, to have a throat of steel that will never fail you, to have a great fund of fresh 
and interesting information, to be able to think at your best on your feet and before a crowd, to be an effective salesman in offering goods or in 
presenting ideas, to speak without notes and never forget, to addreso a throng as though you were speaking to a single friend and to become your- 
self the incarnation of the message you take to others, then take these ten lessons in the Art of Public Speaking. 

If you want to write for the press, not for the waste basket, to be understood, not to be laughed at, to write letters that bring replies, to serve 
on committees, write resolutions or party platforms, to gather the greatest fund of information, to write a story that will read when printed as it 
sounds when told, to recover from the brogue or the broken forms of foreign speech or of untrained utterance, then take these lessons in the study 
of the English language. 

fl THESE LESSONS WILL BE WORTH YOUR WHILE. The following well-known speakers, writers and organizers were once students of Mr. Mills: 
George R. Kirkpatrick, Anna Maley, Fred. D. Warren, Kate O'Hare, Frank O'Hare, Guy Lockwood, Mrs. Lockwood, Oscar Ameringer, Phil Callery, 
J. W. Slayton, Gertrude Breslau Fuller, 0. S. Wilson, Judge Groesbeck, Geo. W. Downing, Agnes Downing, John M. Work, Mrs, A. M. Salyer, Geo. 

In these 

I. — The Training of the Voice. 

IL — Gathering the Speaker's Materials. 

III. — Constructing the Argument. 

IV. — The Delivery of a Speech. 

V. — Adornment and Power in Public Address. 

VI. — The Speech and the Occasion. 

VII. — Errors in Speech. 

VIII. — Controversial Speech. 

IX. — How to Manage a Crowd. 

X. — The Personal Qualities of an Orator. 

as in the course of English, each lesson is complete 

in itself and no text book v^nll be required, and the manner of proceed- 
"ure will be the samt 

H. Turner, George D. Brewer, J. E. Snyder, George Scott, Mrs. Bradford, 
Lowe, James O'Neal, W. C. Benton, J. L. Fitts, J. L. Engdahl, Dr. Nina 

TERMS: The Course of Lessons in Socialism, including a paper- 
bound copy of "The Struggle for Existence" by Walter Thomas Mills, 
free, $5.00 for a single student; in classes of five or more, $3.00 each; 
in classes of ten or more with text book free to each student in any 
case, $2.50 each; or the course free to anyone ordering ten copies of 
the cloth-bound edition of "The Struggle for Existence" at $1.50 each 
(regular price $2.50) ; or ten copies of "Democracy or Despotism" by 
Walter Thomas Mills, regular price $1.25 each, to one address. 

The Courses in the study of English and in the Art of Public Speak- 
ing are $10.00 each for single students; in classes of five $7.50 each; 

Walter and Rose Walker, Anna Strunsky Walling, T. E. Latimer, Caroline 
E. Wood. 

in classes of ten or more $6.00 each; or either Course for a single 
student free to anyone ordering fifteen cloth-bound copies of "The 
Struggle for Existence" at $!.50 (regular price $2.50) ; or fifteen copies 
of "Democracy or Despotism" at $1.00 each (regular price $1.25) to 
one address, purchasers paying the freight. 

^ Now is the time to get ready for the winter's work. You can in- 
vest in nothing that will pay so large a return as when you invest in 
yourself. You can earn these courses getting up clubs for the books. 
You can greatly reduce the expense and add to the pleasure and profit 
of the work by getting up classes in any of these Courses. 

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS, always mentioning that ycu saw this ad in THE WESTERN COMRADE, 

The International School of Social Economy 



Political Action 



c 1 a 1 1 s m 

The Western Comrade 

Devoted to the Cause of the Workers 
Entered as second-class matter November 4th, 1916, at the post office at Llano, California, mider Act of March 3, 1879. 

JOB HARRIMAN Managing Editor. "^g*= 7 ERNEST S. WOOSTER Business Manager 

Subscription Rate — 75c a year; Canada $1. Single Copies 10c; clubs of 4 or mora (in U. S.) 50c. Combination with LLANO COLONIST $1. 
Publishers and others are invited to copy at will from the WESTERN COMRADE, but are asked to give credit. Nothing copyrighted unless so stated. 
In making change of address always give your former one so that the mailing department may be certain that the right name is being changed. 

Please do not send subscriptions, changes of address, complaints, etc., to individuals. Address ALL communications to the Llano Publica- 
tions, Llano, Calif. This paper will not assume responsibility unless this rule is followed. 

VOL. V. 


No. 6 

Editorials « 

Job Harriman 

NEVER in the history of the world did a revolutionary 
movement show such vitality and determination as that 
of Russia. It is confronted with the all but irresistible 
German army; with the conservative, plutocratic rebellions of 
the empire; and with the infinitely complex and perplexing 
problems of reconstruction. Yet the new government is 
handling the situation with great skill and profound wisdom. 
Political and industrial democracy are growing in an orderly 
manner out of the tyranny and chaos that gave them birth. 

The vitality of this new movement is due largely to the phil- 
osophy of Socialism, so thoroughly and generally understood 
by the Russian people. This movement was known as "under- 
ground Russia." It grew in spite of eternal vigilance of the 
universal secret service spy system, backed by a brutal police 
and an armed force of infantry and cossacks. 

These humble but highly intelligent people contrived to 
publish their books, pamphlets, papers and leaflets, and to cir- 
culate them by the millions throughout the empire. Occasion- 
ally an unfortunate, courageous enthusiast became too bold, 
and, being detected, he was transported to the mines or 
prisons of Siberia and punished for life for the crime of up- 
lifting and educating his fellowmen. It was these long years 
of persistent and relentless effort to teach the people their 
rights that prepared the Russian mind for the establishment of 
the foremost democracy of the world. 

It was in the same manner and against similar obstacles that 
the German Socialists overcame the brutal Bismarckian laws, 
and were, before the war, moving irresistibly toward the over- 
throw of the Kaiser's government and the establishment of a 
social democracy. 

The downfall of the Kaiser will yet be brought about, not 
by the Socialist forces from without, but by the Socialist 
forces from within. It will be done with order, precision and 
determination. Even greater discipline and more profound 
wisdom will be shown in Germany than was shown in Russia. 

Whoever is acquainted with the German people and has ob- 
served the German mind must know that they will not make 
a move until they first know that they maintain perfect mili- 
tary discipline and sustain a solid front to their enemies when 
the Kaiser goes down. It is toward the fall of the Kaiser and 

the uplift of the people that the Socialists of Germany have 
been moving for the last half century. Their victory is as 
certain as the morrow is to come. The peaceful, educational 
methods of the Socialist movement will overcome and over- 
throw any government on earth that rests its power on op- 
pression, sustained by brute force. 

There is a profound reason for this. Every human being, 
like all other forms of energy, seeks the line of least resistance. 
When he is bearing burdens of tyranny and plutocracy, he is 
not moving in the line of least resistance. Every thought that 
tells him how to cast off his burden and make life more 
desirable is music to his ears and food for his soul. 

There is yet another reason. Every conviction that leads to 
one's liberty of his fellows begets a social passion that is dearer 
than life, and for which millions have been, and, if necessary, 
will yet be crucified. But persecution and crucifixion and all 
the tortures of hell will not cause them to deny their convic- 
tions nor surrender their social passions. 

Yet there is not and never has been a man in all the woria 
so rich but that he would freely give his last dollar to save 
his life! 

The social passion, the inborn desire to give aid and succoi 
to humanity is born and lives and moves in the very depths 
of human impulses, while the getting of money is only a matter 
of superficial rational activity. 

It is because of this fact that all governments founded on 
property rights constantly gather military power around them, 
but are from their inception doomed to go down before the 
tidal wave of more humane impulses, struggling for the general 
uplift and the welfare of the race. 

THE headquarters of the Socialist Party in Chicago and 
various other cities are reported to have been raided by 
the government authorities. 

We cannot believe this has been done with the sanction 
of President Wilson. The world cannot be made safe for 
democracy by such methods. 

There is a very general misunderstanding of the Socialist 
on the part of many government and state officials. 

The Sociahst movement is international. The members 

Page four 

The Western Comrad 

have been meeting together in international congresses for 
half a century. Their interests and philosophy are the same. 
They feel towards and treat each other as brothers. They 
are brothers, not only in theory but in deed. The thought of 
killing each other is unbearable and except when immediate 
necessity presses, they refuse to fight. 

We believe, however, that none of them would refuse to 
work in any industry where conscription might call them, es- 
pecially if that work were required to be done upon property 
conscripted for the same purpose. 

Surely if men may be conscripted to work, property may 
also be conscripted for them to work with and upon. 

Conscription of men, conscription of food, conscription of 
property, is as certain as tomorrow, if the war lasts. 

If men, food, and property are conscripted they will not be 
unconscripted. "You cannot unscramble eggs." The power 
to conscript in times of war establishes the right to conscript 
in times of peace or war. Necessity knows no law but action, 
and such action is always in line with the power action, let 
that power be what it may. 

It is up to the acting power to be wise, for if wisdom is 
lacking and the burdens imposed are too heavy, the result will 
be a revolution. That is what took place in Russia. That 
is what President Wilson demands of the German people ; that 
is what vrtll happen wherever the burdens are unbearable. 

Conscription of men, foods, and property lead inevitably 
to state socialism; beyond that, and in sight, lies the long- 
sought Social Democracy. 

England's war debt to date is upwards of $5,000,000,- 
000; the war debt of the United States at the present 
moment is $20,000,000,000. 

A fool and his money are soon parted. 

CHEAP bread! Unfortunately, we do not have it; but it 
will soon come. 

"The members of the price-fixing commission think that 
the new price will permit of a fourteen-ounce loaf of bread 
selling for five cents and allowing a fair profit both to the 
flour manufacturer and the baker," says the Literary Digest. 

A profit, fair or unfair, is fixed in the minds of all. This 
fact is the fulcrum upon which the world war is turning. 
World cataclysms will continue as long as this fact remains. 
No man can make a profit off another and live in harmony 
with him. The bone and marrow of all war is the conflict 
of interest; and "profit" is the essence of the conflict. 

THE Pope's peace proposal is now being published by 
a Catholic publishing company and circulated in an 
artfully prepared paper that spouts flames of danger from 
every line. 

The mighty organization of Catholicism is striving with all 
its might to re-establish the temporal power and absolutism 
of the Pope. 

The following quotation will reveal the hand-writing on 
the wall. But the Pope will be the Belshazzer: 

"In my opinion, Europe and the civilized world ought to 
institute at Rome a tribunal of arbitration presided over by 
the Pope, which should take cognizance of the difference 
between Christian princes. This tribunal, established over 
princes to direct and judge them, would bring us back to the 
golden age." 

Golden age, indeed! It is a golden age now for the princes. 
Princes always have and always will, as long as princes exist, 
enjoy a golden age! What do we want with princes and their 
golden ages? Will someone tell? What was the American 
Revolution all about? We are not looking for a golden age 
for princes or Popes. They have had their innings. They 
have been weighed in the balance and found wanting. Pov- 
erty, misery, ignorance and degradation have been man's lot 
under their sceptres. Away with their political power! They 
are partners in tyranny. It remains for the people to be part- 
ners in liberty and democracy. 

Again we listen to the Pope: "We must find a new bond 
to unite us all. The Pope alone can form this bond. Only 
Rome can make her impartial and unprejudiced voice heard, 
for no one doubts for an instant the integrity of her judge- 

How about her impartial and unprejudiced judgment in the 
days of the Spanish inquisition? No, no one doubts. Every- 
body knows that the world has had enough of such impartial 
and unprejudiced judgment. None of it for us. 

Again: "The niterests of the human race require that there 
be a curb which will restrain sovereigns and protect the life of 
nations; this curb of religion might by universal consent have 
peen placed in the hands of the Pope." 

Curbing! The people had better do their own curbing. 
The Pope curbs to the glory of the Pope. The people will 
curb to the glory of the people. A little abolition on the side 
might help some. 

Again: "It is necessary that the present system of decidiag 
international questions by a congress be abandoned and re- 
course be had to the supreme arbitration of the Pope." 

The pages of history are smeared with the blood of religious 
persecutions. The hands of the Popes are black with human 

Swallow the Pope by choice and you will swallow his re- 
/igion by force! 

What is the matter with democracy? 

THE most remarkable fact in connection with the enormous 
cantonments now being built in the various parts of our 
country is the permanency of structures. 

Concrete foundations of many buildings; water pipes en- 
cased in concrete; enormous substantial storage houses; and 
other durable structures; — all impress one with the idea that 
the foundation for militarism, rather than democracy, is being 

In all probability, those holding such political offices as 
enable them to temporarily direct the construction work, will 
honestly repudiate this idea, but their terms of office will soon 
expire, while the institutions that gave rise to their military 
camps will continue to live and the owners of those institutions 

ThcWcslcrn Comrade 


will direct the military force of the future as they direct ;he 
military power of today in every labor trouble. 

The labor and reform movements will then stand face to 
face with an all but irresistible military force. Such a suc- 
cessful strike as the recent shipbuilders' strike in San Fran- 
cisco will be a thing of the past. 

Far be it from us to question the honesty of our high offi- 
cials. But honesty does not remove danger. An honest man 
is far more dangerous than a hypocrite if he is in error. A 
hypocrite can be changed from his course by a show of power, 
but an honest man will die for his convictions, be they right 
or wrong. 

So, also, are those honest who own the industries. And, 
strange as it may appear, every dollar of accumulated profit 
confirms the conviction of the man who believes that it is right 
to accumulate money by employing men for a wage less than 
the worth of their product. Comforts and luxuries are added 
in proportion to the wealth accumulated, and even doubtful 
opinions are transformed into convictions by the luxuries that 
are added. It is hard indeed for him to surrender his luxuries 
who kuows that he has employed wrong methods m accumulat- 
ing them; but it is impossible for him to surrender them if 
he believes the methods employed to accumulate them were 

Not only will the honest man die for this privilege; but, 
being in power, he will use the public force to protect himself 
and all others in the exercise of those privileges. In this fact 
lies all the elements of monarchy and of militarism. Militarism 
and monarchy are only different forms of the same thing. 
Their roots run down into, and are made up of, the private 
ownership of productive property. While this institution of 
private property lasts, our liberties are in danger, and democ- 
racy hangs by a thread. 

GOVERNOR FERGUSON, of Texas, has been impeached. 
Of course, he resigned his office but did not do so until 
the vote impeaching him was about to be taken. Not only is 
he impeached, but he is indicted for embezzlement and mis- 
appropriation of funds. Nor is he alone; he has plenty of 
company. Many officials in high places in that state are now 
before the grand jury and will be prosecuted for the same 

The condition in Texas is not very different from that in 
other states. The trouble in Texas seems to be that the 
machinery of the state got out of the hands of the machine. 

The preachers of Texas have raised their voices at least 
an octave. It is not a sweet refrain that they are singmg. 
The titles of their songs are "original sin," "the fall of man," 
and "total depravity," and their breaths are laden with the 
brimstone and sulphur. 

They have forgotten that these men were born pure and 
sweet, and were those of whom Christ spoke when he said: 
"Suffer little children to come unto Me and forbid them not, 
for of such is the kingdom of heaven." 

Nor yet do these preachers see that the temptations laid 
before these men by the industrial and commercial system of 
which these very preachers are champions, is the cause of 

their downfall. The money power incident to office was a 
greater temptation than they could withstand. 

Our political institutions are only a duplicate of our in- 
dustrial institutions. The opportunity to get money without 
earning it is the curse of the age. Buying and selling and 
speculating and employing for profit — all lead to gambling 
and swindling and embezzling, and getting money by cunning. 

The principle involved in both are the same. 

Something for nothing is the curse of the age. 

BRUTE force as a means of government is committing 
suicide. It is the law of death. Every race or species 
that adopts force as a rule of action ends in the tomb. The 
most peaceful races and the most peaceful animals have sur- 
vived. Were force the law of life, the reverse would be true. 

JUDGE BURNS of Texas would murder all men who vote 
contrary to his views on the war question. He would 
crucify democracy in the name of the nation. He is mad 
with power and made insane by the law's restrictions. Our 
laws are made to bridle such beasts. No crime is too base 
for him who would deny the right of franchise to the Amer- 
ican people. The right of suffrage was the fruit of the 
American Revolution. The blood of our forefathers was 
spilt for this right. Burns would wickedly spill the blood of 
our forefathers to maintain it. 

Instructing the local grand jury, he said, "If I had a wish 
I would that you men had jurisdiction to return bills of in- 
dictment against those who sought to obtain votes at the 
expense of the nation's welfare. Such men should be placed 
against a stone wall and shot." 

Judge Burns is guilty of treason. When accepting office 
he swore that he would support the Constitution. The right 
of free speech and unrestricted suffrage is the very heart 
of our constitution. His statement, if followed, would cut 
this heart out. 

The people shed their blood for the privilege ol voting 
for the alteration, the change and repeal of any law that they 

If Burns' advice were followed, another civil and terrible 
revolution would be upon us. 

The policy of our people is and should be to support all 
laws while in force, but to change them when disapproved. 

What else does democracy mean? 

II the President's message means anything it means this. 
No one has a right to presume that he means otherwise until 
he says or acts to the contrary. 

Violence to the right of franchise is treason in the first 

The robe of a judge can not conceal this treasonable act. 


*'^)EACE without victory!" The hope of America! 

*■ This is the hope of the people of the world! 

But this is not the hope of the aristocracy of the world. To 
this sentiment they say "Get thee behind me, Satan, I know 
thee not!" The aristocrats are ravenous beasts. They are 
ambitious for the spoils of war and for the world's dominion. 


The Western C( 

Llano's Louisiana Purchase 


HEN the Llano del Rio Co-operative Colony was estab- 
lished at Llano, Los Angeles County, California, it 
was expected that it would be the first of what should 
ultimately be a large number of associated colonies 
scattered through many states, all to be correlated and to work 
in perfect harmony with one another. 

Now the time has arrived when this intention is to be car- 
ried out. 

The first attempt was made at Llano, and it has aroused 
widespread interest. From every English-speaking country 
come letters evincing the utmost sympathy, and expressing 
the desire to be with those who are pioneering in this work. 

Llano, situated in the edge of the great Mojave Desert, in 
the part known as the Antelope Valley, is one of the finest 
pear-producing districts in the world. Apples and other fruits 
do well. Markets are not far distant, and every indication 
points to the Llano property eventually being worth millions 
of dollars if developed as a fruit growing district. 

But in the meantime Llano cannot support a great popula- 
tion because trees do not begin to bear for several years. 
The pioneer work having been done, most of the people will 
either have to go into some industry or to go into some other 

About a year ago Comrade Harriman began a quiet in- 
vestigation to determine the best place to begin the first colony 
extension work. His travel took him into many states and 
he considered many tracts of land. Finally he learned of a 
vast stretch of virgin soil in the cut-over pine district of west- 
ern Louisiana. Without making known his intentions, he 
investigated fully, gathered an amazing quantity of accurate 
and detailed information, and reported to the Board of Direc- 
tors. It was favorably considered by them and then the pro- 
position was placed before the Colonists in a mass meeting. 
They became convinced of the splendid possibilities. A com- 
mittee was at once appointed to verify the report of Comrade 
Harriman and to gather further information. 

This committee left Llano the latter part of August. Stops 
were made at Minneola, Texas, for the big encampment there, 
and at other places. The comrades in Texas were wildly 
enthusiastic and immediately proffered aid of all sorts in mak- 
ing the first extension a grand success. 

But like their comrades in Llano, they were very much 
opposed to the disposal of the California property. This has 
been advocated by some. The sentiment is not at all favorable 
to such a sale. 

The foregoing brief explanation is intended to forestall mis- 
conceptions on the part of readers, and erroneous ideas as 
to why this move is to be made. 

The Truth About Louisiana 

The Gulf Lumber Company owned a 16,000 acre tract of 
land in Vernon Parish, Louisiana, one portion of it is within 
one mile of Leesville, the Parish seat of Vernon Parish, being 
to the south and west, and about 12 miles from the Sabine 
River. It is perhaps 45 miles from Alexandria, 100 miles from 
Shreveport, and about 200 miles from New Orleans. 

So much misunderstanding exists concerning Louisiana, and 
so much misinformation has been spread broadcast, that it is 
necessary to correct, right on the start, some of these erronous 

Louisiana has been considered a state of swamps, alligators, 
yellow fever, malaria, and people of little education. Of 
course a portion of this is true; otherwise the wrong stories 
would never have been told and re-told. But the truth about 

Louisiana is that it is like many other states — some of it is 
good and some is not so good. There are swamps along the 
coast. In these swamps there are mosquitoes and in them 
diseases menace the health. 

But these swamps are only a comparatively small part of 
the area of the state. The rest of Louisiana is a treasure 
house of potential wealth. Its soil is wondrously rich. Its 
people are probably as well educated. Though it has had 
overwhelming odds to contend with, Louisiana has made pro- 
gress. Without advertising, and therefore without having at- 
tracted wide-spread attention, Louisiana nevertheless has 
forged ahead. 

One of the best portions of Louisiana is Vernon Parish, 
which has been covered with heavy forests of pine timber, 
this being the chief long leaf pine district. Some of the 
greatest saw mills in the world are here. The most recent 
figures give 666,000 acres of timber land out of the nine 
hundred and eighty thousand acres comprising the total acre- 
age of the county. Residents are few, there being but 20,000 
in the Parish. Leesville, the county seat, has but 2,500 people. 
It is a modern little city, and a pretty one, vflth good schools 
and modern conveniences. 

The Highlands of Vernon Parish are fertile and productive. 
Moreover, these piney highlands are healthful. There are no 
mosquitoes, no malaria, no fevers. The people are healthy. 
A letter from Dr. Oscar Dowling, to the WESTERN COM- 
RADE in answer to questions concerning the health condi- 
tions of Vernon Parish, brought the following answer: 

New Orleans, La. 
Llano Publications: Sept. 7. 1917. 

Llano, Cal. 

Your inquiry concerning Vernon Parish received and it is a 
pleasure to state that health conditions in the entire state of Louisiana 
will compare favorably with those of any other Southern state . . . 

As Slate Health Officer, I travel over the slate — even to the 
remote rural districts — many times every year. I have been in Vernon 
during the last seven years a number of times. The citizens there are 
very healthful in appearance, and the schools are running over. Both 
of these I consider most excellent indications of go®d conditions. 

An adequate supply of potable water may be had in any 
section of Vernon, and if the residents are reasonably careful as to 
their sanitary environs . . . they need not fear sickness any more 
than in any other part of the country. 

Very truly yours. 


The weather conditions are also favorable. Though there 
is no weather bureau station in Vernon Parish, there is one 
at Sugartown just a few miles south and one at Robeline, a 
few miles north of the Colony property. Precipitation for 
Robeline is given at 45 inches for the year, for Sugartown 
at 53 for the year. Mean temperature for the year is highest 
at both stations during July and August, and stands at be- 
tween 81 and 82. Lowest mean temperature is given at 
Robeline at 47 in December and January, and at Sugartovm 
at 50 and 5 1 for December, January and February. These 
figures are taken from records covering a number of places. 
Thus it will be seen that there is ample rainfall, and very 
little cold weather, giving a growing season of at least eight 

The Commission of Agriculture and Immigration has this 
to say regarding Vernon Parish: 

"This Parish is situated in the western part of the state, and 
contains 986,600 acres of land. The formation is chiefly pine hills, 
with a little prairie and alluvial lands. The Kansas City Southern 
railroad runs north and south through this parish. It is drained by the 
Sabine and Calcasieu rivers, and by bayous Comrade, Castor, Ana- 

The Western Comrade 

Page seven 

coco, and numerous small streams. Water is abundant and of good 

"Leesville, on the Kansas City Southern railroad, is the Parish seat. 
Cotton is the chief crop product, and corn and hay, oats, peas, sweet 
potatoes, Irish potatoes, and sorghum are grown. The fruits and nuts 
are peaches, pears, pecans, apples, figs, pomegranates, plums, and 
grapes. Livestock comprises cattle, sheep, hogs, and horses. Game 
consists of deer, squirrels, coons, opossums, rabbits, beaver, wild 
turkeys, wild ducks, partridges, woodcock, pheasant, becasine snipe, 
plover and rice birds. There are fine varieties of fish found in the 
streams, among them trout, pike, bar fish, and bass. The timber is 
pine, oak, elm, gum, willow, hickory, and cottomvood. Extensive areas 
of long leaf pine exist." 

The crop report for the year 1916 gives the following data 
regarding crops produced in Vernon Parish. 

Cotton 1598 bales Sweet potatoes.... 100,000 bu. 

Corn 240,000 bushels Irish potatoes 10,000 bu. 

Syrup 4,500 barrels Hay 700 tons 

Peanuts 1 ,000 bushels Oats 7,000 bushels 

Amons the live stock listed are 15,075 head of catde, 5,864 
hogs, besides sheep, goats, horses, mules, etc., proving con- 
vincingly that this is an ideal stock country. 

Forage crops grow splendidly, and Louisiana can boast of 
many varieties of grasses. In these piney highlands, which 
are 240 feet above sea level, rolling, well-drained, with rich 
soil and healthful environment, many kinds of forage grasses 
grow and as a stock country it is so good that this promises 
to become one of the greatest meat producing regions of North 
America. Here the livestock of the Colony can be pastured 
through most of the year, and made ready for market at little 

What The Committee Reported 

When the committee was selected by the Colonists to view, 
investigate, and report, it went with a full sense of the tremen- 
dous responsibility resting on it, and its report is given with 
all due care for accuracy. The committee consisted of Pre- 
sident Job Harriman and Secretary W. A. Engle of the Llano 
del Rio Company of Nevada, and Robert E. White, assistant 
superintendent of the ranch. The report is given here. 

"The state of Louisiana is a rich and beautiful but sadly 
neglected state. It has not yet completely recovered from the 
blow dealt it during the Civil War. This is one of the reasons 
why its land has not been taken up before and why it is pos- 
sible for the Colony to secure this vast, rich territory. Even 
yet there are old plantations which have never been touched 
since the war, the buildings long since fallen into decay, the 
lands grown again with pines, some almost large enough to 
be made into lumber. 

"The stream of emigration has been westward, and Louis- 
iana, neglecting to advertise her wonderful resources, has been 
overlooked. Even those from the South, westward bound, 
passed through Louisiana without stopping, and have gone 
on into Texas. 

"But this year there is drouth in Texas. There are vast 
districts as barren as the desert, the cattle and other stock 
driven off in search of pasturage, the fields mere dry wastes. 
No rain has fallen for many months, and what was once a 
productive land is now being deserted. The people are leav- 
ing, and the stream of emigration is this time eastward again, 
east into the heretofore neglected and overlooked Mississippi 
states, where this year the corn and cotton crops are large, 
for this land does not have drouth. The rains never fail. 

"The land for which the Colony has bargained, an im- 
mense tract of 16,000 acres, is southwest of Leesville. On 
it are perhaps 1200 acres of the finest of hardwood timber, 
comparable with the best to be found anywhere in the Missis- 
sippi Valley. Its estimated value runs up into the hundreds 
of thousands of dollars. These trees are of several kinds, 

among them being beech, magnolia, white oak, cypress, walnut, 
post oak, red oak, sweet gum, hickory. The trees are very 
large, magnificent specimens of their kind. There is also much 
good pine, though the trees are scattered in small groups. It 
will, however, serve to supply the Colony with all of its needs 
for many years to come. 

"Among the first questions asked are: What will the land 
produce? What kind of soil is it? Is it easily worked? 

"The soil is a gray sand, underlaid with a deep red subsoil. 
It is easily worked, but it must be remembered that this tract 
is almost entirely covered with stumps, and these must be 
taken out, although it is possible to farm with them in the 
land for a while. The trees were cut off about fifteen years 

"The land is highly productive and good results can be 
secured for the labor applied, but it means work and lots of 
it. On the land are several small farms, and inquiries were 
made to ascertain what is grown and what the production is. 
Special attention was given to learning whether the land would 
produce the very first year, and also whether it would retain 
its fertility. It was found, by questioning there, that the land 
will produce from the first, and that the variety of crops is 
extensive. Moreover, it will retain its fertility, though of 
course the rotation of crops, rational methods, and the appli- 
cation of fertilizer crops or fertilizers are quite as essential 
for big results as they are anywhere else. One of these 
farms had been farmed for fifteen years and is a paying 

"The land will produce many crops. There is no finer fig 
district anywhere. This will surprise those who had con- 
sidered California the finest fig groviing state. Cotton and 
corn and sugar cane are the big paying crops. Melons of 
all kinds produce wonderfully. This is in the pecan district. 
Oats are profitably grown here. Peaches, plums, prunes, 
cherries are all profitable, as are berries of nearly every variety. 
Not far away, in this same general district, the growing of 
strawberries is a special industry. Raspberries, blackberries, 
and dew berries grow wild. With the exception of citrus 
fruits, there are practically no fruits but what can be produced 
here, not only for home use, but also commercially, and made 
to pay. Vegetables of all kinds do exceptionally well. There 
will be no difficulty in producing everything for our own use, 
and having a great abundance to dispose of. We should be 
able to market a large quantity of corn, cotton, melons, pota- 
toes, cane and peanuts the first season. 

"On this land are a number of small cottages which can be 
utilized by having just a little work done on them. Lumber 
is easily secured, and the building of other houses is a matter 
of comparatively little expense. On an adjoining piece of 
land is a saw mill, and it is possible that we will be able to 
secure this mill for Colony uses at less cost than one could be 
taken from Llano. 

"One of the advantages we will enjoy is being close to the 
railroad, so that transportation will not be a serious problem. 
Leesville, close by, has a good high school and good grammar 
schools. Our educational problem will not be a serious one. 

"There is no disease, except such as is found in any dis- 
trict anywhere in almost any country. The environment is 
good and the health conditions are excellent. There are no 
mosquitoes. Though we were there in the early part of 
September, the heat was not oppressive, and we slept under 
blankets every night. This condition did not exist in other 
parts of Louisiana even at that time. The people are alert, 
progressive, and of the kind that it is a pleasure to be among. 
"Water in the wells is clear as crystal, and as pure as water 
can be. In the streams, however, the water is discolored by 
the leaves and vegetation, though not impure. Fish live in 
it. Large ones are caught in the stream which flows through 


TKe Western Coi 

this property. About twelve miles away is the Sabine River, 
which is full of fish of several varieties. 

"No liquor IS sold in Louisiana. It is a dry state. It is 
a place to make a home and to want to live. The need of 
Louisiana has been men and money, and her resources have 
been largely untouched. Only about twenty per cent of the 
arable land is under cultivation. Vast fertile tracts are not 
producmg. Just recently have efforts been made to develop 
the agricultural resources as they should be. In Vernon Parish 
the land has been covered with timber, which has, of course, 
prevented agricultural development, but as this is being rapidly 
cut off, the time is close when it will all be under cultivation." 

"This report is not by any means complete, but it will 
give a good idea of what to expect. The land is rich, but 
it requires work to make it produce. We investigated every 
phase of it we could think of, and we believe that no place 
we have ever seen combines so many advantages. 

"A summary of what is secured with the new Colony pos- 
sessions will give a more adequate idea of the wonderful 
possibilities and the ease with which it may be developed 
and made to become productive. 

16,000 acres of land in all; One office 40x50 feet, iron 

1,200 acres of hardwood tim- safe included; 

ber; Eight other sheds and struc- 

27 good habitable houses; tures; 

One 18-room hotel, in fairly 2 million feet of lumber in 

good condition; these wooden buildings. 

100 cheap houses; 5 concrete drying kilns, each 

One shed 130x300 feet; about 20x70 and 20 feet 

One shed 130x200 feet; high, cost $12,000; 

One shed 80x100 feet; Railroad bed with ties (no 

One store 30x90 feet, fixtures rails) through the middle 

in good shape; of the tract, connecting 

1 concrete power house; with railroad on each side. 

"The value of the above, aside from the labor put into 
them, is quite a consideration, and will save a vast amount 
of time and work. Besides housing the first families who go 
there, the industries can also be well housed and no time will 
be lost in providing for them. 

"Very little work will be required to put the buildings into 
condition so that they may be used at once. 

"This is indeed the most wonderful opportunity, and nothing 
can hinder the progress of the Colony. There is every reason 
to believe that within a short time the Llano Colony in Louis- 
iana will be a producing, thriving, growing concern, a source 
of interest to all, a means of livlihood and more to those 
within it." 

Some idea of the vastness of a 16,000 acre tract of land 
may be secured by remembering that if 16,000 acres were 
laid out in one long narrow strip, one mile wide, it would 
extend for 25 miles. Just imagine some point 25 miles away 
and think how immense this is! Or, if we were in a more 
nearly square shape, which it is, it would be 5 miles in length 
and 5 miles in width. 

So well impressed were the people of Texas and Oklahoma, 
that they gave substantial pledges of their intention of be- 
coming members immediately the tract is ready to receive 
members. Before the deal was fully closed, thirty families 
were ready to become residents of the New Llano. This is 
the kind of recommendation that the people who know West- 
ern Louisiana are giving. One comrade from Texas writes 
that there will be 75 to 100 ready to come in by December 
first. And this means that the first extension work of the Llano 
Colony will be a gigantic success from the very first. 

In spite of war and high prices and mistakes and hardships 
and disappointment and attacks by those who cannot or will 
not understand, the co-operative colony movement is going 

ahead and the wonderful work attempted by the Llano del Rio 
Colony has just really commenced. 

Inquiries made in the Llano Colony indicate that a majority 
of the people here will desire to go to Louisiana to give the 
new Colony a start. Not all, of course, will go, for there are 
many so enamored of the climate and the wonderful views that 
they will not leave. Others came here, drawn largely because 
of the healthful conditions, the dryness of this climate being 
the particular quality that attracted them. These persons will 
not want to go. They are here to stay. 

But many of the people of Llano naturally have the desire to 
change environment. It is of their chief characteristics. They 
are venturesome by nature. The idea of extending the work 
of the Llano Colony, of invading the Solid South with the 
ideas of co-operation applied, appeals to them. 

So the likelihood is that a majority will want to go to Louis- 
iana. They wil pack up their household utensils and goods. 
The industries will be taken down, some of them, and moved 
to the new center of activity. The temporary tent houses will 
be razed to the ground, the canvas converted into many pur- 
poses, the frame work made into other articles and used in 

It is to be a titanic task, this one of moving a city. It means 
incessant activity. It means securing many cars, perhaps a 

$185,000 has been spent in hard-surfacing the roads in Vernon Parish. 
Further Improvements are being made yearly. 

whole train. The road will be lined with loads of goods bound 
for Palmdale. 

Of course, this does not mean the abandonment of Llano, 
California. It merely means expansion. Those who are left 
will carry on the enterprise. They will develop the water, put 
it on the land, distribute it through the ditches to the points 
where it is most needed. They will plant the orchards and 
care for them. Theirs will be the task of carrying out the 
plans which have been made. 

Llano Socialists have come, have worked out their theories, 
and have demonstrated them. They have stripped theory of 
its non-essentials and have reduced it to a practice. They 
KNOW their Socialism. Theirs is not mere theory, untried. 
Theirs is the experience born of three years of worthy effort, 
of genuine constructive work, of pioneering where man and 
nature frowned, where powerful enemies oppressed, where ig- 
norance cast its obstacles in their path, and where the faint- 
hearted quit and the doubters left. 

But it has made its place. It has everything in its favor. 
Llano the Second is born, and by the time this reaches the 
readers, it will already be a lusty youngster, anxious to con- 
quer and subjugate the 16,000 acres before it. 

[The November WESTERN COMRADE will tell about the plans being 
made for handling and developing the new Colony.] 

The Western Coitirad( 

Page nine 

The Devil's Punch Bowl 

OUTH of Llano, lucked away in the surrounding 
hills, and scarce visible from the road unless special 
attention is directed toward it, lies a huge mass of 
conglomerate rock, worn and eroded, seared by time 
and storm, perforated by innumerable little caves, carved 
into deep canyons and ravines. Uplifted masses rear them- 
selves above the general level. A precarious trail winds along 
cliffs that look down hundreds of feet into the chasms below. 
It is a weird and picturesque spot, little visited, rich in scenic 
wonders, a small reproduction of some of the wonders seen 
in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. 

The Devil's Punch Bowl it is called. It is perhaps a mile 
in width and two miles or more in length, paralleling the 
ranges of the Sierra Madres. Almost devoid of vegetation, 
yet circled by more or less verdant hills the spot is one to 
long be remembered. 

Visitors are not taken to the Devil's Punch Bowl when 
they visit Llano. Some go to the timber where the logging 
camp is, where pretty, though diminutive, Jackson's Lake is 
a cool and inviting spot; some go to the Fish Hatchery where 
the cienegas, flowing from the dry bed of a seasonal creek, 
unite to form the Big Rock, and these visitors marvel at the 
springs thus bursting forth. 

But the Devil's Punch Bowl is not Llano property and it 
is not easily accessible. There is a way to reach it by auto- 
mobile. That is by way of the Pallet Valley, a valley high 
above the Antelope Valley, snuggled up close to the highest 
southern mountain range visible from Llano, in the protected 
coves and arroyes of which are small farms. But the road 
from Llano to the Pallet Valley is neither direct nor good, 
and those who make the trip once do not care to make it 
again unless it is necessary. 

There is another way and a direct one. That is to go 
through the beautiful Valyermo ranch, perhaps five miles 
south of Llano. The road to this place is excellent. But the 
rest of the trip to the Bowl must be made afoot. However, 
the trail is good, and it is easily followed. 

Standing sentinel guard over the North Portal of the Bowl 
is a giant mass of red rock. A narrow defile through the 
hills which mask the Punch Bowl widens rapidly and the 
vast upheavals of grayish rock are piled higher and higher. 

Trickling out through the south gap is a little stream. It 
does not get far, soon being absorbed by the thirsty sand, 
licked up by the ardent sun, and drunk by the roots of the 
alders that line the little stream. A splendid camp ground, 
long known and reached by a short trail branching off from 
the main one, with plenty of wood, with clear, cold, pure 
water in abundance makes this a delightful place to remain. 
The source of the little rivulet is about 200 yards above this 
spot, where it emerges from beneath the foot of a cliff. Early 
in the morning there is a generous How; by night it has 
dwindled to a mere trickle, but it is unfailing throughout the 
year. Why it should be so low in the evening is not fully 
explained by absorption, by the amount taken in by tree roots, 
and that which is evaporated. The interesting explanation 
has been advanced that the mass of rock in the cliff becomes 
heated during the day, expands, and in this expansion closes 
the crevice until only a small dribble comes out of the earth- 
quake fault, just as one might shut off a faucet. 

Leaving camp, and again taking to the trail, one is soon 
high up toward the crest of the formations, for the trail dis- 
dains the valley and holds to the ridge. It is an old and 
well worn one, probably used when these mountains were pros- 
pected over. 

On every side are deep clefts, while rising higher than 

the trail and off to the west are still higher peaks. Many are 
quite rugged, and some are almost sponge-like in appearance, 
being honey-combed with deep, narrow caves which reach 
into the dark interior of the peaks. 

Some of these caves are quite large, and one which is 
easily accessible, though not visible from the trail and perhaps 
500 yards west of it, is large enough to shelter a dozen men. 
Bees are occupants of many small fissures and holes in the 
cliffs. High up on some of the crests can be seen dark open- 
ings about which buzzards wheel and sail, and in which are 
probably their nests. 

With exception of the trees along the rivulet before men- 
tioned, and a clump of pine trees near the trail in another 
place where a depression has permitted soil to collect enough 
to nourish some hardy pines, there is little vegetation with 
exception of some manzanita and greasewood that clings 
to the steep, rocky walls, their roots prenetrating the crevices 
of the rocks and finding in some mysterious manner, food and 
water on which to survive. 

This whole, upheaved rocky mass lies in strata, the lines 
of which are visible at considerable distances. Great uptilted 
ledges, pointing at angles of 45 degrees toward the north, 
each perfectly parallel with its neighbors, lean like multiplied 
towers of Pisa, vast and mysterious and enticing. 

In this land of the Devil's Punch Bowl, barren of vegeta- 
tion, nearly, there's a charm and a beauty that is difficult to 
describe. Deep clefts have been worn by tiny streams of 
water which have persistently cut away at the soft rock till 
they have worn their way through. Through these gateways, 
V-shaped, inverted pyramids of space cut deep into the rock, 
are glimpsed enchanting views of the far-off, low-lying hills, 
and the still further, vast stretches of the Antelope Valley, 
rimmed in the blue distance by the pale Tehachapi mountains, 
misty and uncertain on the northern horizon. 

There's nothing of value, but there's much of beauty in the 
Devil's Punch Bowl, and those who leave Southern California 
to visit better advertised regions could spend wonderful days 
here and never be more than 100 miles from Los Angeles, 
within 50 miles in a direct line. 

It is one of the wonderful things of this wonderful spot 
on the edge of the Antelope Valley, part of the Mojave Desert. 
It is one of the surprises; and comparativelv few even of those 
living in the Colony, have ever visited the Devil's Punch Bowl 
and viewed its rugged crags, its deep chasms, its caves, its 
peaks, its perpendicular cliffs of conglomerate. Some day its 
charm will be appreciated and commercialized, and together 
with other points of interest here, neglected and appraised 
at but a fraction of their value will be the haunt of tourists 
and visitors, in summer because of the delightfulness of the 
mountains at that season and because it is vacation time; in 
winter because residents of Southern California can vary the 
monotony of the winter days by quick, easy trips to scenes 
of snow. And those from the East, pining for a glimpse of 
snow and the bite of frost again, can enjoy it till the novelty 
wears off, returning home again, all within a day, for the 
Devil's Punch Bowl is 4000 feet above sea level and there's 
plenty of snow there in the winter time. It is probably more 
beautiful then, even, than it is in the summer. But seen 
summer or winter, only those lacking in a perception of the 
beauties of Nature or those surfeited with scenes of grandeur 
can fail to be impressed with the beauties of the rugged, 
rocky pocket hidden among the narrow range of hills that 
divides the Antelope Valley from the smaller Pallet Valley. 
It can never become a popular place, but it merits a journey 
of many miles, and well repays the effort. 

Page ten 

The Western Coi 

The Revolution In North Dakota 

By H. G. Teigan 

[This is the first of three articles by H. G. Teigan, 
story of the Nonpartisan League of North Dakota.] 

Written Specially For the Western Comrade 
telling the 

pRTH DAKOTA is an agricultural state, and wheat is 

IVT its chief product. It is, in fact, the greatest wheat 

X \ producing state in the Union. 

But while North Dakota has produced such an 

abundance of wheat that it has become known as the "bread 
basket" of the world, the fact remains that the finished pro- 
duct — flour — is not made in North Dakota, but in Minneapolis. 
At Minneapolis, in Minnesota, are the great flour mills of the 
country. These mills grind into flour the wheat produced on 
the fields of North Dakota. 

Early in the history of the Northwest, a group of shrewd 
and far-seeing men saw the opportunity of establishing at 
Minneapolis a permanent gouge in the form of flour mills and 
a grain buying agency. This grain buying agency became 
known as the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce. In 1881 a 
law was passed by the Minnesota legislature conferring upon 
the Chamber of Commerce the exclusive right to establish the 
rules governing its operations. The courts were ousted of all 
jurisdiction in regulating its rules. Only the legislature has 
power to set these rules aside, and so long as the big millers 
and grain gamblers control the legislature, it is not likely that 
the rules will in any way be interfered with. It might be of 
some interest to know that the Governor of Minnesota, when 
this law was passed, was none other than John S. Pillsbury, 
the founder of the Pillsbury Flour Mills. 

Now to understand the pernicious character of the Chamber 
of Commerce in its relation to the farmers of the Northwest, 
it is imj>ortant to have a fair understanding of how this in- 
stitution controls prices. The Chamber of Commerce not only 
buys and sells real grain, but it also buys and sells fictitious 
grain — "futures" — that is never delivered or intended to be 
delivered. By these gambling methods of the Chamber, it is 
an easy matter to force prices down at certain times of the 
year, and in like manner compel them to rise at other times of 
the year. 

At a hearing before the committee of the Minnesota legisla- 
ture in 1913, these highly important facts were established: 

1 . Future sales in the Minneapolis Chamber of Com- 
merce alone has totalled not less than the stupendous sum 
of $10,000,000 a year. Prices paid to farmers by millers 
for real wheat are fixed by the prices made by the opera- 
tions of the pit gamblers. 

2. Of the three hundred eighteen specified memberships, 
one hundred thirty-five were held by line elevators; fifty 
by millers; thirty-nine by terminal elevators; and two hun- 
dred by commission houses. The remainder of the mem- 
bers were feed men, shippers, manufacturers, linseed oil 
men, and others. (In this testimony of John G. McHugh, 
secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, there is evidently 
a duplication in the enumeration of the owners of mem- 

3. Much testimony was brought out showing how com- 
mission houses owned subsidiary companies, sold grain to 
their own subsidiaries and bought it from them. 

4. According to Mr. McHugh, "there are commission 
charges^ for buying as well as selling, and for future trans- 
actions" and the rules permitting these multiple commissions 
are established by the very men who pocket the com- 

5. Methods of manipulation are such as to force the 
farmer to accept an inadequate price for his wheat, and to 

Those Copying Please Give Credit. 

boost the price to the consumers after the traders have ob- 
tained control of the market. 

6. Mr. McHugh contended that the Chamber was a "pri- 
vate corporation" and was, therefore, in no way obliged 
to publish its affairs. 

7. It was shown at this investigation that the Chamber of 
Commerce robbed the farmers out of millions of dollars by 
a false system of grading. Between September 1, 1910, 
and August 31, 1912, the terminal elevators (owned by the 
Chamber of Commerce) of Minneapolis, received 15,571,- 
575 bushels of No. 1 Northern wheat; but during the same 
period these same elevators shipped out 19,978,777 bushels 
of the same grade. Yet they had no wheat of this grade on 
hand at the beginning of the period, and 1 14,454 bushels 
at the end of the period. A like condition was true of No. 
2 Northern, but the reverse was true of the lower grades. 
This merely goes to prove that the Chamber of Commerce 
bought the farmers' wheat at grades far too low. Now it 
must be borne in mind that there is considerable difference 
in the prices of the high and low grades of wheat. There 
are other minor ste"als that I could discuss, but the above 
will suffice to show what sort of a proposition the wheat 
farmers are up against. (See "Facts for the Farmer," pub- 
lished by National Nonpartisan League.) 

But the Chamber of Commerce and the big mills have not 
been the only exploiters of the farmer. The banks have been 
equally bad. It frequently happens that the farmers of the 
Northwest do not harvest a large crop, and, with low prices 
for their grain, it becomes incumbent upon them to borrow 
money at the banks. Often, too, in former years, the home- 
steader was compelled to borrow money to buy machinery, 
horses, a few cows, and other things necessary in farming. In- 
variably the banker charged an interest rate of at least twelve 
per cent on these loans. Only on real estate could a slightly 
lower rate be obtained. With the Chamber of Commerce 
pounding down the price of wheat in the fall, and the banks 
at that very time demanding payment of interest and principal, 
the farmer was caught "a-comin' and a-goin'." 

The effect that this double skinning game had on the farm- 
ers can be seen from the following report of the Census: 

In 1910 the total number of farms owned in whole or in 
part by the operators was 63,212. Of this number 30,651 
were reported as free from mortgage; 31,728 were reported 
as mortgaged, and for 833 no report relative to mortgage 
indebtedness was obtained. The number of mortgaged 
farms constituted 50.9 per cent of the total number of own- 
ed farms, exclusive of those for which no mortgage report 
was obtained. In 1900 such farms constituted 31.4 per 
cent, and in 1890, 48.7 per cent. It may be noted that 
the per centages given for the three censuses are compar- 
able, but that the number of mortgages and unmortgaged 
farms reported in 1890 is not entirely comparable with the 
numbers reported at the later censuses, because at the cen- 
sus of 1890 the farms for which no reports were secured 
were distributed betweeen the two classes of mortgaged and 
unmortgaged farms. It is evident, however, that the num- 
ber of mortgaged farms decreased slightly from 1890 to 
1900, but increased greatly from 1900 to 1910. 
Since that time the mortgage indebtedness has increased 
at an enormous rate. It has been estimated that at least 
seventy-five per cent of the farms of North Dakota are now 
plastered with one or more mortgages. 

This condition of things was primarily responsible for the 
revolt of the farmers that took place in 1915. Of course 

The Western Comrade 

Page eleven 

there were other more immediate causes. Two of these I 
shall here briefly mention: 

1 . The work of the State Union of the American Society 
of Equity. 

2. The work of the Socialist party. 

The work of the Equity Society was confined very largely 
to a specific agitation for the inauguration of changes in 
the grain grading system and the establishment of a state- 
owned terminal elevator either in Minnesota or Wisconsin, 
or within the state. 

It may be of some interest to know that as early as 1893 
a law was passed appropriating $100,000 for the establish- 
ment of a state elevator at Duluth, Minnesota, or at Superior, 
Wisconsin. Nothing was done to establish this elevator, and 
as a matter of fact, nothing could be done, inasmuch as the 
law was in violation of the state constitution. The framers 
of the state constitution four years before had seen to it 
that the gambling game of the Chamber of Commerce should 
in no way be interfered with. Thus it was that the Equity 
Society commenced a new agitation for the establishment 
of a state-owned elevator, about 1908. 

In 1909 the legislature was induced to pass a resolution 
for a constitutional amendment authorizing the state to estab- 
lish a state-owned terminal elevator, and viath the passage 
of the same resolution by the 1911 legislature, the proposed 
amendment went to the people for approval in the fall of 
1912. The amendment was ratified by an overwhelming 
vote. The 1913 legislature, however, practically refused to 
obey the mandate of the voters as expressed in the vote on 
the constitutional amendment. The 1915 legislature also 
ignored the expressed demand of the people and even went 
so far as to repeal the law passed by the previous legislature 
appropriating a small amount for an elevator fund. 

During the same period that the Equity Society was agitat- 
ing for the establishment of a state-owned terminal elevator, 
the Socialist party was also carrying on a vigorous campaign 
throughout the state. Its propaganda was confined very large- 
ly to the "immediate demands," viz.: for establishment of 
state-owned terminal elevators, flour mills, packing houses, 
cold storage plants, exemption of farm improvements from 
taxation and such other measures as would be of benefit to 
the farmer in controlling the marketing of his products. In 
short, it was a farmer propaganda. 

Thus it was that in the spring of 1915 the farmers of the 
state were seething with revolt. The only thing necessary 
was a means of crytallizing the revolutionary sentiment. 
Here a man of remarkable genius as an organizer appeared 
on the scene and commenced the work of active organization. 
This man was A. C. Townley. In order to fully appreciate 
the story of the early development of the Nonpartisan League, 
I wish to quote from one of his speeches delivered at Grand 
Forks, March 31st, 1917, two years after the founding of 
the League. The following is Mr. Townley 's own story: 

"Most of the farmers in this state do not know how the 
Nonpartisan League started. They don't know anything 
about this Movement in the early months of its develop- 
ment; this thing that is big enough now so that it attracts 
the attention of all the people of the United States. You 
and they want to know about it, so I am going to tell you, 
that just a little more than two years ago, out here in the 
county of McHenry, at Deering, North Dakota (most of you 
know where it is) I met Mr. Wood here — Howard Wood — you 
see him in the corner there — and his father, Mr. F. B. Wood. 
I had met them down at Bismarck at that legislative session. 
I had talked with them and with Mr. Bowen and two or three 
others, about a plan to organize the farmers of the state and 
capture the government of the state. 

"We had an idea, just an idea, and on the first day of March 

or the last day of February, I came out to Mr. Howard Wood's 
place at Deering. I called him up over the phone. I had 
told Mr. Wood about my plan to build the Nonpartisan 
League; but he did not expect me to come there in the winter 
when there was snow on the ground. But he knew what I 
meant when I phoned all right. And he met me on the side- 
walk. I will never forget how he looked the day and the hour 
and the minute that he looked at me and shook hands. 

"He said to me (because he knew what I was there for) : 
'What the devil are you out here at this time of the year for?' 

"He thought I was coming in the summer, and there I was 
in the middle of winter with plans, as he knew, to organize all 
the farmers of the state. 

"No we didn't have any of the funds that are back of the 
Republican party or the Democratic party. We didn't have 
any money to build this organization. All we had was just 
the idea. And the story to tell. 

"You know I have got a reputation of having gone broke. 
I want to plead guilty to that. I don't need to emphasize that 
very much here. You all know that as a farmer I was not 
much more successful than the average farmer. I want to tell 
you that there is not very much difference between myself and 
a good many other farmers except that I went broke and founc' 
it out, where a good many fellows go broke and don't know it. 
That is all the difference. (Laughter and applause). 

"And when I found out that to farm under the conditions 
that you farmers have to live under, made it impossible for a 
man ever to hope to win an honest competence, I simply quit 
and said: THERE IS ANOTHER WAY OUT. I am going to 
cut out this. I know a different way. 

"So I roamed around about the prairies of North Dakota 
for about a year and a half, talking to the farmers. I used to 
walk thirty miles a day sometimes and talk to the different 
farmers as I came to them. I thought I understood the matter. 
I went from one to the other and I talked to them, hours, and 
discussed things with them, sometimes an hour, sometimes 
two. to see whether there was not something that could be 

"You may think it was peculiar, a funny thing, that I would 
tramp back and forth in that wav talking to farmers. But I 
thought that an organization could be built. I did not know — 
I was not sure. So I went on and on, and talked to farmers, 
discussed thinsrs with them. And we would come to the con- 
clusion that SOMETHING HAD TO BE DONE, or there was 
not any use staying on the farm. And so I got that idea and 
that experience. 

"Mr. Howard Wood and his father knew I had gone broke 
as a farmer, and I was discredited. My neighbors and all 
people knew that I was out hollering against conditions; and 
when I came to Mr. Wood without any money — my wife at 
that time was sick in St. Paul, and I was without any money — 
with nothing but a PLAN to organize the farmers of North 
Dakota in one summer — when I came to his house when the 
snow was still on the ground, asking him to help me do that, 
you can readily understand what he meant when he said: 
'What the devil are you doing out here at this time of the 



"Mr. Wood had been in the state eight or ten years, and 
had given about half of his time to trying to build an organi- 
zation and had not got very far. And he had friends! And 
here I came to Wood's place wathout any money, without any 
friends, with NOTHING BUT A STORY! You begin to get 
some idea of the situation. I wonder how many men there 
are in this room that I could have got to get out a team and 
go with me to see a neighbor with a proposition like that? Of 
course, if I had had a good reputation, like Jerry Bacon here 
(Bacon is the owner and editor of an Anti-League sheet at 

(Continued on page 30) 

Page twelve 

The Wester) 

r a d I 

The New Socialism 

By Alec Watkins 

Writtei) Specially For the Western Comrade. Those Copying Please Give Credit. 

HERE is the Socialist Party today? under the burden of Capitahsm, and we could do nothing to 

It's activities in many directions have practically set it free. 

ceased. Part of its press has been suppressed and Nothing should be more obvious than that if the Co-op- 

the rest of it muzzled. Some of its members are in erative Commonwealth is to await the time when the majority 

prison, and more are likely to be. Others, more or less pro- of men are able to comprehend the Class Struggle in all its 

minent in the counsels of the party in the past, have deserted ramifications, the reign of Capitalism is secure for a long 

the ranks and are now dividing their time between firing lime to come. 

long-distance broadsides at the Kaiser and hurling verbal 
stink-pots at their former comrades. The majority remains 
true to their organization, but their organization is utterly 
unable to afford them a means of doing effective work. 

Our first need is Power. Where are we to get it? 
From whence does any political party derive its power? 
It should not be necessary to repeat the answer, but our 
creed-loving Marxian friends seem to be singularly incapable 

Before the war the Socialist Party was like a ship at sea, of grasping it. Any power that a political party may possess 
without chart or compass, and headed for nowhere but the is dr^wn from the economic group whose interests it re- 
horizon. And the storm came and wrecked it. presents. 

Can the Socialist Party make any progress in its present Why was the late Progressive Party a dismal failure? It 

shape? It cannot. No organization can do anything with- had the support of able and influential men, men experienced 
out power; and the Socialist Party has none. It was impotent in politics, men who held the confidence of a lar<»e part of 
in time of peace; it cannot expect to be otherwise in time the people. But they were held together only by an emotional 
of war. It failed to prepare for war in time of peace. idealism which found expression in the demand for certain 

It is useless to blind ourselves to mildly-benificent reforms. The Pro- 

facts. We have been powerless in -=^=^^^=^^^=^^=^==r gressive Party failed because the busi- 
the past, we are powerless now, and ness interests of the country were al- 

we will continue to be powerless as \A7^^ must understand that a ready attached to one or the other 

long as we cling to the methods that VV ^j^n Jg j,ot of necessity a of the principal parties, 

have rendered our labors futile in the f^^, ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^f ^-^ ■^_ j^ ^ij] be a source of satisfaction 

years that have gone. ^ ^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ Communist to some Socialists to know that the 

Ihe situation is not entirely hope- n/i -r ^ i i j \y; , independent Socialist Party, that it is 

less. Let us hope that when the Fed- Manifesto backwards. We must ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ gj-^.^,.^^^ ^^^ 

eral authorities entered the National 'earn to utilize the forces that J^^ve left the party since we entered 

office of the Social Party a few days may not be consciously socialistic, the war, would also collapse for the 

ago they destroyed the dogmatism and but whose progress inevitably leads same fundamental reason — unless they 

fanaticism that bound the movement -^ ^^^ direction of Socialism. We ^'^ze upon the opportunity which we 

hand and toot and killed the growth. , have neglected. A group of idealists 

\Y7U^„ tL^ ,.,.,, =„J.. ;•■ , .;il u., must make co-operation not on y • i- • i r i 

When the war ends, it will be ■ > i i V- i ■ i r ""^y exercise a limited usefulness as 

necessary to re-build the party. How an ideal to be realized in the distant ^n educational force, but no matter 

shall we do it? In the past we built future, but the immediate policy how eloquent or able its members, 

it on argumentation, debates, pam- of our party. it can acquire no power while it re- 

phlets, lectures, words without end. mains dissociated from the everyday 

In the future we must lay its founda- — ' concerns of the interests upon whose 

tions deep in our economic institutions. behalf it essays to speak. 

In the past we have preached the Class Struggle; in the The reason that our rigid Marxians fail to realize this ele- 

future we must get into it — that we may finally end it. mental fact is perhaps because, like all dogmatists, they attach 

We must remake our party, reshape its policy, and reverse importance to the letter rather than to the spirit of the teach- 
our mental attitude. ings of their master. They passionately affirm allegiance to 

We have been narrow, fanatical, dogmatic. Dogmatism all the theories enunciated by Marx, some of them hastily and 
inevitably breeds suspicion, intolerance, bitterness. We have imperfectly conceived, but ignore the severely practical spirit 
been disgustingly, childishly suspicious of all who could not tliat characterized his entire work. No one did more than 
subscribe to our infallible creed. Marx in his time to rescue the sanguine souls who, pinning 

Let us make no mistake. Bitter though it will be to the all their faith in the potency of persuasion, believed that the 
dogmatist and the doctrinaire, we must be prepared to take Social Commonwealth would suddenly and miraculously spring 
to our bosom many whose souls are still scarlet with the sins from man's natural goodness of heart. 

of capitalism, many to whose minds the theories of Marx are The Socialist Party must definitely identify itself with every 

unknown. And we must be constantly ready to co-operate economic organization whose progress lies in the direction of 
with organizations whose feet do not always tread the path Socialism, 
we would have them tread. The political Socialist must become an active unionist, and 

Fusion! This is heresy, of course. We have but one altern- tlie unions must go into politics. This means a struggle in 
ative; we can repeat the performance of the past. We can ^^^ unions, but it is useless to evade the issue; it is inevitable, 
stand by ourselves apart, viewing the struggle from the dizzy ^^ '* n°' necessary to make academic socialists of the members 
heights of our own creedal perfection, refusing to soil our of ^^^ unions; it is only necessary to convince them that they 
skirts by contact with the multitude who are still unwashed in suffer a loss of power through limiting their organized ac- 
our own superior brand of holy water. tivity to the industrial field. It is not necessary to fill the 

No doubt our company would be select, and certainly it union halls with socialist oratory; but it is necessary that the 
would be exclusive; but the world would continue to groan • (Continued on page 30) 

The Western Comrade 

Page ihirleen 

My Californian 

By D. Bobspa 

STURDY little native son 
Of four. 

In nightie, ready to sail 
The dream ship journey 
To the Sandman's palace. 
Gazed intent at colored map. 

"This is Cal'fornia, 

Where I was borned," 

In triumphant announcement; 

And then, 

"Was you. Daddy, and Muvver 

Borned in Cal'fornia too?" 

Just Hoosier-born, 

We had to confess 

Our position 

Outside the pale of the elect. 

A puzzled look on 

That eager, earnest face. 

Then a smile. 

"But I had you. Daddy and Muvver, 
In Indiana." 

Confession once again 

To that little 

California lad. 

In Love's young honeymoon 

On banks of 

"The Wabash far away," 

Full fruition had not come 

To consecrate our altar. 

Undaunted, undismayed. 
Our California sunbeam 
Quickly flashed 
Triumphant answer, 
"But I wanted you. 
Daddy and Muvver, 
An' I cwed an' cwied. 
An' you tame 
Across the desert 
An' the mountains 
To get me in Cal'fornia." 


One of the wonderful views looking through a cleft in the Devil's Punch Bow! toward the north. The garden spot seen 
below is the Valyermo Ranch; across the range of hills beyond it lies Llano. There are other views which surpass this one, 
but they are not so easily represented on paper. This one is looking north across the Punch Bowl, and further off across the 
Antelope Valley can be seen the Lovejoy Buttes and the Tehachapi mountains. 

Page fourteen 

The Western Comrade 

Was Schmidt Guilty? 

[ rhis is the sixth installment of Comrade Job Harriman's address 
in ihe trial of the Los Angeles dynamiting cases.] 

pW let me call your attention to the boat in which 

Nthe dynamite is alleged to have been carried. You 
will remember Howard Baxter. He was one of the 

' owners of the boat. His partner swore that the 

men who hired the boat were to pay two hundred and fifty 
dollars, but Mr. Baxter demanded five hundred dollars deposit. 
The deposit and practically the entire transaction was con- 
ducted with Mr. Baxter. After the men used the boat one 
of them went back to Mr. Baxter. The transaction was closed, 
Baxter wrote him a check deducting the rental and the man 
went his way. They had probably spent an hour together 
conversing partially concerning the business at hand and 
partially on general topics. Not withstanding this prolonged 
conversation, the most Mr. Baxter could say was that the 
defendant resembled the man but that he could not say that 
he was the man. 

Mr. Scott a relative of Mr. Baxter cashed the check given 
by Mr. Baxter. He said, "In my judgement he is the man, 
but I would not say positively." 

Mr. Burroughs, the partner of Mr. Baxter, said that Schmidt 
was not the man. Hold for one moment the image of witness 
Bryson in your mind. The man was much fleshier than the 
defendant; Bryson was much fleshier. He had a much fuller 
face; Bryson had a much fuller face. He was much broader 
m the shoulders; Bryson was much broader in the shoulders. 
He saw himi, talked to him about the boat, instructed him how 
to run the engine, was with him an hour and a half, was down 
to the engine room with him, saw him face to face and was 
close to him, as close to him as you are to each other for 
one hour and a half. He says, "I know that Schmidt is not 
the man." What are you going to do with his testimony? 
He talked to him more than all the other witnesses put to- 
gether. He had been near to him and looked him straight in 
the face. He dealt with him both before and after the boat 
was used. "HE KNOWS HE IS NOT THE MAN." He 
was subpoenaed by the state and should have been examined 
by the fair prosecutor, whose sacred duty is to be as fair 
to this defendant as to the state, but he sent him away 
without putting him on the stand. 

Mr. Keyes — "We did nGt send him away." 
Mr. Harriman — "You subpoenaed him?" 
Mr. Keyes — "Yes." 

Mr. Harriman — "You did not put him on the stand?" 
Mr. Keyes— "No." 

Mr. Harriman — "Oh, you let him go back. You did not 
send him. Yes, he knew the way home and you in your fair- 
ness knew enough to keep him from telling the truth." 

You knew, Mr. Keyes, that he had been with Perry for 
one hour and a half, that he had dealt with him, showed 
him the boat, explained the engine, showed him how to run 
it, and you knew that he would say on oath that this defendant 
is not the man. 

I do not know just what idea of fairness thirteen years 
as prosecutor developes in an aspirant to office, but I do know 
that a number of fair and honorable men have been prevented 
from taking the stand because they would not testify as the 
fair prosecutor would have them testify. 

Mr. Schmidt did not buy the "Peerless" letters. Mr. Nutter 
sold the word "Peerless" to two men. He says Schmidt re- 
sembles one man, but that man was stouter. He could not 
identify Schmidt. The man had a round face with a droop 
in his left eye. Mr. Schmidt's face •- -xot round and his eye 

does not droop. That is a strange co-incidence. No one 
thmks Bryson was guilty, but the man was stouter, much 
fleshier, had a much rounder face, had a droop in his eye. 
It is by far a better description of Bryson than it is of Schmidt. 
This all come from the mouth of witnesses for the prosecu- 

But listen, the witness says he had a light complexion and 
sandy hair. Look at it. Look at Schmidt. Remember Bry- 
son. Neither of them has a light complexion, and neither 
has sandy hair. 

How rapidly they ride over the high places. They em- 
phasize the statement that one witness said that Schmidt 
resembled him, or that a man said that Schmidt was the man, 
but they fail to tell you what were the points of identifica- 
tion. The gist of the matter does not lie in the fact that one 
man says that this is the man or that he resembles him; but 
It lies in the fact that the cheek bone was crushed, that his 
eye was all right, that his hair was sandy, that his face was 
round, that he was fleshier, that he was short and broad 
shouldered. You must hold in your mind the facts pertain- 
ing to his description, and not the mere statement that this 
is or is not the man. 

Again the man enters the store where he buys the letters. 
The witness stated that two men came in and asked for let- 
ters. He resembles the type of man. Why did not the pro- 
secuting attorney in all his "sacred fairness" read to you 
that the witness said he resembled the type of man. "I could 
not say positively Schmidt resembles the man, not the eye; he 
had a peculiar look in his face, not in his eye." Schmidt'has 
nothing peculiar in his face, but his eye is faulty. "Not his 
eye," but something peculiar about his face. Here is the 
crushed cheek bone coming to the front again. But Schmidt's 
cheek bone is not crushed. 

Schmidt did not go to the cafe Miramar. Steuprich said, 
"I just glanced at him. I only saw him in the dining room. 
That is not the man — does not look to me like the man. There 
was something the matter with the left side of his face." 
This is the fourth witness that noticed the crushed bone. 
Some say the bone was crushed and the eye was all right. 
Some say the left side of his face was affected, not the eye. 
Others say there was something peculiar with the left side of 
the face. 

Mr. Steuprich said, "He ain't the man I seen." The pro- 
secuting attorney laughs at his ignorance and his pronuncia- 
tion. His lack of education surely will not dicredit him. 
That is his misfortune and should elicit our sympathy 
and not our ridicule. He has suffered enough for want of 
joys that education brings. Far be it from me to question 
a man's integrity because his education was neglected. "He 
IS not the man, he resembles him certainly. I just passed 
him by. About my size. I could see him face to face, just 
about my height." There is an essential fact in the descrip- 
tion. There is another cheek bone fact. Thinking they would 
catch him, the District Attorney had Schmidt step around to 
compare his height with Steuprich. He never would have 
done it if he had known that Schmidt was a head taller. 
Steuprich was broad shouldered and looked to be as tall as 
Schmidt. With all this testimony can you believe that Schmidt 
was the man? 

Mr. Brown, the man at the Howard Street dock said, "He 
looked like he had been hit with a hammer." This is the fifth 
man who noticed the crushed cheek bone. 

Mr. McCall was one of the five. He defined the crushed 
cheek bone with the greatest particularity. He defined his 
own state of mind, and that he wondered how the man could 

The Western Comrade 

Page fifteen 

have received such a blow vk'ithout leaving a scar. But he 
said also that the eye was all right. This defect was observed 
by five different men, all strangers to each other. There can 
be no question but that man who purchased the dynamite, 
and hired the boat, and bought the letters for the word 
"Peerless" and tied the boat to the Howard Street wharf 
"had an all right eye" and a "crushed cheek bone." The 
physical defect that attracted the eyes of so many does not 
mar the face of this defendant. This fact alone will open 
the prison doors and let the defendant go free, with his sister 
to their home. 

The two women who saw the parties unload the dynamite 
at the cottage in which it was stored say this defendant is 
not the man. They did not observe him critically but they 
were near him and they were positive that they would be 
able to identify the man they saw. 

Now let us consider the testimony of Mr. Phillips, the man 
who was in charge of the powder works when the dynamite 
was delivered on the boat "Peerless." I shall not dwell long 
with this witness, but leave the analysis of his testimony to 
Mr. Coghlan who examined him. 

He testified before the Grand Jury some five years ago. 
He stated to the Grand Jury that he did not take particular 
notice of the man, that he only got a side view of his face 
and that he was there where the powder was being loaded 
only about two minutes and had no reason for suspicion. But 
on this stand he stated that he saw the man square in the face 
and was there twenty minutes; that he helped load the boat 
and let the boxes down from the wharf with a rope; that he 
was suspicious of the men. Can such a man be believed? 

The man's anxiety to convict this defendant had no bounds. 
He was an advocate and not an impartial witness. You will 
remember how nervous and excited he was when he went out 
of his way and and began to argue saying, "It must have 
been true or J. B. McNamara would not have confessed." 

Mr. Phillip stated that after the boxes were let down from 
the wharf he said to the men, "You won't have much room 
for ten boxes on your boat." They replied that they were 
going to load them on the skiff that was behind. Before 
the Grand Jury he stated that he was there two minutes and 
went before the powder was loaded and that when he said, 
"You won't have much room for ten boxes," he departed. 
At this trial he stated that he was there twenty minutes and 
went after the boxes were loaded. The quesion is whether 
he went before or after the dynamite was loaded. Determine 
the fact and you will know whether he is a true or a false 
witness. The fact is already settled by the very sentence 
he uttered. Listen, "You won't have much room for the 
ten boxes." Was that sentence uttered before or after the 
boxes were in the boat? Had the boxes already been in the 
boat he would have said, "You have not much room for ten 
boxes." When he spoke that sentence the boxes were still 
on the wharf, and he said, "You won't have much room," 
when you place them there, is the thought. But immediately 
upon making this statement he departed. Such is his tes- 
timony before the Grand Jury. It was then fresh in his mind 
and he was free from his great anxiety to convict any one. 
He was merely telling his best recollection. 

He told the Grand Jury that he was not suspicious; that 
he only had a side view; that he did not notice particularly; 
that he was only there two minutes; but now he states that 
he was there twenty minutes; that he helped load the boat; 
that he saw him square in the face; and that he was suspicious 
of them. Would yow take a man's life or liberty on the tes- 
timoriy of such a man. Have you not been told by the pro- 
secuting attorney that when you find a man false in one thing 
that you should mistrust him in all. The court in the instruc- 
tions will tell you the same thing. A still higher authority, 

your own minds and consciences command you to do the 
same thing. 

Human life and liberty are too sacred to be taken by the 
word of one who is so anxious to convict that he cannot refrain 
from argument while serving as witness. Such a witness is 
either consciously or unconsciously false and his testimony 
is unworthy of belief and should be altogether discarded. 

So much for the question of identification. Were either 
of you being tried instead of M. A. Schmidt you would feel 
that in all fairness and justice such an identification is alto- 
gether insufficient. Your heart and conscience could not 
help insisting that at least the physical defects and marks 
upon the face and the color of the hair should be the same. 
You would feel that it would be nothing less than a crime 
to convict a man of dark complexion when the real crimin- 
al's hair was sandy or to convict a man whose cheek bones 
were perfect when the criminal's cheek bone was crushed; 
or to convict a man whose left eye was out when the real 
criminal's eye was all right; or to convict a man who stood 
five feet eleven when the real criminal was about five feet 
seven or eight; and your feelings in such a case would be 
righteous and holy. 

Now let us go with this defendant from San Francisco to 
Los Angeles. With all their effort and all their thousands of 
dollars at their command and with an unlimited number of 
detectives, they could find no trace of him in the South under 
the name of Perry. Only one witness testified that he saw him 
at Venice. This witness was contradicted by three witnesses 
who testified that the defendant was never there under the 
name of Perry. 

Was Schmidt in Los Angeles? Yes, certainly he was. 
When? He came in July and returned in the early part of 
August. He was here under the name of M. A. Schmidt. 
He so testified. We again open the door to the prosecution, 
but they were afraid to enter. Not a question did they ask him 
in regard to the whys and wherefores and his whereabouts 
in Southern California. Again they were silent and their 
only response was, "No questions." 

Every one of you where disappointed when the District 
Attorney failed to cross-question Schmidt. You expected it. 
We courted it. They failed to do so. They failed because 
they knew that he could satisfactorily explain every detail of 
any question they might put to him. 

Why did he come to Los Angeles? Why does every one who 
visits the Coast come to Los Angeles if possible? He who fails 
to see Los Angeles fails to see one of the gems of the Pacific 
Coast. He had decided to return East and came to visit the 
South before he departed. 

One witness only could be found who testified that she knew 
him by the name of Perry, and that she met him in Venice at 
Mr. Johanson's house. She was contradicted by three witness- 
es beside the testimony of Schmidt himself. 

The failure to identify Schmidt as the purchaser of the dyn- 
amite breaks all connection between J. B. Brice and the move- 
ment on the Pacific Coast, and especially between him and 
the Los Angeles strike of 1910. 

That Brice was connected with the Eastern movement there 
is no question. Nor is there any question as to his being in 
Los Angeles. But that he was not directly or indirectly con- 
nected with the Los Angeles movement is absolutely certain. 
The methods pursued in the East by the McNamaras were 
directly opposite to the methods employed here. In this one 
fact lies the proof that the Los Angeles movement could not 
have had a hand in this disaster. Theirs was a movement of 
violence. The Los Angeles movement was political and peace- 
ful in character. 

["Was Schmidt Guihy" began in (he May issue. Back numbers 
ten cents a copy.] 


fl^lfalfa Hay 
Field not far 
From the prop- 
rly purchas- 
sd by Llano 
Colony in the 
hlighlands of 
western Louis- 

Dairy Cattle rais- 
ed in Louisiana 
Highland District. 

Threshing Oats 
in Louisiana High- 
land District. 

Cattle grazing 
on cut-over pine 
lands of High- 
d District of 
Louisiana ; the 
attle industry 
promises great 

Page eighteen 

The Western Comrade 

Current Problems i 

y Walter Thomas Mills 

Written Specially For the Western Comrade. Those Copying Please Give Credit. 

The Created Problem of Them All 


There are no prob- 
All social problems 

T was seen last month that effective dealing with 

the current economic and political problems, requires 

the joint action of the organized unions, farmers and 

co-operative societies. 

Any political movement in behalf of labor which is not 

directly related to these organizations and responsible to the 

workers through these organizations, cannot hope to deal 

effectively with the problems of labor. 

But how does it happen that there are such problems? 
Provision is made for the common welfare by the joint use 
of (1) the natural resources, of (2) industrial equipment in- 
cluding a system of credits, of (3) organization and man- 
agement, and of (4) labor. 

The natural resources are abundant, 
lems in connection with their production 
relating to natural resources have to 
do with the opportunity to use them, 
not with any efforts to produce them. 

The industrial equipment and the 
possibilities of credit, representing 
goods in transit or in process of pro- 
duction, present no real difficulties in 
the matter of efficiency. 

The same is true of labor and hence 
the earth is rich enough in natural re- 
sources and the machinery of produc- 
tion is effective enough and labor 
numerous enough, skillful enough and 
willing enough to produce enough for 
all human needs and to spare. 

For this reason, it follows that there 
are no serious problems as related to 
the productive possibilities of natural 
resources, industrial equipment or la- 

The one remaining factor involved 
in provision for the common welfare is that of organization 
and management. It is in this field where all the problems 
in economics and in politics arise. 

It is not a matter of the creation of more natural resources. 
It is a matter of the organization and management of natural 
resources already and abundantly provided by the gift of 

It is not a matter of the necessary production of new 
machinery in production, transportation, manufacture, storage 
or exchange. In all these matters, the machinery provided 
is so effective that the real problem is not one of producing 
better machinery but of providing the organization and man- 
agement which is indispensable to its proper use. 

It is not a matter of providing additional labor. It is a 
matter of such organization and management as shall pro- 
vide useful employment all the year around for all able-bodied 
people, and all these workers should be made skilled workers, 
should be equipped mth the best possible machinery, should 
be provided with free access to the natural resources and 
should be given for their own use the net total products of 
their own labor. 

But all this is a matter, not of providing more labor, but 
of better organization and management. 

Is it not perfectly evident that the great social and political 

'T'HE greatest social problem is 
•^ one of organization and man- 
agement, and the greatest problem 
in organization and management is 
how to relate the personal interests 
of the manager to the common 
good, so that he shall become in 
very truth, "the greatest servant of 


problems are altogether questions of organization and manage- 
ment? And hence, the greatest problem of all, is how to 
provide this organization and management. 

It was said above that all workers should be given the total 
product of their labor but of all forms of labor at this time, 
the labor which is most sorely needed, is the particular labor 
required in organization and management. 

With this work effectively done, all other work is easy. With 
this management once provided, all other social problems 

Such a management must be made answerable to all those 
whose interests are involved. The fruits of the services ren- 
dered by them for the common welfare, must be made avail- 
able for the common need. 

Now, the authority to manage rests on the ability to invest. 
This ability to invest does not rest on the capacity or the dis- 
position to serve the common good, but entirely upon the 
private monopoly control, by a few, of the common needs 
of all. 

For this reason, the task set for 
every manager is not one of service 
for the common good of all, but of 
service to the few who monopolize the 
natural resources and industrial equip- 
ments upon which the life of all de- 
pends, and necessarily to the disad- 
vantage of the many who are depend- 
ent, and to the unearned and unde- 
served advantage of the few who are 
masters. Under current conditions, 
the more capable and effective the 
management, the more serious the so- 
cial disaster. The manager is not now 
employed to serve the common good 
of all, but to serve the special inter- 
ests of the few as against the most 
vital needs of all. 

The greatest social problem is one 
of organization and management, and 
tlie greatest problem in organization and management is how 
to relate the personal interests of the manager to the common 
good so that he shall become, in very truth, "the greatest 
servant of all." 

Now the greatest managerial ability is chained to the neces- 
sity of serving the interests of those who render no service 
but who live as parasites on the civic body, and all its 
energies are required to further the interests of the parasites 
at the expense of the common good. 

How different would be the situation were the manager to 
come to his place by promotion, not for efficiency in serving 
the parasite, but for efficiency in promoting the common good. 
How different the situation if the tenure of his position 
rested, not on what he could get out of the workers for the 
benefit of the masters, but on what he could devise and con- 
trive for the benefit of all. 

The organizations of the labor unions, of the farmers and of 
the co-operative societies, are, at least, the beginnings of 
forms of organization in the processes of primary production, 
manufacture, storage and delivery. 

These organizations can succeed only as efficiency in their 
management shall be developed and finally, as they shall be 
(Continued on page 30) 

The Western Coi 

a d < 

Page nineteen 

The Sociali^ Movement in Japan i 

y S. Katayama 

Written Specially For the Western Comrade. Those Copying Please Give Credit. 

_ very promising future for the Socialist movement in Japan. 

T Party of Japan was or- From the viewpoint of the government, the Socialist is nothing 
ganized and its mani- but a traitor, and he is so treated by the authorities. For one 
to vote for a "traitor" candidate is, indeed, an act of courage 
and determination. 

Why is the Japanese government so severe on the Socialists, 
and why does it treat them so cruelly? The answer is that it 
is to subject the growing proletariat. The government is afraid 
of the increasing power of labor and of the Socialist move- 
ment. It desires to sacrifice every national interest to im- 
perialism and militarism. Imperialism is the enemy of labor 
and Socialism. A victory in war with a foreign nation means 
a military despotism at home. 

Japan twice won a victory over China and Russia. The 
result has been a powerful class of military bureaucrats who 
sacrifice every sacred interest of the nation to commercial ex- 
pansion. The government has been trying to increase the 
size of the army and navy, until at the present moment its 
people and resources are staggering under the burden of supt- 
porting them. The imperialism of Japan ignores the welfare 
of the proletariat and exploits it as 
much as possible. This is the chief 
reason why the government so bitterly 
opposes the growth of the Socialist 
movement in Japan. 

The present ministry of Count 
Terauchichi is the most imperialistic 
and autocratic Japan has ever had 
since the promulgation of the consti- 
tution. This ministry is extremely 
afraid of the Socialists, as it is its 
prime object to subject the proletariat 
as long as possible. 

Thus, in spite of the oppression, the 
Socialists are trying admirably to 
make as much headway with their 
agitation as is possible under the un- 
favorable circumstances. Their work 
must necessarily be of a more or less 

HE Social Democratic 
Party of Japan was or- 
ganized and its mani- 
' festo published on the 
twentieth of May, 1901. Six 
hundred members, including the 
writer, were associated with the 
organization. This party was 
suppressed by the government 
on the day of its birth. But the 
Socialist propaganda was unre- 
stricted, so that, in spite of the 
suppression of the party, the 
philosophy spread rapidly 
throughout Japan. The Social- 
ists made a great fight during the 
Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, 
and made many sympathizers. 
In the summer of 1906, the Socialist Party of Japan was 

reorganized in Tokyo, and in a few months several hundred 

members were enrolled, and all indica- 
tions pointed to a movement of growth 

and .'Activity. The party had a Social- 
ist daily in Tokyo in the spring of 

1907, but it was quickly suppressed 

by the authorities. Since that time 

the Socialist Party legally was never 

permitted to exist until the present 


Socialists in Japan have had hard, 

discouraging living the last ten years. 

Many have suffered prison life. 

Twelve have served life-terms for their 

agitation of revolutionary doctrines. 

Six have died in prison. Twelve have 

been hung. There are many in prison 

at the present moment for persisting 

in Socialist propaganda. Probably 

the treatment of the Socialists has been 

PROVING that the inevitable 
trend of industrial development 
is toward Socialism, the story of the 
Socialist movement in Japan is of 
unusual interest just at this time 
when the paramount question is: 
"What Will Japan Do?" Every- 
where people are turning toward 
the Socialists for solution of the 
world's troubles. What the So- 
cialists of Japan are striving to do 
is of utmost importance. 

harsher and more cruel than that in any other country on 
earth. Notwithstanding this constant suprpession, oppression, 
intimidation and rigorous punishment, however, scattered 
throughout Japan there are some seven thousands of Socialists. 
Many of these once active in the cause, quit for the sake of 
living. The remainder are true martyrs and bravely face all 
persecution that may be directed against them. 

At the time of the last parliamentary election, the Socialists 
ran a candidate. Comrade Toshihiko Sakai assumed the res- 
ponsibility in initiating this move. Five campaign meetings 
were held but all were broken up by the forces of the brutal 
police. Following this, the Socialists were entirely suppressed, 
although the constitution guarantees them the right of liberty 
and freedom of speech. Moreover, in spite of the specific 
provision in the election law which allows candidates to hold 
campaign meetings during the two months previous to the 
day of election, the platform and manifesto of the Party were 
suppressed. Even then. Comrade Sakai received twenty-five 

There are about one and a half million voters in Japan out 
of a population of seventy million souls. This number is re- 
stricted by property quahfications and educational tests, so 
that the proletarians are utterly excluded from the franchise. 
To get twenty-five votes under such circumstances shows a 

clandestine nature, as they are not allowed to agitate openly 
among the workers. The fact remains, however, that in spite 
of the popularity of the Socialist philosophy and the extreme 
difficulty of gaining the ear of the public, the Socialists are 
growing in numbers. 

There is a marked sign of the awakening of the workers in 
Japan since the beginning of the European war. Frequently 
strikes in the various industries within Japan and the in- 
spiring lesson of the Russian Revolution have made a profound 
impression on the workers, thus showing that there will doubt- 
less soon occur some changes for the better. The pressure 
from the outside is so great, that further resistance is futile. 
The lot of the proletariat under the greedy exploitation of 
modern capitalism, will continue to improve until the workers 
en masse will rise and throw off the heavy burden laid upon 
them for generations. 


We observe that many magazines are lifting copy bodily from our 
publications, some without giving us credit for the same. We are glad 
to have our matter copied, but as we secure much of our stuff at the 
cost of considerable time and labor, not to say money, we deem it only 
fair that contemporaries credit us with all matter that they reprint from 
our publications. LLANO PUBLICATIONS. 

Page twenty 

The Western Comrade 

A Nice Girl ^^ ^ary AHen 

Written Specially For the Western Comrade. Those Copying Please Give Credit. 

AVID BOLTON was considered "queer" by the neigh- 
boring ranchers. In the first place it was rumored 
that he was a "Free Thinker," and while none could 
have told just what a "Free Thinker" is, still all 
would have agreed that it is something particularly mysterious 
and deadly; in the second place he kept a heathen Chinaman 
to do his housework and help care for his motherless boy; in 
the third, he received through the mails certain literature which 
set the village postmistress to whispering; and in the fourth, 
his three-room frame house, instead of being lined with paper 
was lined with books. 

But the Prewitts, who lived on the ranch adjoining, found 
a good neighbor in him, always ready to help in irrigating or 
other emergencies, and in return Mrs. Prewitt did what 
motherly favors